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Urban malaria and associated risk factors in Jimma town, south-west Ethiopia
Abebe Alemu, Wondewosen Tsegaye, Lemu Golassa, Gemeda Abebe
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-173
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Jimma town from April 1 to May 28, 2010. 804 study participants were included from 291 households for microscopic examination of malaria parasites. Socio-demography data and risk factors were collected using structured questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS 15.0 statistical software.From a total of 804 study participants in current survey only 42 (5.2%) were positive for malaria parasites. Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum and mixed infection accounted 71.4%, 26.2% and 2.4%, respectively. Higher malaria prevalence rate was observed among under-five children (11%). Those who do not use insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) were more likely to be infected with malaria (OR = 13.6; 95% CI 4.9-37.2, p < 0.001) compared with those who use the ITN. Living in areas where stagnant water existed (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.00-4.2, p = 0.047) and its distance of existence <1 km from the house(OR = 2.1; 95% CI 2.0-15.8, p = 0.001) were more likely to be infected with malaria parasite compared with those who live away from stagnant at a distance greater than 1 km.Malaria is a major health problem with P. vivax becoming a predominant species in the town. The prevalence was strongly associated with proximity of residence to potential mosquito breeding sites. Malaria is affecting significant proportions of the urban settlers and human activities nevertheless play an important role in bringing the mosquito breeding sites closer to residences.Malaria can no longer be considered as just a rural issue in Africa where a significant and increasing proportion of the African population lives in urban areas and malaria transmission in urban settings, albeit lower level than rural areas [1-3]. By virtue of the unprecedented urbanization in Africa the scale and impact of urban malaria is increasing, Moreover, this urbanization often results in profound demographic, ecological, and socio-economic changes that are characterized by
Prevalence and Susceptibility Assay of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Farms of Jimma Town, South West Ethiopia
Tariku Sori,Jemal Hussien,Molalegne Bitew
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.745.749
Abstract: Cross sectional experimental study was conducted to assess the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis to commonly used antibacterial agents in Jimma town dairy farms, South West Ethiopia from January-July, 2010. Milk samples were collected aseptically and California Mastitis Test (CMT) was carried out to identify subclinical mastitis from dairy cows. All CMT high scored and clinically positive samples were investigated microbiologically. Rate of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus was determined and susceptibility of 11 antibiotics against S. aureus was evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and the result was expressed as sensitive, intermediate and resistant. From total of 218 milk samples collected, 164 CMT high score milk samples were cultured of which 86 (52.4%) of pure strains of S. aureus were isolated. Out of 86 pure isolates of S. aureus resistance was detected for Penicillin (87.2%), Nalidixic acid (92%), Amoxicillin (46%), Chloramphenicol (16%), Clindamycin (4%) and Vancomycin (3%). The study also revealed that S. aureus was found to be sensitive for Norfloxacilin, Gentamycin, Tetracycline and Bacitracin. The present finding indicates that these isolates exhibited the highest degree of resistance to Nalidicic Acid, Penicillin, Amoxicillin and Chloramphenicol of among the tested anti microbial agents in comparison to previous studies reported. Furthermore, resistance follow-up, appropriate selection and use of antibiotic is recommended in the treatment of mastitis.
Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Serbo town, Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia
Tsige Ketema, Ketema Bacha, Tarekegn Birhanu, Beyene Petros
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-177
Abstract: A 28-day in vivo therapeutic efficacy test was conducted from October 2007 to January 2008. Recurrence of parasitaemia and the clinical condition of patients were assessed on each visit during the follow-up. The levels of haemoglobin (Hb) in the study participants were determined. The patients' blood drug levels were measured using HPLC. Data was analysed using SPSS for windows version 10.0. HPLC data was computed using Chem Station for LC 3D systems software.Of the total 84 patients included in the study, 78 completed their 28-day follow-up, six of whom being excluded for different reasons. In three children (aged 7, 12 and 13 years), parasitaemia reappeared within the 28-days follow-up in spite of adequate absorption of the drug and absence of malaria symptom. In addition, on the day of recurrence of parasitaemia the levels of chloroquine-desethylchloroquine (CQ-DCQ) were above the minimum effective concentration (≥100 ηg/ml) in all the three cases, showing that treatment failure could not be attributed to low level of drug in the patients blood.Reappearance of the parasite within the 28 days of follow-up is due to parasite resistance to CQ. The 3.6% (95% CI = -0.038 - 0.0758) prevalence of CRPv malaria in the study area signals the need for launching monitory activities for CQ resistant P. vivax. Moreover, as former report from the same country, Debrezeit, also showed the occurrence of CRPv, survey on CRPv malaria should be made in P. vivax endemic areas in order to estimate the level of burden across the country.In Ethiopia, malaria is seasonal and unstable, causing frequent epidemics [1]. It usually occurs at altitudes < 2,000 meter above sea level. Occasionally, transmission of malaria occurs in areas previously free of malaria, including areas >2,000 meter above sea level, where the microclimate and weather conditions are not normally favourable for malaria. Recent report has indicated that epidemics have expanded to areas up to 2,400 meter above sea level [2
Microbiological safety of street vended ayib in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia
T Solomon, T Ketema
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The wide spread habit of street vended cheese consumption is a potential cause for food borne illness, besides the common factors such as over-crowding, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of street vended Ayib and the associated health risks to consumers of the product in Jimma Town, south west Ethiopia. The microbial quality of different sample of Ayib being sold on the streets of Jimma Town was assessed following the standard microbiological analysis from December, 2010 to June, 2011. Accordingly, a total of 60 samples were collected from three streets Ayib selling market sites of Jimma Town for the analysis of Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria (AMB) a, Enterobacteriacea, Staphylococcus, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Yeasts and Molds. Preliminary survey was also conducted to get information on the handling practice to trace source of contamination. Moreover, physico-chemical characteristics such as pH and titratable acidity of the Ayib were determined. Data was analyzed using SPSS of windows version 16.0. The mean microbial count of samples was found to be dominated by both AMB and Lactic Acid Bacteria, followed by Enterobacteriacea. The pH and titratable acidity were 4.2±0.02 and 0.21, respectively, indicating the Ayib samples were in acidic range. From among a total of 198 isolates characterized, only 13.1% were found to be Gram negative bacteria with the likelihood that some are potentially pathogenic. Even though the handling practice of Ayib sellers was very poor, the acidic nature of the food somehow provided protection against survival and growth of pathogenic microorganisms. However, bodies concerned and sanitary workers should work on health education in relation to Ayib hygiene before the likely outbreak of Ayib-borne diseases.
An assessment of the free health care provision system in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia
Mirkuzie Woldie, Chali Jirra, Ayalew Tegegn
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Despite the fact that equity is the underlying principle of all major global health policies, difficulties have emerged in providing proper care for the poor with the introduction of user fees for health services. However, the criteria used to determine eligibility for free health services at public health facilities are either unclear or nonexistent in most sub-Saharan African countries. Objective: To assess the free health care delivery system and the extent to which strict criteria are followed in granting free health care services in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional, exploratory study, employing both quantitative and qualitative study designs, was conducted from December 22–27, 2003. Results: Fifty-eight percent of the respondents were found to be patients exempted from fees on the day of interview. There exist no clearly stated criteria in the free health care provision system of Jimma town. The presence of leakage and under-coverage were 36.9% and 43.6% respectively. The occupation and income category of the respondents showed a statistically significant association with their service category at the public health facilities (p=0.000). Conclusion: The absence of clearly defined criteria for waiving user fees at public health facilities has made the free health care provision system difficult for both the providers and users. The system is also prone to the possibility of leakage and under-coverage. These findings imply the importance of a strict reconsideration of the exemption policy of the locality and the country with focus on efforts to produce clear criteria and guidelines in granting free health care. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 19(3) 2005: 188-194
Human Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Communities Living Near Three Rivers of Jimma Town, South Western Ethiopia
M Mengistu, T Shimelis, W Torben, A Terefe, T Kassa, A Hailu
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: BACKGROUND:Schistosoma mansoni is one of the parasites with high public and medical importance in Ethiopia. However, information is scarce about S. mansoni epidemiology in people living with higher risk of infection in Jimma town. This study was designed to determine point prevalence, intensity and risk factors of S. mansoni infection among residents nearby three rivers of Jimma town and assess the rate of Biomphalaria species shading cercariae from January to April, 2007. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities residing nearby three rivers of Jimma town. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on socio- demographic and behavioral risk factors. After physical examination, stool samples were collected from 517 study participants and processed with Kato-Katz technique for microscopic examination and quantification of egg load. Snails were collected for identification of Biomphalaria species and then checked for cercarial shading. RESULTS: The prevalence of S. mansoni was 26.3 % with intensity ranging 24 to 936 eggs per gram of stool. Participants in the age group 10-19 years, OR = 2.19 (95% CI; 1.10 – 4.34), and those living near the Awetu River, OR = 2.67 (95% CI; 1.06 – 6.75), had higher risk of S. mansoni infection. Moreover, water contact while crossing a river, OR = 3.77 (95% CI; 1.79 – 7.95), and swimming, OR = 2.59 (95% CI; 1.37 – 4.91, was significantly associated with infection. Biomphalaria snails collected from Chore and Awetu Rivers shaded higher rate of cercariae compared with Kito River. CONCLUSION: A moderate prevalence of S. mansoni infection was shown in the study population. Infection rate among the residents correlated with rate of cercarial shading Biomphalaria snails. Treatment of targeted groups, appropriate health education and environmental measures (e.g. snail control) are needed to improve the situation. KEYWORDS: Prevalence, Intensity, Schistosoma mansoni, Biomphalaria snails
Occupational lead exposure among automotive garage workers – a case study for Jimma town, Ethiopia
Yalemsew Adela, Argaw Ambelu, Dejene A Tessema
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6673-7-15
Abstract: A cross-sectional study on the BLLs of 45 automotive garage workers and 40 non-garage workers was carried out in the town of Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition to BLL analysis, data on some risk factors such as smoking, and chewing ‘khat’ (the leaves of Catha adulis) were gathered through structured questionnaires and interviews and data analysis was performed using SPSS (version 16). The t-test was used to compare mean BLLs of study groups. The analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson chi-square and odds ratio tests were used to investigate the associations between specific job type, smoking and/or ‘khat’ chewing, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs.The mean BLL of the automotive-garage workers was found to be significantly greater than that of the controls. The BLLs of all the lead-exposed individuals were found to be over 10?μg/dL, and 53% of them had BLLs ranging 12 – 20?μg/dL, with the remaining 47% having over 20?μg/dL. The BLL of the workers increased with the duration of working in an automotive garage.Individuals involved in manual car painting comprise a larger percentage (58%) of those with the highest BLLs (≥ 20?μg/dL). Lead accumulation in individuals who chew ‘khat’ in the work place was found to be faster than in those who are not used to chewing ‘khat’. ‘Khat’ is an evergreen shrub native to tropical East Africa, with dark green opposite leaves which are chewed when fresh for their stimulating effects.The findings of the study have clearly demonstrated that the BLLs of automotive-garage workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 11.73 – 36.52?μg/dL and the workers are in danger of impending lead toxicity. The BLLs of the workers are influenced by their occupational practices, chewing Catha adulis leaves at the workplace, and the time spent working in an automotive garage.
Health Services Utilization and Associated Factors in Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia
F Girma, C Jira, B Girma
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, utilization of health services remains low and unevenly distributed. To ensure appropriate health care use, we need to understand factors affecting health care use, and the reasons for low levels of utilization among our community. The objective of the study was to assess utilization of health services and associated factors in Jimma zone, south west Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional data was collected from January 15 to February 08, 2007 in Jimma zone. First, four districts were selected by lottery method. Then 2 ‘kebeles’ from each district were selected randomly and households were selected by systematic sampling. A total of 836 households were studied. The data were cleaned, coded and entered into computer and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 12.0. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were conducted and a significance level of 5% was considered for interpretation. RESULTS: The health services utilization rate was found to be 45.6%. After controlling confounders using logistic regression; sex (OR=0.23), marital status (OR=8.1), household income (OR=0.70), socioeconomic status (OR=3.5), presence of disabling health problem (OR=3.3), presence of an illness episode (OR=28.3), perceived transport cost (OR=3.6), perceived treatment cost (OR=0.15) and distance to the nearest health center or hospital (OR=2.9) were found to be predictors of utilization of health care. CONCLUSIONS: It has been shown that utilization level was not satisfactory. Thus, we recommend that the level of health service utilization should be improved by improving predictors of health care use like physical accessibility. KEY WORDS: Health services utilization, accessibility, health status
Magnitude and Pattern of Injury in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South West Ethiopia
K Woldemichael, N Berhanu
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Injury statistics in Ethiopia provides little knowledge about its magnitude and related information needed for prevention. This study, therefore, aims to determine the magnitude and pattern of injury in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). METHODS: A retrospective review of records of all injured patients seen at surgical outpatient department from April 09, 2010 to January 07, 2011; was conducted in January 2011. Data were collected using a structured checklist that was developed by adapting the World Health Organization instrument. Five degree holder nurses collected the data while investigators closely supervised. Socio demographic characteristics of the patients and injury related information were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. RESULTS: Of 13500 patients who visited surgical outpatient department of JUSH during the study period, 1102(8.2%) were injury cases. The commonest mechanism of injury was blunt assault, 341(30.9%), followed by road traffic accident, 334(30.3). Fracture was the leading outcome of injury, 454(41.2%), followed by bruise or skin laceration, 404(36.7%). Significantly more males had cut, (AOR=2.0; 95% CI=1.2, 3.3) and stab, (AOR=3.0; 95% CI=1.6, 5.7), injuries compared to females. Conversely, significantly fewer males had burn, (AOR=0.4, 95% CI=0.2, 0.8) and road traffic accident, (AOR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5, 0.9), than females. Most, 715(95.8%), patients were presented to the hospital within one week. The commonest functional limitations were; difficulty to use hands, 312(28.3%) and difficulty to use legs, 217(19.7%). Eighty three, (7.5%) of the patients died and road traffic accident alone accounted for almost half, 179 (49.7%), of the severe injuries. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of injury in the hospital was considerably high. Age and sex were predictors of injury. Appropriate prevention strategies should be designed and implemented against assault, road traffic accident and cut by sharp tool. KEYWORDS: Injury, Magnitude, Pattern, Case records, Jimma University Specialized Hospital Ethiop J Health Sci. Vol. 21, No. 3 November 2011
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia  [cached]
Zemene Endalew,Yewhalaw Delenasaw,Abera Solomon,Belay Tariku
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-337
Abstract: Background Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. If primary toxoplasmosis occurs during pregnancy about one third of the cases could lead to congenital toxoplasmosis, with subsequent pathological effects. This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and associated factors in pregnant women from August to September, 2011. A total of 201 study participants were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant. Moreover, venous blood specimens were collected following Standard Operating Procedures. All the collected specimens were tested for IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 83.6%. One hundred and sixty three (81.1%) of the pregnant women were IgG seropositive, five (2.5%) were IgM seropositive. Three of the 5 pregnant women were positive for both IgG and IgM. Presence of domestic cat at home showed significant association with anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR = 5.82, 95% CI: 1.61- 20.99; p < 0.05). Conclusion The seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was high among the pregnant women. Pregnant women having domestic cat at their home were at higher risk of T. gondii infection. Hence, health education and awareness on the disease and its transmission to women of reproductive age group in general and pregnant women in particular should be created during antenatal follow up to reduce the risk of T. gondii infection in pregnant women.
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