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Evaluation of the sanitary quality of integral milk in nature, pasteurized, UHT and powder commercialized in Medianeira and Serranópolis do Igua u – Paraná / Avalia o da qualidade sanitária de leite integral informal, pasteurizado, UHT e em pó comercializados na cidade de Medianeira e Serranópolis do Igua u – Paraná  [cached]
Tania Aparecida Becker,Isis Franco Negrelo,Franciele Racoulte,Deisy Alessandra Drunkler
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2010,
Abstract: Milk is one of the main components of human diet and the guarantee of its quality is public health question. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hygienical sanitary conditions of the principal commercialized types of milk in Medianeira and Serranópolis do Igua u - Paraná. Twenty integral milk samples were analyzed, being six in nature, five of homogenized pasteurized, five of UHT and four of milk powder. Detection of the aflatoxin M1 consisted in the extraction and purification through an immunoaffinity column (Aflatest-P and Aflatest-M1 ) with subsequent detection fluorimetric. In the antibiotic analyses were used Delvotestò-P-multi test kits. The determination of foreign matter followed method of direct filtration. All the methodologies were proposal in the AOAC (2000). Although have been detected Aflatoxin M1 in three samples above lower limit detection of method, the results showed not to exceed the legal limits. Analyzed milk had not presented resulted positive for antibiotics and no foreign matter. In this way, all the samples had presented satisfactory sanitary hygienical quality. O leite é um dos principais componentes da dieta humana e a garantia da sua qualidade é quest o de saúde publica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as condi es higiênico-sanitárias dos principais tipos de leite comercializados em Medianeira e Serranópolis do Igua u – Paraná. Foram analisadas vinte amostras de leite integral, sendo seis de leite informal, cinco de leite pasteurizado homogeneizado, cinco de leite UHT e quatro de leite em pó. A detec o de Aflatoxina M1 consistiu na extra o e purifica o através de colunas de imunoafinidade (Aflatest-P e Aflatest-M1 ) seguida de detec o por fluorimetria; para análise de antibiótico foi utilizado kits Delvotestò-SP-NT test; para a determina o de matérias estranhas foi empregado o método de filtra o direta. Todas as metodologias encontram-se descritas na AOAC (2000). Apesar de se ter detectado aflatoxina M1 em três amostras acima do limite de detec o do método, os resultados obtidos encontraram-se dentro do padr o estabelecido pela legisla o. Os leites analisados n o apresentaram resultado positivo para antibióticos e nenhum tipo de matéria estranha. Deste modo, todas as amostras apresentaram qualidade higiênica sanitária satisfatória dentro dos parametros avaliados.
Evaluation of microbiological and physical-chemical quality of uht milk produced in the Parana State – Brazil / Avalia o microbiológica e físico-química de leites uht produzidos no Estado do Paraná – Brasil  [cached]
Luciano dos Santos Bersot,Júlia Arantes Galv?o,Nelson Kodama Lan?oni Raymundo,Vinicius Cunha Barcellos
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2010,
Abstract: The present work analyzed 150 UHT whole milk samples from three different brands, commercialized in city of Palotina (Paraná, Brazil), between October of 2004 and February of 2005. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria counting results were compared to the Agriculture Ministry of Brazil official standards (RTIQ) for UHT milk. 36 (24%) of the sample presented higher mesophilic bacteria counting according to the standards. Also, were proceeded physic-chemical analyses of those samples. 7.3% of the acidity results, 29% of crude fat and 50.7% of dry matter without fat were disagreeing to RTIQ. All samples accorded to the standards for cryoscopy and alcohol stability tests. No presente trabalho foram analisadas 150 amostras de leite UHT integral de três marcas comercializadas em Palotina, entre outubro de 2004 e fevereiro de 2005. Foram realizadas contagens de bactérias mesófilas aeróbicas, sendo os resultados comparados aos padr es estabelecidos pelo Regulamento Técnico de Identidade e Qualidade (RTIQ) para leite UHT do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento do Brasil. Entre as amostras analisadas, 36 (24%) apresentaram contagem de mesófilos acima da legisla o. Também foram realizadas análises físico-químicas destas amostras, sendo que 7,3% dos resultados de acidez titulável, 29% de gordura e 50,7% de extrato seco desengordurado estavam em desacordo com o RTIQ. Todas as amostras estavam dentro dos padr es para as análises de índice crioscópico e estabilidade em álcool.
Physical-chemical evaluation of UHT and pasteurized Milk commercialized in Londrina – PR  [cached]
Aloisio Henrique Pereira de Souza,Marly Sayuri Katsuda,Lúcia Felicidade Dias
Revista Brasileira de Pesquisa em Alimentos , 2011,
Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and physical-chemical properties of UHT and pasteurized whole milk of different brands commercialized in Londrina city. Five brands of UHT milk and 5 other brands of pasteurized whole milk were purchased from retail market in Londrina between February to April in 2009. The physical-chemical evaluation of UHT and pasteurized milk samples consisted of milk fat, total dry matter (gravimetric method), stability to 68% alcohol, titrable acidity (TA), density and cryoscopic index. All tests were performed in triplicate with 3 replications. The sample 3 of UHT whole milk presented suspicious water addition due to the low acidity and defatted dry matter concentration compared to the limit set by law. Another sample had instability problems with alcohol in some of the repetitions. All samples showed fat within the limits established by Brazilian law for UHT whole milk. In pasteurized milk, it was determined that the sample 9 had a cryoscopic index and defatted dry matter below the recommended requirement by Brazilian law. The remaining samples showed levels of defatted dry matter within the legal limits for pasteurized whole milk. All pasteurized milk samples showed levels of acidity and fat according for Brazilian law. The study concluded that both types of milk showed some irregularities showing the need to revise the procedures for quality control of each company to reach the criteria require by law.
Desempenho de mudas de gravioleira inoculadas com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em solo n o-esterilizado, com diferentes doses de fósforo = Performance of soursop seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in non-sterilized soil, with different phosphorus doses
Solange Silva Samar?o,Luciana Aparecida Rodrigues,Marco Ant?nio Martins,Thiago Nogueira Manh?es
Acta Scientiarum : Agronomy , 2011,
Abstract: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de gravioleira (Anonna muricata L.) inoculadas com FMAs e cultivadas com diferentes doses de fósforo (P), em solo n o-esterilizado. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegeta o, com delineamentoexperimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 (inocula o x doses de P) sendo: plantas n o-inoculadas (controle), inoculadas com Glomus clarum, inoculadas com Gigaspora margarita e inoculadas com inóculo nativo (Glomus macrocarpum, G. etunicatum eEntrosphopora colombiana) e quatro doses de P (0, 25, 50, 100 mg kg-1) com três repeti es. As mudas foram cultivadas em sacos de plástico de 2 dm3 em mistura de solo e areia (2:1 v v-1) n oesterilizada. Aos 90 dias após o plantio, observou-se que a inocula o com os FMAs promoveu maior altura e diametro de caule das mudas, maior produ o de matéria seca e conteúdo de P nas raízes e parte aérea e maior conteúdo de K nas raízes das mudas, comparativamente ao controle n o-inoculado. As plantas n o-inoculadas, n o responderam à aduba o fosfatada, concluindo-seque a inocula o com os FMAs, aliada à aduba o fosfatada, ncrementam o crescimento e o estado nutricional de mudas de gravioleira mesmo quando cultivadas em substrato n o-estéril. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of soursop (Annona muricata L.) seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs) cultivated with different doses of phosphorus (P). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with a completely randomized factorial design (4 x 4), with non inoculated plants (controls), three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus clarum, Gigaspora margarita and native AMFs (Glomus macrocarpum, G.etunicatum and Entrosphopora colombiana) and four doses of P (0, 25, 50, 100 mg kg-1) with three replications. The seedlings were cultivated in plastic bags of 2 dm3 in a mix composed of nonsterilized soil and sand (2:1 v v-1). After 90 days, it was observed that AMFs inoculation promoted an increment in height and stem diameter, increased biomass and P content of shoot and roots,and K content in the roots of the seedlings in comparison with controls. The non inoculated plants did not respond to phosphorus fertilization, concluding that the inoculation with AMFs with phosphate fertilization increased growth and nutritional state of soursup seedlings even when cultivated in non-sterilized soil.
Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Raw, Pasteurized and UHT Milks in Shops  [PDF]
Z.A. Shojaei,A. Yadollahi
Asian Journal of Scientific Research , 2008,
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate physicochemical and microbiological quality of raw, pasteurized and UHT milks in Shahrekord (Iran) in the spring 2005. All types of milk samples were collected from different part of the city were selected and in three consequent periods. The physicochemical parameters including fat, protein, temperature, Titrable Acidity (TA), Solid Not Fat (SNF) and Specific Gravity (SG) were determined. Additionally, the microbiological evaluations were based on the total bacterial count, total coliform count and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The results (mean values of 81 measurements) for raw milk samples showed fat content 2.6, protein 3.5, T 18 °C, TA 0.17, SNF 7.71 and SG 1.030 and total bacterial count 13x106 cfu mL-1, total coliform count 1300 cfu mL-1 and E. coli positive. Those values for the pasteurized milks were the fat content 2, protein 3.5, T 15 °C, TA 0.16, SNF 7.5 and SG 1.033 and total bacterial count 71x104 cfu mL-1, total coliform count 800 cfu mL-1 and E. coli positive. Furthermore, the values of UHT milks were the fat content 2.8, protein 3.1, T 19 °C, TA 0.15, SNF 8.3, SG 1.029, total bacterial count 71 cfu mL-1, total coliform count 9 cfu mL-1 and E. coli negative. Statistical analysis of data revealed that there is significant difference between results of different shops at the level of p<0.01 which implies the contamination of raw and pasteurized milk is above standards.
Sedimenta??o em leite UHT integral, semidesnatado e desnatado durante armazenamento
Vesconsi, Cintia Neuwald;Valduga, Alice Teresa;Cichoski, Alexandre José;
Ciência Rural , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782012000400026
Abstract: one of the biggest problems of uht milk is the sedimentation of protein particles that occurs during the storage period, which faces rejection by the consumers. the aim of this study was to evaluate the particle sedimentation in semi-skimmed, skimmed and wholemilk, stored at 20°c, 30°c (±1) for 120 days. in pasteurized milk that yielded uht milk physico-chemical and microbiological analisys (mesophilic, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria) were carried out. in semi-skimmed, skimmed and whole milk, the acidity, ph, boiling, sensory analysis, integrity of packaging and sedimentation tests were carried out shortly after packing and at 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th days of storage. the pasteurized whole milk, semi skimmed and skimmed milk showed results within the required standards by the industry for mesophilic bacteria(log10 4.37 a log10 4.08ufc ml-1), psychrotrophic (log10 3.06 a log10 2.77ufc ml-1) and lactic acid (log10 3.10 a log10 2.42ufc ml-1) bacteria, that differed significantly (5%) of value of fresh milk from which they originate. the values of acidity (0.15% ác. láctic), freezing point (-0.535 a -0.540°h), fat, density (1.031 a 1.034g ml-1), ph (6.70 a 6.80) and degreased dry extract (8.65 a 8.93%) also were within the standards. from the 60th day of storage on, particle sedimentation was observed in the three types of uht milk at the 20°c (0.80 a 1.10g) at the 30°c (1.0 a 1.40g).
Aflatoxin M1 level in pasteurized and sterilized milk of Babol city
Gholampour Azizi I,Khoushnevis S H,Hashemi S J
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Aflatoxins are severe toxic secondary metabolites found in most plant products. When animals consume contaminated feed stuff to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the toxin is metabolized by liver and is excreted as Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via milk. Aflatoxins are acute toxic compounds, immunosuppressive, mutagen, tratogen and carcinogen."nMethods: During the winter of 2006, pasteurized and sterilized (ultra high temperature) (UHT) milk packages were collected from supermarkets in Babol city. 78 pasteurized and 33 sterilized milk, totally 111 samples were tested for AFM1 by competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Solid phase in plastic micro wells coated whit anti-Aflatoxin M1 antibodies. We added 100 microliter skimmed milk and Aflatoxin M1 standard solutions in each well. In each plate, we appointed seven wells for standards. Plates were incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 45 min. Each well was washed four times by washing buffer 20X concentration. Then 100 micro liter conjugated solution (100X) was added to each well, and the plate was incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 15 min. After that, the wells were washed. After adding the substrates to wells, we incubated the plate at 20-25 centigrade in a dark place for 15 min. The reaction was stopped by stop solution. After one hour, light absorption was read at 450 nm by ELISA reader."nResults: AFM1 were detected in 100% of all samples. 100% of samples were above of European community regulations (50ng/l). AFM1 contamination mean levels pasteurized and sterilized milk were 230.5 and 221.66 respectively. Therefore more than four fold levels European community. There is not a significant relationship between AFM1 contamina-tion level and different months of winter applying statistical test."nConclusion: The results showed the need for introducing safety limits for AFM1 levels in child milk under Food Legislative liable of Iran. Aflatoxin M1 contamination is a serious problem for public health, and it is potentially hazardous for human health.
Color Changes of UHT Milk During Storage  [PDF]
Jovanka V. Popov-Ralji?,Nada S. Laki?,Jovanka G. Lali?i?-Petronijevi?,Miroljub B. Bara?,Vi?nja M. Sikimi?
Sensors , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/s8095961
Abstract: In this study measurements of color parameters of UHT milk were performed, by using a MOM-color 100 photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter. Colors of UHT milk samples containing 3.2% and 1.6% milk fat, processed under industrial conditions, packed in polyethylene terephtalate (PET) based packages, and stored for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days at ambient temperature (20±5°C) were examined. Results are shown in four different systems that define measurement of color parameters expressed in: CIE, CIE L*a*b*, Hünter and ANLAB – Adams Nickerson systems. Average value of mean reflectance of UHT milk determined in CIE system statistically is highly significantly changed, (p < 0.01) depending on duration of storaging, percentage of milk fat, as well as on the interaction of the mentioned factors. For the UHT milk with 1.6% milk fat statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease of psychometric chroma b* occurs after 60 days, and for milk with 3.2% milk fat established on 45th day of storage.
Aplicación de tres métodos analíticos para la detección de suero de quesería en leche UHT comercializada en la ciudad de México
Ramírez Ayala,Acacia; Vega y León,Salvador; Prado Flores,Guadalupe; Gutiérrez Tolentino,Rey;
Interciencia , 2009,
Abstract: the presence of cheese serum was detected in ultra pasteurized milks (uht) commercialized in mexico city. this was achieved through sodium dodecyl sulphate poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page), by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and by the calculation of the fourth derivative of the absorption spectrum (uv-4thds). monthly, ten (10) skimmed uht milk samples were analyzed during september, october and november, and the values obtained through the three methods were compared against those from authentic raw milk with addition of cheese serum in different amounts. the percentage of positive samples to cheese serum analyzed through electrophoresis, hplc and uv-4thds was 70.50 and 90%, respectively. the applied techniques related to the detection and estimation of the glycomacropeptide (gmp) by electrophoresis or by hplc, and the results obtained indicated that the quantification of the serum protein/total protein (ps/pt) relationship by uv-4thds was a more sensitive indicator of cheese serum additions.
Implementation of HACCP system in production of UHT milk  [cached]
Irena Jeli?i?
Mljekarstvo , 2009,
Abstract: Regulation of the Croatian Food Law (NN 46/07) which demands implementation of food safety management system based on HACCP principles became mandatory at the January 01st 2009. According to that regulation all subjects in food production and retail sector including the dairy industry too are obligant to implement HACCP system in their production processes. In the process of HACCP implementation many problems occur which result in delaying the implementation, scarce performance of assigned monitoring actions and inadequate maintenance and improvement of the system. All of the latter mentioned problems disable proactive functioning and may lead to disturbance of food safety of the end product. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the interpretation of each steps that have to be taken in the process of implementation of HACCP system in the production of UHT milk. Thereby many practical informations and examples have been gathered while reviewing the HACCP system in KIM d.d. Dairy industry, Karlovac, Croatia. This paper contains the examples of all indentified hazards, all assigned control actions, hazard analysis and critical control point determination for the process of UHT milk production in KIM d.d. Dairy industry, Karlovac. Furthermore, also examples and ideas for the traceability, verification and validation, product recall and withdrawal procedures are given.
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