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Peer Feedback: Its Quality and Students’ Perceptions as a Peer Learning Tool in Asynchronous Discussion Forums  [cached]
Alcuin Ivor Mwalongo
International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education , 2013, DOI: 10.11591/ijere.v2i2.1821
Abstract: The study examined two aspects, namely the quality of peer feedback in asynchronous discussion forum when such peer feedback is used as a formative learning tool, i.e. not for assigning grades; and students’ perceptions about the process of peer feedback. Twenty four students enrolled in higher education were involved. They were assigned two tasks. In the first task, they contributed lessons learnt about the course on the learning management system, Moodle, via the asynchronous discussion forum. Thereafter they read the comments posted by their colleagues and critiqued them. In the final task that was given at the end of the course, students wrote reflections about peer feedback process. Thus all data collected were in the form of posts. Using NVivo, the posts generated in the first task were used to examine the quality of peer feedback, while the posts generated from students’ reflection about peer feedback were used to examine students’ perceptions about peer feedback. Results indicate that peer feedback is a useful tool for formative learning as well as assessment purposes. Future research could involve a larger sample, a diverse population, and a range of other courses.
Collaborative working within UK NHS secondary care and across sectors for COPD and the impact of peer review: qualitative findings from the UK National COPD Resources and Outcomes Project
Carol Rivas,Stephen Abbott,Stephanie J.C. Taylor,Aileen Clarke
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: We investigated the effects on collaborative work within the UK National Health Service (NHS) of an intervention for service quality improvement: informal, structured, reciprocated, multidisciplinary peer review with feedback and action plans. The setting was care for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Theory and methods: We analysed semi-structured interviews with 43 hospital respiratory consultants, nurses and general managers at 24 intervention and 11 control sites, as part of a UK randomised controlled study, the National COPD Resources and Outcomes Project (NCROP), using Scott's conceptual framework for action (inter-organisational, intra-organisational, inter-professional and inter-individual). Three areas of care targeted by NCROP involved collaboration across primary and secondary care. Results: Hospital respiratory department collaborations with commissioners and hospital managers varied. Analysis suggested that this is related to team responses to barriers. Clinicians in unsuccessful collaborations told 'atrocity stories' of organisational, structural and professional barriers to service improvement. The others removed barriers by working with government and commissioner agendas to ensure continued involvement in patients' care. Multidisciplinary peer review facilitated collaboration between participants, enabling them to meet, reconcile differences and exchange ideas across boundaries. Conclusions: The data come from the first randomised controlled trial of organisational peer review, adding to research into UK health service collaborative work, which has had a more restricted focus on inter-professional relations. NCROP peer review may only modestly improve collaboration but these data suggest it might be more effective than top-down exhortations to change when collaboration both across and within organisations is required.
Improving Scientific Research and Writing Skills through Peer Review and Empirical Group Learning  [cached]
Emilee Senkevitch,Ann C. Smith,Gili Marbach-Ad,Wenxia Song
Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education , 2011, DOI: 10.1128/jmbe.v12i2.319
Abstract: Here we describe a semester-long, multipart activity called “Read and wRite to reveal the Research process” (R3) that was designed to teach students the elements of a scientific research paper. We implemented R3 in an advanced immunology course. In R3, we paralleled the activities of reading, discussion, and presentation of relevant immunology work from primary research papers with student writing, discussion, and presentation of their own lab findings. We used reading, discussing, and writing activities to introduce students to the rationale for basic components of a scientific research paper, the method of composing a scientific paper, and the applications of course content to scientific research. As a final part of R3, students worked collaboratively to construct a Group Research Paper that reported on a hypothesis-driven research project, followed by a peer review activity that mimicked the last stage of the scientific publishing process. Assessment of student learning revealed a statistically significant gain in student performance on writing in the style of a research paper from the start of the semester to the end of the semester.
Maintaining Live Discussion in Two-Stage Open Peer Review  [PDF]
Erik Sandewall
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fncom.2012.00009
Abstract: Open peer review has been proposed for a number of reasons, in particular, for increasing the transparency of the article selection process for a journal, and for obtaining a broader basis for feedback to the authors and for the acceptance decision. The review discussion may also in itself have a value for the research community. These goals rely on the existence of a lively review discussion, but several experiments with open-process peer review in recent years have encountered the problem of faltering review discussions. The present article addresses the question of how lively review discussion may be fostered by relating the experience of the journal Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence (ETAI) which was an early experiment with open peer review. Factors influencing the discussion activity are identified. It is observed that it is more difficult to obtain lively discussion when the number of contributed articles increases, which implies difficulties for scaling up the open peer review model. Suggestions are made for how this difficulty may be overcome.
Evaluation of a Web-Based Peer Discussion Group for Counselor Trainees
International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijpbs.20120206.04
Abstract: The present study examined the development, content, and outcome of a two-semester Web-Based Peer Discussion Group (WBPDG) for 20 counselor trainees. Outcome measures determined that participants felt significantly more open and comfortable using the WBPDG at posttest in comparison to pretest. In addition, counselor trainees significantly reported a preference for using aliases online versus their real names in order to foster more sharing. Grounded theory[1] was used to analyze the 824 WBPDG messages revealing the following themes: Therapeutic Technique, Case Conceptualization, Professional Identity and Development, Supervision, Interpersonal Issues, and Ethics. Participation in the WBPDG also correlated with outcomes measured in face-to-face supervision. Implications for online peer supervision, practice, research, training and education in professional psychology are addressed.
Exploring Peer Learning: Student to Student, Lecturer to Lecturer  [cached]
Peter Petocz,Michael Duke,Ayse Bilgin,Anna Reid
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n14p91
Abstract: This article explores how lecturers in statistics have adopted a model for a student peer learning project initially established in a music school. The exploration shows how disciplinary differences generate different peer learning approaches between students and how a team of lecturers has adapted a project from one discipline and institution to another. In essence, it explores the nature of peer learning from the perspective of student peers, including the extra insight that is available from the view of lecturer peers. The model is important as it focuses on peer learning that resides in informal spaces rather than within a formalised curriculum.
A Peer and Self-assessment Project Implemented in Practical Group Work
Wenjie Qu,Shuyi Yang
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.1.6.776-781
Abstract: Group study which takes students as the central study pattern is of great help for English learners. Nowadays many English teachers select this kind teaching and learning method in the classroom with the aim of enhancing learner's study interest, stimulating their motivation and obtaining the better study result. But actually, the group study simultaneously exists many problems which seriously influence learning effect when it is carrying out in the classroom. However theories and previous researches prove that peer and self-assessment can make students have a clear learning target, discipline themselves and therefore generate better learning results. So peer and self-assessment was put into practical group study in the classroom. Through observing, researching and analyzing of the implementation of it in the classroom, it was found peer and self-assessment could effectively prevent the problems occurring and promoted the group study efficiency greatly.
Business Students' Views of Peer Assessment on Class Participation
Fidella Tiew
International Education Studies , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v3n3p126
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to introduce peer and self assessment on tutorial class participation to a marketing unit at Curtin Sarawak. This assessment strategy was introduced with desire to improve class participation and increase student involvement in assessment. At the end of semester, a questionnaire was used to gather responses from a sample of 77 students about their opinions on the peer assessment practice. Students agreed that the practice promotes a sense of ownership, engagement and personal responsibility of the learning experience. But at the same time, many experienced some stress in the assessment process and found it not easy to evaluate their peers. The study found students do not reject peer assessment strategy.
Methods for Ordinal Peer Grading  [PDF]
Karthik Raman,Thorsten Joachims
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: MOOCs have the potential to revolutionize higher education with their wide outreach and accessibility, but they require instructors to come up with scalable alternates to traditional student evaluation. Peer grading -- having students assess each other -- is a promising approach to tackling the problem of evaluation at scale, since the number of "graders" naturally scales with the number of students. However, students are not trained in grading, which means that one cannot expect the same level of grading skills as in traditional settings. Drawing on broad evidence that ordinal feedback is easier to provide and more reliable than cardinal feedback, it is therefore desirable to allow peer graders to make ordinal statements (e.g. "project X is better than project Y") and not require them to make cardinal statements (e.g. "project X is a B-"). Thus, in this paper we study the problem of automatically inferring student grades from ordinal peer feedback, as opposed to existing methods that require cardinal peer feedback. We formulate the ordinal peer grading problem as a type of rank aggregation problem, and explore several probabilistic models under which to estimate student grades and grader reliability. We study the applicability of these methods using peer grading data collected from a real class -- with instructor and TA grades as a baseline -- and demonstrate the efficacy of ordinal feedback techniques in comparison to existing cardinal peer grading methods. Finally, we compare these peer-grading techniques to traditional evaluation techniques.
Using Peer Discussion Facilitated by Clicker Questions in an Informal Education Setting: Enhancing Farmer Learning of Science  [PDF]
Michelle K. Smith, Seanna L. Annis, Jennifer J. Kaplan, Frank Drummond
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047564
Abstract: Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions.
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