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Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China  [cached]
Chen Jia,Xu Min-Jun,Zhou Dong-Hui,Song Hui-Qun
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-152
Abstract: Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.
RNA interference in plant parasitic nematodes
M Karakas
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: RNA interference (RNAi, also called RNA-mediated interference) is a mechanism for RNA-guided regulation of gene expression in which double-stranded ribonucleic acid inhibits the expression of genes with complementary nucleotide sequences. Conserved in most eukaryotic organisms, the RNAi pathway is thought to have evolved as a form of innate immunity against viruses and also plays a major role in regulating development and genome maintenance. RNAi has recently been demonstrated in plant parasitic nematodes. It is a potentially powerful investigative tool for the genome-wide identification of gene function that should help improve our understanding of plant parasitic nematodes. RNAi should help identify gene and, hence, protein targets for nematode control strategies
Cardio-Pulmonary Parasitic Nematodes Affecting Cats in Europe: Unraveling the Past, Depicting the Present, and Predicting the Future  [PDF]
Donato Traversa,Angela Di Cesare
Frontiers in Veterinary Science , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2014.00011
Abstract: Various cardio-pulmonary parasitic nematodes infecting cats have recently been fascinating and stimulating the attention of the Academia, pharmaceutical companies, and veterinary practitioners. This is the case of the metastrongyloids: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior, the trichuroid: Capillaria aerophila (syn. Eucoleus aerophilus), and the filarioid: Dirofilaria immitis. Apparently, these parasites have been emerging in several European countries, thus, gaining an important role in feline parasitology and clinical practice. Under a practical standpoint, a sound knowledge of the biological, epidemiological, and clinical impact of cardio-respiratory parasitoses affecting cats, in addition to a potential risk of introduction, establishment, and spreading of “new” parasites in Europe is mandatory in order to understand the present and future impact for feline medicine and to address new strategies of control and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to review the current knowledge of heartworm and lungworm infections in cats, discussing and comparing past and present issues, and predicting possible future scenarios.
Survey of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in the Benue Valley of Adamawa State, Nigeria
I. Umar,D. Chubado
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: A field survey was carried out between 2005 and 2007 at the Benue valley for plant parasitic nematodes. The area lies between latitude 7 and 110 N and longitude 11 and 140E. It is also within the northern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria with annual rainfall between 700-1600 mm.The area is mostly cultivated for vegetables such as onion, pepper, cabbage and cerals such sorghum. Soil and plants were analysed for nematodes. The results from soil analysis and perineal patterns reveals the presence of six genera namely- Meloidogyne sp. (M. javanica and M. incognita), Pratylenchus sp., Helicotylenchus sp., Longidorus sp. and Scutellonema sp. Weeds such as Vernona and Polygonum were also found to be infected by these nematodes. The result also indicated that Meloidogyne sp. were the most widespread. The heavy population of nematodes affects vegetable production in the area and hence there is need to step up control measures.
Differential in vitro pathogenicity of predatory fungi of the genus Monacrosporium for phytonematodes, free-living nematodes and parasitic nematodes of cattle
Gomes, A.P.S.;Araújo, J.V.;Ribeiro, R.C.F.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1999000100012
Abstract: in vitro tests were carried out on the pathogenicity of nine isolates of the predatory fungi of the genus monacrosporium (5 m. sinense isolates, 3 m. appendiculatum and 1 m. thaumasium isolate) for a phytonematode (second stage juveniles from meloidogyne incognita, race 3), a free-living nematode (panagrellus spp), and two gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes of cattle (infective larvae of cooperia punctata and haemonchus placei). a suspension containing 2,000 nematodes from each species was added to petri dishes containing fungi and grown on 2% water-agar medium at 25oc in the dark for up to 7 days. the dishes were examined every other day for 7 days and predation-free nematodes were counted. the results showed that the free-living nematodes, panagrellus spp, were the most susceptible (p<0.05), followed by the phytonematode m. incognita, while the controls were 398.5% viable. however, a variable susceptibility of the nematodes to different fungi was observed. this indicates that the use of predatory fungi for the environmental control of nematodes will be limited by the multiplicity of nematodes in the environment and their differential susceptibility to fungal isolates of the same genus.
Differential in vitro pathogenicity of predatory fungi of the genus Monacrosporium for phytonematodes, free-living nematodes and parasitic nematodes of cattle  [cached]
Gomes A.P.S.,Araújo J.V.,Ribeiro R.C.F.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999,
Abstract: In vitro tests were carried out on the pathogenicity of nine isolates of the predatory fungi of the genus Monacrosporium (5 M. sinense isolates, 3 M. appendiculatum and 1 M. thaumasium isolate) for a phytonematode (second stage juveniles from Meloidogyne incognita, race 3), a free-living nematode (Panagrellus spp), and two gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes of cattle (infective larvae of Cooperia punctata and Haemonchus placei). A suspension containing 2,000 nematodes from each species was added to Petri dishes containing fungi and grown on 2% water-agar medium at 25oC in the dark for up to 7 days. The dishes were examined every other day for 7 days and predation-free nematodes were counted. The results showed that the free-living nematodes, Panagrellus spp, were the most susceptible (P<0.05), followed by the phytonematode M. incognita, while the controls were 398.5% viable. However, a variable susceptibility of the nematodes to different fungi was observed. This indicates that the use of predatory fungi for the environmental control of nematodes will be limited by the multiplicity of nematodes in the environment and their differential susceptibility to fungal isolates of the same genus.
Parasitic Nematodes Modulate PIN-Mediated Auxin Transport to Facilitate Infection  [PDF]
Wim Grunewald ,Bernard Cannoot,Ji?í Friml,Godelieve Gheysen
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000266
Abstract: Plant-parasitic nematodes are destructive plant pathogens that cause significant yield losses. They induce highly specialized feeding sites (NFS) in infected plant roots from which they withdraw nutrients. In order to establish these NFS, it is thought that the nematodes manipulate the molecular and physiological pathways of their hosts. Evidence is accumulating that the plant signalling molecule auxin is involved in the initiation and development of the feeding sites of sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes. Intercellular transport of auxin is essential for various aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we analysed the spatial and temporal expression of PIN auxin transporters during the early events of NFS establishment using promoter-GUS/GFP fusion lines. Additionally, single and double pin mutants were used in infection studies to analyse the role of the different PIN proteins during cyst nematode infection. Based on our results, we postulate a model in which PIN1-mediated auxin transport is needed to deliver auxin to the initial syncytial cell, whereas PIN3 and PIN4 distribute the accumulated auxin laterally and are involved in the radial expansion of the NFS. Our data demonstrate that cyst nematodes are able to hijack the auxin distribution network in order to facilitate the infection process.
Response of Free-Living Nematodes to Treatments Targeting Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Carnation  [PDF]
J.K. Langat,J.W. Kimenju,G.K. Mutua,W.M. Muiru
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of ecologically sound approaches for nematode management on non-target organisms, free-living nematodes. The materials tested were sugarcane bagasse, molasses, tea and flower composts, neem (Achook), a biological agent (Paecilomyces lilacinus) and fenamiphos (Nemacur). The treatments were administered before planting carnation var. White Natila in flower beds that were naturally infested with nematodes. Application of bagasse, molasses, tea and flower composts resulted in increased abundance of free-living nematodes compared to the control where nothing was applied. Bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and predators comprised 73, 14 and 13%, respectively of the free-living nematodes recovered. Members of the genus Rhabditis were the most abundant (10%) among the bacteriovores while Mononchus (10%) and Aphelenchoides (14%) dominated among the predators and fungivorous trophic groups, respectively. The highest numbers of free-living nematodes were recorded at 90 Days after Planting (DAP) in plots treated with bagasse and molasses but the numbers declined at 180 DAP. A steady increase in numbers of free-living nematodes was observed in plots treated with tea and flower composts up to 180 DAP. Significant reductions in abundance of free-living nematodes were recorded in plots treated with fenamiphos and neem. This study has established that application of organic substrates serve as a stimulus to processes leading to build-up of free-living nematodes. The organic substrates can strongly be recommended for use in sustainable carnation production systems.
Spatial and temporal variability of plant-parasitic nematodes population in sugarcane
Dinardo-Miranda, Leila Luci;Fracasso, Juliano Vilela;
Bragantia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87052010000500006
Abstract: nematodes are important pests of sugarcane crop in brazil. however, no studies have been reported on the spatial and temporal variability of nematodes population in sugarcane fields and such studies are indispensable for the development of sampling plans, aimed at their application in integrated management programs. this work was carried out in two commercial fields of approximately 1 ha, both of them infested by meloidogyne javanica and pratylenchus zeae. in each area, samples represented by about 50 g of roots, were collected every two months, within a grid measuring 10.5 × 10 m (experiment 1) and 9.8 × 10 m (experiment 2). the highest nematodes populations were obtained during the rainy season, when high temperatures and moistures were favorable to root development. for this reason the rainy season was considered the best time to collect samples to identify areas with nematodes problem. among the 52 calculated semivariograms (28 for m. javanica or p. zeae populations in area 1 and 24 for m. javanica or p. zeae populations in area 2), 22 could not be fitted to any model and presented a pure nugget effect. the spherical model showed the best fit to the semivariograms of data observed in the other 30 conditions. in those cases, values of range in semivariogram varied from 22 to 77 m, with 47 m on average and suggesting that, to obtain a reliable estimate for the population of these plant parasites in a given area, samples should be collected 47 m apart, which is equivalent to 1.5 sampling points per hectare.
Management of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Chilli Through Organic Soil Amendments  [PDF]
Aly Khan,S.S. Shaukat,F. Qamar,S. Islam
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: The effect of three organic amendments including poultry manure, pigeon manure and sawdust and carbofuran on the population of Tylenchorhynchus curvus, Helicotylenchus indicus and Meloidogyne sp., larvae associated with chilli and the chilli yield were investigated. Population densities of the nematodes were reduced by the organic amendments to varied extent. Poultry manure caused greatest reduction of nematode populations. Yield of chilli was remarkably increased by poultry manure and carbofuran.
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