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Taking down ‘the Ivory Tower’: leveraging academia for better health outcomes in Uganda
Kolars Joseph C
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-11-s1-s1
Abstract:
Ivory Tower Universities and Competitive Business Firms  [PDF]
Vasiliki Plerou,Luis A. Nunes Amaral,Parameswaran Gopikrishnan,Martin Meyer,H. Eugene Stanley
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1038/22719
Abstract: There is nowadays considerable interest on ways to quantify the dynamics of research activities, in part due to recent changes in research and development (R&D) funding. Here, we seek to quantify and analyze university research activities, and compare their growth dynamics with those of business firms. Specifically, we analyze five distinct databases, the largest of which is a National Science Foundation database of the R&D expenditures for science and engineering of 719 United States (US) universities for the 17-year period 1979--1995. We find that the distribution of growth rates displays a ``universal'' form that does not depend on the size of the university or on the measure of size used, and that the width of this distribution decays with size as a power law. Our findings are quantitatively similar to those independently uncovered for business firms, and consistent with the hypothesis that the growth dynamics of complex organizations may be governed by universal mechanisms.
Back to the ivory tower. Training in psychology without practice?
Jarg B. Bergold
Journal für Psychologie , 2008,
Abstract: It is argued that the chances of the implementation of Bachelor and Master programs in Germany are not used. Instead, the "German Association for Psychology” tries to use the restructuring to push through its understanding of psychology as a "natural science” and its professional interests. This is done by "Recommendations for the implementation of consecutive Bachelor and Master Programs in Psychology” in which the necessity of preserving the "unity of Psychology” is stressed. The problems of everyday practice of psychologists are largely eliminated in these programs. The psychological practitioners and the students are left alone with questions of transformation of scientific results into practice. The study and the reflection of the relationship between theory and practice fall back to a level discussed 40 year ago. It can be argued that the German training in psychology parts with the international development.Finally, some considerations are presented concerning training in psychology which tries to accept the tension provoked by the conception of human beings as bio-psycho-social entities. Besides it is demanded that an important challenge to university will be research on the transformation of scientific results into practice and vice versa.
Tower Tableaux  [PDF]
Olcay Co?kun,Müge Ta?k?n
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We introduce a new combinatorial object called tower diagrams and prove fundamental properties of these objects. We also introduce an algorithm that allows us to slide words to tower diagrams. We show that the algorithm is well-defined only for reduced words which makes the algorithm a test for reducibility. Using the algorithm, a bijection between tower diagrams and finite permutations is obtained and it is shown that this bijection specializes to a bijection between certain labellings of a given tower diagram and reduced expressions of the corresponding permutation.
Dissecting the Illegal Ivory Trade: An Analysis of Ivory Seizures Data  [PDF]
Fiona M. Underwood, Robert W. Burn, Tom Milliken
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076539
Abstract: Reliable evidence of trends in the illegal ivory trade is important for informing decision making for elephants but it is difficult to obtain due to the covert nature of the trade. The Elephant Trade Information System, a global database of reported seizures of illegal ivory, holds the only extensive information on illicit trade available. However inherent biases in seizure data make it difficult to infer trends; countries differ in their ability to make and report seizures and these differences cannot be directly measured. We developed a new modelling framework to provide quantitative evidence on trends in the illegal ivory trade from seizures data. The framework used Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models to reduce bias in seizures data by identifying proxy variables that describe the variability in seizure and reporting rates between countries and over time. Models produced bias-adjusted smoothed estimates of relative trends in illegal ivory activity for raw and worked ivory in three weight classes. Activity is represented by two indicators describing the number of illegal ivory transactions – Transactions Index – and the total weight of illegal ivory transactions – Weights Index – at global, regional or national levels. Globally, activity was found to be rapidly increasing and at its highest level for 16 years, more than doubling from 2007 to 2011 and tripling from 1998 to 2011. Over 70% of the Transactions Index is from shipments of worked ivory weighing less than 10 kg and the rapid increase since 2007 is mainly due to increased consumption in China. Over 70% of the Weights Index is from shipments of raw ivory weighing at least 100 kg mainly moving from Central and East Africa to Southeast and East Asia. The results tie together recent findings on trends in poaching rates, declining populations and consumption and provide detailed evidence to inform international decision making on elephants.
THE PROCESS OF CHANGE IN UNIVERSITY MANAGEMENT: FROM THE “IVORY TOWER” TO ENTREPRENEURIALISM
Emerson Wagner MAINARDES,Helena ALVES,Mario RAPOSO
Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The article aims to provide a retrospective overview of the changes experienced by the management of universities in their recent histories. In describing this type of organization, it was possible to understand the complexity inherent to universities. After briefly detailing the more traditional university management models, we proceed to discuss the need for organizational change based upon the most recent management approaches. Among the new types of university, the entrepreneurial university stands out as a good option for changing university organizations worldwide. However, university management has yet to be subject to sufficient research since there are a series of shortcomings that need answering. Finally, we set out a list of future research options with the objective of completing those answers as well as stimulating research on this theme important to the university itself or to society in general.
Ivory tower or welcoming neighbor? Engaging our local communities
Jane Pickering
University Museums and Collections Journal , 2009,
Abstract: The Yale Peabody Museum is situated in the economically and ethnically diverse urban environment of New Haven. For over ten years the museum has run extremely popular cultural festivals that attract a diverse audience of thousands, but we discovered that attendees rarely came from the city itself. Clearly, having high-quality programming was not enough to attract our local community. To investigate this issue the museum launched a year-long research study to address the following questions: What is the perception that residents have of the museum and what are the barriers to their engagement with the museum? How can we serve visitors from our neighborhood? How does being part of Yale University affect people’s relationship with the museum? Our results were comparable to other studies by urban institutions but there were some differences that are of particular interest to university museums. For example, we discovered that negative opinions about the university were a significant barrier. There was also confusion as to our target audience, and a perception that our programs would not be of interest to “regular” people. University museums need to make considerable efforts if they hope to attract and serve non traditional museum goers – particularly changes in how they communicate and partner with the community. New initiatives at the Peabody include programming for local teenagers, diversity training for frontline staff, new outreach programs, and targeted marketing plans.
Tower-Top Antenna Array Calibration Scheme for Next Generation Networks  [cached]
Justine McCormack,Tim Cooper,Ronan Farrell
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/41941
Abstract: Recently, there has been increased interest in moving the RF electronics in basestations from the bottom of the tower to the top, yielding improved power efficiencies and reductions in infrastructural costs. Tower-top systems have faced resistance in the past due to such issues as increased weight, size, and poor potential reliability. However, modern advances in reducing the size and complexity of RF subsystems have made the tower-top model more viable. Tower-top relocation, however, faces many significant engineering challenges. Two such challenges are the calibration of the tower-top array and ensuring adequate reliability. We present a tower-top smart antenna calibration scheme designed for high-reliability tower-top operation. Our calibration scheme is based upon an array of coupled reference elements which sense the array's output. We outline the theoretical limits of the accuracy of this calibration, using simple feedback-based calibration algorithms, and present their predicted performance based on initial prototyping of a precision coupler circuit for a 2 —2 array. As the basis for future study a more sophisticated algorithm for array calibration is also presented whose performance improves with array size.
Tower-Top Antenna Array Calibration Scheme for Next Generation Networks  [cached]
McCormack Justine,Cooper Tim,Farrell Ronan
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2007,
Abstract: Recently, there has been increased interest in moving the RF electronics in basestations from the bottom of the tower to the top, yielding improved power efficiencies and reductions in infrastructural costs. Tower-top systems have faced resistance in the past due to such issues as increased weight, size, and poor potential reliability. However, modern advances in reducing the size and complexity of RF subsystems have made the tower-top model more viable. Tower-top relocation, however, faces many significant engineering challenges. Two such challenges are the calibration of the tower-top array and ensuring adequate reliability. We present a tower-top smart antenna calibration scheme designed for high-reliability tower-top operation. Our calibration scheme is based upon an array of coupled reference elements which sense the array's output. We outline the theoretical limits of the accuracy of this calibration, using simple feedback-based calibration algorithms, and present their predicted performance based on initial prototyping of a precision coupler circuit for a array. As the basis for future study a more sophisticated algorithm for array calibration is also presented whose performance improves with array size.
Predicting Regional Classification of Levantine Ivory Sculptures: A Machine Learning Approach  [PDF]
Amy Rebecca Gansell,Irene K. Tamaru,Aleks Jakulin,Chris H. Wiggins
Statistics , 2008,
Abstract: Art historians and archaeologists have long grappled with the regional classification of ancient Near Eastern ivory carvings. Based on the visual similarity of sculptures, individuals within these fields have proposed object assemblages linked to hypothesized regional production centers. Using quantitative rather than visual methods, we here approach this classification task by exploiting computational methods from machine learning currently used with success in a variety of statistical problems in science and engineering. We first construct a prediction function using 66 categorical features as inputs and regional style as output. The model assigns regional style group (RSG), with 98 percent prediction accuracy. We then rank these features by their mutual information with RSG, quantifying single-feature predictive power. Using the highest- ranking features in combination with nomographic visualization, we have found previously unknown relationships that may aid in the regional classification of these ivories and their interpretation in art historical context.
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