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Tecnologia do pescado de água doce: aproveitamento do pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)
Szenttamásy, E.R.;Barbosa, S.M.V.B.;Oetterer, M.;Moreno, I.A.M.;
Scientia Agricola , 1993, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90161993000200019
Abstract: para o estudo da viabilidade do pacu (piaractus mesopotamicus) para processamento tecnológico, foram testados os processos de defuma??o, salga e secagem e enlatamento. analisou-se também a farinha dos resíduos. utilizou-se peixes provenientes de tanques de piscicultura do município de piracicaba-sp e o produto final foi avaliado para o consumo na merenda escolar municipal. foram feitas análises quanto aos teores de lipídeos, umidade, proteína e cinza. os produtos processados por salga, defuma??o e enlatamento foram analisados também quanto ao teor de sal (nacl); os defumados e enlatados foram submetidos a análise sensorial com avalia??o de aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura. o pacu "in natura", defumado, salgado seco e enlatado apresentou, em porcentagem, respectivamente, 18,99; 23,80; 52,53; 18,59 de proteína, 3,79; 2,69; 18,31; 14,34 de lipídeos e 1,82; 3,13; 17,76; 2,79 de cinza. para o pacu enlatado 56% e 33% dos degustadores o classificaram como um produto de excelente e bom sabor. o pacu defumado foi classificado como de excelente sabor por 25% dos provadores e de bom sabor por 55%.
Fósforo na alimenta??o de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)
Signor, Arcangelo Augusto;Feiden, Aldi;Bittencourt, Fábio;Potrich, Flávia Renata;Deparis, Agnaldo;Boscolo, Wilson Rogério;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011001200005
Abstract: the objective of the present research was to evaluate phosphorus in diet for pacu (piaractus mesopotamicus) juveniles on water quality, livestock performance, body yield and carcass chemical composition. a total of 100 juveniles, 25.9±1.32 g average weight were randomly assigned into 20 fiberglass tanks, with five treatments and four replications. the fish were fed four times a day (8 and 11 a.m.; 2 and 5 p.m.), with extruded diets containing 0.40; 0.55; 0.70; 0.85 and 1.0 % total phosphorus. no differences were observed in water quality parameters, except for the concentration of orthophosphate in water, which presented linear increase. the parameters livestock performance, body yield and carcass chemical composition showed no differences for the levels of supplementation of phosphorus in diet. the use of 0.40% total phosphorus meets the requirements of phosphorus for pacu (piaractus mesopotamicus) juveniles, in addition to releasing lower concentration of orthophosphate in water.
Leukocytes respiratory burst and lysozyme level in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887)
Abreu, JS.;Marzocchi-Machado, CM.;Urbaczek, AC.;Fonseca, LM.;Urbinati, EC.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842009000500018
Abstract: innate immune responses are useful to determine the health status of fish and to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory substances in fish farming. leukocytes respiratory burst was measured in pacu (piaractus mesopotamicus) using chemiluminescence assay and nitroblue tetrazolium (nbt) reduction assay. the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction seemed more adequate than chemiluminescence assay for leukocytes oxidative burst determination, since it was difficult to isolate the blood leucocytes for chemiluminescence assay. plasma and serum lysozyme were measured using a turbidimetric assay. the heating of serum and plasma samples (56 oc for 30 minutes) for complement system inactivation darkened the plasma samples and interfered in the results. the lysozyme activity in serum was higher than in plasma, suggesting that serum samples are more appropriate for the analysis. this study established protocols that can be useful tools in the study of immune mechanisms of the tropical fish pacu.
Paraoxonase activity in liver of Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg (Characidae)
Bastos, Vera Lucia F. Cunha;Folly, Evelize;Rossini, Ana;Ceccarelli, Paulo S.;Senhorini, José A.;Bastos, Jayme Cunha;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81751998000300012
Abstract: enzymatic production of p-nitrophenol in liver of piaractus mesopotamicus holmberg, 1887 was consistently assayed at ph 8.5 using 7.5 mm paraoxon as substrate. this pacu liver paraoxonase activity was activated by nacl. apparent values of km were 2.42 x 10-3 m in the presence of 0.5 m nacl and 8.99 x 10-3 m without nacl. apparent maximum velocity values calculated in the absence and presence of 0.5 m nacl were 1.09 x 10-3 μmoles/min/mg of proteins and 1.29 x 100-3 μmoles/min/mg of proteins, respectively. these vmax values are fifty-fold the value described for trout (salmo trutta linnaeus, 1758) liver paraoxonase. paraoxonase activity of pacu liver homogenates was recovered as much in cytosolic as in particulate cellular subtractions, but the particulate subtractions showed higher specific activities. the data presented here indicate that hepatic hydrolysis of organophosphorous pesticides may not be an important detoxification process in pacu.
PERFORMANCE OF PACU, Piaractus mesopotamicus, REARED IN DIFFERENT STOCKING DENSITY AND WATER FLOW EFEITO DA DENSIDADE DE LOTA O E DA RENOVA O DA áGUA NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DO PACU (Piaractus mesopotamicus)  [cached]
Delma Machado Cantisani Pádua,Paulo César Silva,Jo?o Teodoro Pádua,Cíntia Maria Fernandes
Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical , 2007, DOI: 10.5216/pat.v28i1.2981
Abstract: The performance of juvenile pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, held at three different stocking densities, 14, 28 and 42 fishes/ m3, and two levels of tanks water renovation, 11/2 and 3 h, with two replications, was tested in a 3 by 2 factorial design. A series of 12 concrete rectangular shaped tanks (4,0 m x 1,5 m x 0,8 m deep), installed outdoors was utilized. The result of this study suggests that stocking density has a marked effect on the growth of juvenile pacu. It was observed that an increase of treefold in density and decreased water flow were related to increased mortality. KEY-WORDS: Piaractus mesopotamicus; fish; stocking density; water flow. O desempenho produtivo de juvenis de pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, submetidos a três densidades de lota o, 14, 28 e 42 peixes / m3, e a duas taxas de renova o total da água dos tanques, 1 1/2 , 3 h, foi testado em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com duas repeti es. Utilizou-se uma série de 12 tanques de concreto (4,0 x 1,5 m x 0,8 m de profundidade), dispostos a céu aberto. Os resultados demonstraram que a densidade de lota o e a taxa de renova o da água influenciaram o desempenho produtivo do pacu. Observou-se que o aumento em três vezes da lota o e o decréscimo da renova o da água determinaram menores desempenhos produtivos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Piaractus mesopotamicus; sistema intensivo; lota o; vaz o da água; pacu.
Biological indicators of stress in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) after capture
Abreu, JS.;Takahashi, LS.;Hoshiba, MA.;Urbinati, EC.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842009000200026
Abstract: the effects of capture (chasing, netting and air exposure) on cortisol, glucose, chloride, sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations, osmolality, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells count (rbc) and mean corpuscular volume (mcv) were investigated in pacu (piaractus mesopotamicus). a total of 132 fish (49.7 ± 11.7 g) were subjected to capture and 3 minutes air exposure and capture and 5 minutes air exposure. nine fish at each treatment were sampled at 5, 15, 30, 60 minutes and 24 hours after the procedure. nine undisturbed fish were sacrificed before the handling and used as controls. capture resulted in a rise in blood cortisol and glucose 30 and 5 minutes, respectively, after both air exposures. both indicators returned to resting levels 24 hours after capture. in both fish groups, plasma chloride decreased 60 minutes after capture, not recovering the resting levels within 24 hours after, and serum sodium rose at 15 and 30 minutes and recovered the resting levels 24 hours later. there were no significant changes neither in potassium, calcium and osmolality nor in hematocrit, hemoglobin, rbc and mcv as a consequence of capture. the sequential stressors imposed to pacu during capture activated the brain-pituitary-interrenal axis (cortisol and glucose responses) but the activation of the brain-sympathetic-chromaffin cell axis was apparently moderate (ionic and hematological responses).
TOLER NCIA DE JUVENIS DE PACU PIARACTUS MESOPOTAMICUS à áGUA SALINIZADA
BARBOSA JúNIOR, Sérgio Garcia,TEIXEIRA, Regiane Batista Gon?alves,CABRAL, Marina Calil,ASSANO, Marcelo
Nucleus Animalium , 2010,
Abstract: The sodium chloride is a product commonly used in the rearing of freshwater fish in prophylaxis and treatment therapeutic. The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival and the time oftolerance of juvenile of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus in different salinity of water: 0 (freshwater), 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 ‰, with 3 replicates, during 20 days. The experiment was carried out in tanks containing 12 L of water in each, in systems of rested water with the daily change of 100 % of capacity. In the second experiment, thetolerance time was determinated at 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ‰ of salinity during 15, 30 and 45 minutes. In the salinities of 30, 40 and 50 ‰, the tolerance time was also evaluated for the periods of 4, 8 and 12 minutes. There was no difference (p>0.05) among the averages of length and weight of the animals kept in salinities of 0 to 9‰.The total mortality (100%) occurred at 15 and 12 ‰ after 6 and 24 hours of experiment, respectively. In the second experiment, to the animals kept at 30, 40 and 50 ‰, it was observed 66, 100 and 100% of mortality in periods of 15, 30 and 45 minutes of exhibition, respectively. But, the concentrations of 30, 40 and 50 ‰ for periods of 4, 8 and 12 minutes did not cause fish`s mortality, and 100% of animals survived after their transfer to freshwater.O cloreto de sódio é um produto comumente utilizado durante a cria o de peixes de água doce em manejos profiláticos e terapêuticos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e o tempo de toleranciade juvenis de pacu P. mesopotamicus submetidos a diferentes salinidades da água: 0 (água doce), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 ‰, com três repeti es, durante 20 dias. O experimento foi realizado em unidades contendo 12 litros de água cada, em sistema de água parada e substitui o diária de 100% do volume. Em outro experimento, determinou-se o tempo de tolerancia dos juvenis em concentra es de 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 e 50 ‰, por períodos de 15, 30 e 45 minutos de exposi o. Posteriormente, nas salinidades de 30, 40 e 50‰, o tempo de tolerancia foi investigado por períodos de 4, 8 e 12 minutos. N o houve diferen as (P>0,05) para o crescimento entre os animais mantidosnas salinidades de 0 a 9‰. Já nas salinidades de 15 e 12‰, observou-se a mortalidade total (100 %) após 6 e 24 horas de experimento, respectivamente. Nas salinidades mais elevadas, de 30, 40 e 50 ‰, observou-se 66, 100 e 100% de mortalidade nos tempos de 15, 30 e 45 minutos de exposi o, respectivamente. Por outro lado, a permanência dos animais nas concentra es de 30, 40 e 50‰ por períodos de 4, 8 e 12 minutos n o c
Plasma testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone levels of male pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Cypriniformes, Characidae)
Gazola, R.;Borella, M.I.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1997001200017
Abstract: the levels of testosterone (t) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-kt) of the south american pacu piaractus mesopotamicus were determined by radioimmunoassay during two stages of the reproductive cycle, i.e., resting and maturation, and the gonadosomatic index (gsi) was calculated. the highest levels of t and 11-kt were reached during the maturation stage (t = 2400 ± 56 pg/ml; 11-kt = 2300 ± 60 pg/ml) and lower levels were maintained during the resting period. the rise in androgen levels occurred with the appearance of spermatozoa in the maturation stage, when gsi was highest
Plasma testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone levels of male pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Cypriniformes, Characidae)  [cached]
Gazola R.,Borella M.I.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1997,
Abstract: The levels of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) of the South American pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus were determined by radioimmunoassay during two stages of the reproductive cycle, i.e., resting and maturation, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. The highest levels of T and 11-KT were reached during the maturation stage (T = 2400 ± 56 pg/ml; 11-KT = 2300 ± 60 pg/ml) and lower levels were maintained during the resting period. The rise in androgen levels occurred with the appearance of spermatozoa in the maturation stage, when GSI was highest
Hemolytic activity of alternative complement pathway as an indicator of innate immunity in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)
Biller-Takahashi, Jaqueline Dalbello;Takahashi, Leonardo Susumu;Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni Mara;Zanuzzo, Fabio Sabbadin;Sabioni, Rafael Estevan;Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982012000200001
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate the methodology to establish the hemolytic activity of alternative complement pathway as an indicator of the innate immunity in brazilian fish pacu (piaractus mesopotamicus), in addition to verifying the influence of β-glucan as an immunostimulant. fish were fed with diets containing 0, 0.1 and 1% β-glucan, during seven days, and then inoculated with aeromonas hydrophila. seven days after the challenge, they were bled for serum extraction. the methodology consisted of a kinetic assay that allows calculating the required time for serum proteins of the complement to promote 50% lysis of a rabbit red blood cell suspension. the method developed in mammals was successfully applied for pacu and determined that the hemolytic activity of the proteins of the complement system (alternative pathway) increased after the pathogen challenge, but was not influenced by the β-glucan treatment.
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