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Morphological and Physiological Responses of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) to Waterlogging  [PDF]
A. Promkhambut,A. Younger,A. Polthanee,C. Akkasaeng
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of waterlogging on morphological and physiological traits of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivars. Four sorghum cultivars, cv. Wray, Keller, Bailey (sweet cultivar) and cv. SP1 (forage cultivar) at five expanded leaf stage were subjected to 20 days of waterlogging and drained pots were kept as the control. Twenty days of waterlogging did not cause a significant difference in shoot and root biomass among cultivars. Flooding reduced leaf area (69%), plant height (30%) and youngest leaf expansion rate of all cultivars but severely reduced in SP1 (35-80%). Flooding promoted leaf senescence of all cultivars and biomass allocation to shoot (increase in shoot/root) in Wray, Keller and Bailey, but increased biomass partitioning to root in SP1. The initiation of new nodal root was noted in SP1, whereas the ability to maintain root surface area by increase in longest root length and nodal root development near soil surface was found in Wray. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were severely reduced under waterlogging conditions of sweet cultivars (65-78%), but enhanced over the control in forage cultivar (56%). The ability to conserve root surface area, allocate more biomass to shoot during waterlogging and develop root near soil surface may support new growth in Wray, whereas the ability to maintain leaf gas exchange parameters in SP1 was due to the active nodal root growth. Nevertheless, there was no relationship between photosynthetic rate and shoot growth of sorghum under anaerobic conditions.
Caracterización y potencialidades del grano de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Characterization and potential of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) grain
A Pérez,O Saucedo,J Iglesias,Hilda B Wencomo
Pastos y Forrajes , 2010,
Abstract: El sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) es uno de los cereales que por sus características agronómicas y nutricionales pudiera aportar grandes beneficios en la alimentación, tanto humana como animal, a nivel mundial, tropical y nacional. Este cultivo se adapta bien a las condiciones de Cuba, el cual mostró un incipiente desarrollo que desapareció de forma paralela a la colaboración del CAME (Consejo de Ayuda Mutua Económica). Hoy no existe una amplia tradición y experiencia en cuanto a su producción; sin embargo, diferentes ensayos indican que los rendimientos son satisfactorios y que pudieran incrementarse si se contara con tecnologías apropiadas y sustentables que permitieran expresar todo su potencial. En el presente artículo se exponen las características generales, botánicas y agronómicas del género y sus especies, así como sus potencialidades y usos, con el objetivo de actualizar el conocimiento como una contribución a dar soluciones a la actual crisis alimentaria que sufre el Planeta. Asimismo se incluyen algunos resultados obtenidos en la República de Cuba. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the cereals that due to their agronomic and nutritional characteristics could contribute large benefits in human as well as animal feeding, at world, tropical and national level. This crop is well adapted to Cuban conditions, and showed an incipient development that disappeared parallel to the collaboration of COMECON (Council of Mutual Economic Assistance). Today no vast tradition and experience exist regarding its production; however, different essays indicate that the yields are satisfactory and that they could be increased if there were appropriate and sustainable technologies that allowed to express all its potential. In this article the general, botanical and agronomic characteristics of the genus and its species, as well as its potential and usages are presented with the objective of updating knowledge as a contribution to providing solutions for the current food crisis undergone by the Planet. Likewise, some results obtained in the Republic of Cuba are included.
Effect of Transplanting on Yield and Growth of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)
Agbaje, GO.,Olofintoye, JA.
Tropicultura , 2002,
Abstract: An experiment was carried out to study the effects of transplanting on growth and grain yield of three varieties of Sorghum bicolor, 'Ilorin local', SK 5912, and SSV10. Seedlings from each variety transplanted at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after planting (WAP) were compared with directly seeded plants used as control. Results show that at 8 WAP with seedlings transplanted at 2 WAP were taller than the other transplants, but shorter than directly seeded plants. Transplanting caused delay in flowering, but at this stage, height of transplants was comparable to directly seeded plants in SK 5912 and SSV10, while in 'Ilorin local' the transplants were significantly shorter at P< 0.05. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield was comparable among transplants but lower than those of directly seeded plants. However, grain yield of seedlings that were transplanted at 2 WAP was statistically comparable with directly seeded plants at P< 0.05.
A survey of on-farm seed production practices of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Bomet District of Kenya
LA Ochieng, PW Mathenge, R Muasya
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the important cereal crops utilized worldwide for human food, animal feed and to a lesser extent as a raw material in commercial food industries. The crop is a strategic commodity for food security, particularly in harsh environments. In Kenya, sorghum is an important crop consumed in some parts of the country as a staple food. It is also a major source of income to small-scale farmers who are its major growers. In the past, its cultivation was concentrated in the medium and low altitude areas of Kenya. However, with the increase in improved varieties, sorghum cultivation has spread to the cold semi-arid highlands. Sorghum production in Bomet District of Kenya is low. Agronomic, socio-economic and varietal constraints usually affect the production of sorghum. In this study, it was assumed that use of low quality seed was among the factors leading to the low productivity of sorghum in Bomet District. Therefore, a survey was carried out in Bomet District of Kenya with the objective of identifying the constraints to on-farm sorghum seed production. A total of 100 farmers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The survey focused on a wide range of seed management issues. From the descriptive analysis it was concluded that sorghum grain yield obtained by farmers in the previous season were low as compared to the documented research sorghum yield potential. The major constraints to on-farm sorghum seed production included poor seed source; lack of socio-economic resources; poor crop husbandry; poor post-harvest handling of seed; damage by weeds, pests and diseases; and lack of marketing incentives. Regression analysis showed that only sorghum farm size (as partitioned by farmers) significantly (P≤0.05) affected sorghum grain yield in the district. Therefore, there is need to have high yielding varieties which will compensate for the ever diminishing farm sizes and land sub-division. In addition, there is need to assess the quality of sorghum seeds planted by farmers to determine the effect of such seeds on sorghum production. There is also need to improve the farmers’ agronomic practices on sorghum production especially in relation to fertilizer application. An economic analysis to find out the profitability of purchasing inputs in sorghum production is required. An investigation on pests and diseases affecting sorghum production is also needed. Finally, extension services should be given to farmers and the prices of farm inputs subsidized.
Association analysis of photoperiodic flowering time genes in west and central African sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]
Sankalp U Bhosale, Benjamin Stich, H Frederick W Rattunde, Eva Weltzien, Bettina IG Haussmann, C Thomas Hash, Punna Ramu, Hugo E Cuevas, Andrew H Paterson, Albrecht E Melchinger, Heiko K Parzies
BMC Plant Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-12-32
Abstract: Sorghum accessions used in our study were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes putatively involved in the photoperiodic control of flowering time. Applying a mixed model approach and previously-determined population structure parameters to these candidate genes, we found significant associations between several SNPs with PRI for the genes CRYPTOCHROME 1 (CRY1-b1) and GIGANTEA (GI).The negative values of Tajima's D, found for the genes of our study, suggested that purifying selection has acted on genes involved in photoperiodic control of flowering time in sorghum. The SNP markers of our study that showed significant associations with PRI can be used to create functional markers to serve as important tools for marker-assisted selection of photoperiod-sensitive cultivars in sorghum.Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a major staple crop and source of income for millions of people in Western and Central Africa (WCA). The success of sorghum production is determined to a considerable extent by the appropriateness of the flowering time for the specific production environment. The highly variable sowing dates, due in part to erratic onset of the rainy season, present an important challenge since grain maturity needs to occur at a more fixed calendar date to coincide with the end of the rainy period for successful grain filling and pest avoidance [1]. Thus, photoperiod-sensitive flowering responses of sorghum in WCA enhance adaptation by enabling more fixed maturity dates despite variable sowing dates [2-4].The transition of plant growth from vegetative to generative stage is the primary determinant of flowering time in crops of determinant growth type such as sorghum. The degree to which varieties can adjust this onset of panicle initiation with differing sowing dates, and photoperiod conditions, is called photoperiodic flowering response [5]. Photoperiod sensitivity triggers panicle initiation in short-day (SD) plants such as sorghum when
Contribución al estudio del sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) para nutrición humana
López Ortiz,Norma Constanza; Tique,Martha María; Pérez Lavalle,Liliana del Socorro;
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana , 2011,
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the chemical composition and in-vitro digestibility of native and germinated sorghum (sorghum bicolor (l.) moench) and to elaborate pasta with 10, 15, 20% of native sorghum flour. materials and methods: we determined proximate composition, total starch and in-vitro digestibility of starch of fodder sorghum seeds, hf-895 hybrid. content of protein and total starch was analyzed in granulometric fractions of the sorghum flour. pasta was subject to cooking tests. results: composition of native sorghum is within the established parameters of sorghum for human consumption. germination process decreased moisture and fat, and did not produce significant changes in the content of protein, ashes and dietary fiber. starch hydrolysis speed was higher in germinated seeds. there were significant differences regarding protein and starch granulometric fractions content. pastas with 10% of native sorghum flour showed the lowest percentage of soluble solids. water absorption index was the same for all levels of sorghum flour inclusion. conclusions: germinated and pastas with 10% of sorghum are two alternatives of sorghum use for human nutrition.
Nutritive value of diferents silage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivares
Borba, Luis Felipe Pereira;Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade;Guim, Adriana;Tabosa, José Nildo;Gomes, Luiz Henrique dos Santos;Santos, Viviany Lúcia Fernandes dos;
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.12853
Abstract: nutrition values of silages from different sorghum cultivars are evaluated. five 26-kg castrated crossbred lambs, housed in pens equipped with feces and urine collectors for the study of their metabolism, were employed in a 5 x 5 latin square experimental design. treatments consisted of silage from five different sorghum cultivars: ipa 1011 and ipa 2564 (grain sorghum), ipa 2502 (dual purpose sorghum), ipa fs-25 and ipa 467 (forage sorghum). protein level was corrected to 12% by adding a mixture of urea: ammonium sulfate (9:1). treatments ipa 1011, ipa 2564 and ipa 2502 provided high intake of dry matter, total carbohydrate and total digestible nutrients, and low intake of neutral detergent fiber. cultivars ipa 1011 and ipa 2564 provided high apparent crude protein digestibility coefficient, whereas cultivars ipa 1011 and ipa 2564 had high total digestible nutrient levels. all cultivars provided positive nitrogen. owing to nutrient intake and digestibility values, grain sorghum silages evidenced high potential in ruminant nutrition.
Genotypic Variation for Salinity Tolerance in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Genotypes at Early Growth Stages  [PDF]
Tigabu, Endalew,Andargie, Mebeaselassie,Tesfaye, Kindie
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2013,
Abstract: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is the fifth most economically important crop among cereals in the world. Salinity is an abiotic factor which reduces productivity of sorghum. Exploiting genetic variability to identify salt tolerant genotype is one of the strategies used to overcome salinity. Pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the genetic variation of eleven sorghum genotypes for NaCl salinity response at germination and early seedling stages. The experimental treatments were five NaCl salinity levels (0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 dS m-1) and eleven sorghum genotypes (Gambella1107, Melkam, S-35, ESH-2, Gobye, 97MW6130, Meko, 76T1#23, ICSV-111, Abshir and Teshale). The experimental design was completely randomized design with three replicates.Data was analyzed using SAS (version 9.0) statistical software and means were separated by LSD. Germination rate, final germination percentage, seedling shoot length and seedling root length were measured. The ANOVA for treatments, genotypes and their interaction was found to be highly significant (p<0.001) with regard to all parameters. Genotypes Meko, Gambella1107, ICSV-111 and Melkam were found salt tolerant during germination and seedling growth stages. However, genotypes ESH-2 and Gobye were salt sensitive during both stages. The rest sorghum genotypes were intermediate in their salt tolerance. The study affirmed the presence of wide genotypic variation among the sorghum genotypes for NaCl salt tolerance.
Influence of Chicken Manure on Growth and Yield of Forage Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L.Moench )
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijaf.20120202.09
Abstract: The increasingly demand of chicken meat in Sudan has prompted more poultry farming with consequent effects on increased utilization of organic wastes (e.g. chicken manure) as fertilizers. Organic wastes contain varying amounts of water, mineral nutrients and organic matter. While the use of organic wastes as manure has been in practice for centuries world-wide. A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat during the period (February – May 2007) to study the effect of different rates of chicken manure on growth and forage yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.), Moench). The treatments consisted of four levels of chicken manure; 0, 1.2, 2.5 and 5.0 tons/ha. The treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design in four replicates. The character studies were plant population, plant height, number of leaves per plant, stem diameter, leaf area index, and fresh and dry forage yield. The results showed that there were significant differences among treatments in most parameters during the growing period for growth attributes under study. Chicken manure resulted in an increase in growth attributes as well as forage yield. Chicken manure (5 tons/ha) produced higher fresh and dry forage at harvest than the other treatments.
Kinetics of Zinc Uptake in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench) Roots Infected with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus, Glomus macrocarpum
A.K. Sharma,Rashmi Srivastava,P.C. Srivastava,B.N. Johri
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The kinetics of Zn uptake was studied in arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus macrocarpum) and non–mycorrhizal roots of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Within Zn concentration range, 10 mol to 100 mmol m–3, five concentration dependent phases of Zn absorption were identified. Phase 0 (0.05–0.1 mmol m–3) was linear but the other four subsequent phases (0.1 mmol to 0.1 mol m–3) conformed to Michaelis–Menten kinetics. At extremely lower concentrations (below 0.05 mmol m–3), Zn absorption followed a linear pattern. Mycorrhizal roots invariably maintained higher Zn absorption rate than non–mycorrhizal root. Higher Zn absorption rate of mycorrhizal roots appeared to be related to higher maximal uptake rate (Vmax) for phase 1, 3 and 4 and greater specificity (lower km) for phase 2 (1 to 5 mmol m–3).
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