oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Aerosol optical depth measurements by airborne sun photometer in SOLVE II: Comparisons to SAGE III, POAM III and airborne spectrometer measurements
P. Russell, J. Livingston, B. Schmid, J. Eilers, R. Kolyer, J. Redemann, S. Ramirez, J.-H. Yee, W. Swartz, R. Shetter, C. Trepte, A. Risley Jr., B. Wenny, J. Zawodny, W. Chu, M. Pitts, J. Lumpe, M. Fromm, C. Randall, K. Hoppel,R. Bevilacqua
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2005,
Abstract: The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) measured solar- beam transmission on the NASA DC-8 during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II). This paper presents AATS-14 results for multiwavelength aerosol optical depth (AOD), including comparisons to results from two satellite sensors and another DC-8 instrument, namely the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III (POAM III) and the Direct-beam Irradiance Airborne Spectrometer (DIAS). AATS-14 provides aerosol results at 13 wavelengths λ spanning the range of SAGE III and POAM III aerosol wavelengths. Because most AATS measurements were made at solar zenith angles (SZA) near 90°, retrieved AODs are strongly affected by uncertainties in the relative optical airmass of the aerosols and other constituents along the line of sight (LOS) between instrument and sun. To reduce dependence of the AATS-satellite comparisons on airmass, we perform the comparisons in LOS transmission and LOS optical thickness (OT) as well as in vertical OT (i.e., optical depth, OD). We also use a new airmass algorithm that validates the algorithm we previously used to within 2% for SZA<90°, and in addition provides results for SZA≥90°. For 6 DC-8 flights, 19 January-2 February 2003, AATS and DIAS results for LOS aerosol OT at λ=400nm agree to ≤12% of the AATS value. Mean and root-mean-square (RMS) differences, (DIAS-AATS)/AATS, are -2.3% and 7.7%, respectively. For DC-8 altitudes, AATS-satellite comparisons are possible only for λ>440nm, because of signal depletion for shorter λ on the satellite full-limb LOS. For the 4 AATS-SAGE and 4 AATS-POAM near-coincidences conducted 19-31 January 2003, AATS-satellite AOD differences were ≤0.0041 for all λ>440nm. RMS differences were ≤0.0022 for SAGE-AATS and ≤0.0026 for POAM-AATS. RMS relative differences in AOD ([SAGE-AATS]/AATS) were ≤33% for λ<~755nm, but grew to 59% for 1020nm and 66% at 1545nm. For λ>~755nm, AATS-POAM differences were less than AATS-SAGE differences, and RMS relative differences in AOD ([AATS-POAM]/AATS) were ≤31% for all λ between 440 and 1020nm. Unexplained differences that remain are associated with transmission differences, rather than differences in gas subtraction or conversion from LOS to vertical quantities. The very small stratospheric AOD values that occurred during SOLVE II added to the challenge of the comparisons, but do not explain all the differences. Final Revised Paper (PDF, 4498 KB) Discussion Paper (ACPD) Special Issue Citation: Russell, P., Livingston, J., Schmid, B., Eilers, J., Kolyer, R., Redemann, J., Ramirez, S., Yee, J.-H., Swartz, W., Shetter, R., Trepte, C., Risley Jr., A., Wenny, B., Zawodny, J., Chu, W., Pitts, M., Lumpe, J., Fromm, M., Randall, C., Hoppel, K., and Bevilacqua, R.: Aerosol optical depth measurements by airborne sun photometer in SOLVE II: Comparisons to SAGE III, POAM III and airborne spectrometer measur
Aerosol optical depth measurements by airborne sun photometer in SOLVE II: Comparisons to SAGE III, POAM III and airborne spectrometer measurements  [PDF]
P. Russell,J. Livingston,B. Schmid,J. Eilers
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2004,
Abstract: The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) measured solar-beam transmission on the NASA DC-8 during the Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II). This paper presents AATS-14 results for multiwavelength aerosol optical depth (AOD), including its spatial structure and comparisons to results from two satellite sensors and another DC-8 instrument. These are the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III (POAM III) and the Direct-beam Irradiance Airborne Spectrometer (DIAS). AATS-14 provides aerosol results at 13 wavelengths λ spanning the full range of SAGE III and POAM III aerosol wavelengths. Because most AATS measurements were made at solar zenith angles (SZA) near 90°, retrieved AODs are strongly affected by uncertainties in the relative optical airmass of the aerosols and other constituents along the refracted line of sight (LOS) between instrument and sun. To reduce dependence of the AATS-satellite comparisons on airmass, we perform the comparisons in line-of-sight (LOS) transmission and LOS optical thickness (OT) as well as in vertical OT (i.e., optical depth, OD). We also use a new airmass algorithm that validates the algorithm we previously used to within 2% for SZA<90°, and in addition provides results for SZA≥90°. For 6 DC-8 flights, 19 January–2 February 2003, AATS and DIAS results for LOS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at λ=400 nm agree to ≤12% of the AATS value. Mean and root-mean-square (RMS) differences, (DIAS-AATS)/AATS, are –2.3% and 7.7%, respectively. For DC-8 altitudes, AATS-satellite comparisons are possible only for λ>440 nm, because of signal depletion for shorter λ on the satellite full-limb LOS. For the 4 AATS-SAGE and 4 AATS-POAM near-coincidences conducted 19–31 January 2003, AATS-satellite AOD differences were ≤0.0041 for all λ>440 nm. RMS differences were ≤0.0022 for SAGE-AATS and ≤0.0026 for POAM-AATS. RMS percentage differences in AOD ([SAGE-AATS]/AATS) were ≤33% for λ<~755 nm, but grew to 59% for 1020 nm and 66% at 1545 nm. For λ>~755 nm, AATS-POAM differences were less than AATS-SAGE differences, and RMS percentage differences in AOD ([AATS-POAM]/AATS) were ≤31% for all λ between 440 and 1020 nm. Unexplained differences that remain are associated with transmission differences, rather than differences in gas subtraction or conversion from LOS to vertical quantities. The very small stratospheric AOD values that occurred during SOLVE II added to the challenge of the comparisons, but do not explain all the differences.
SAGE III aerosol extinction validation in the Arctic winter: comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III
L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole,C. E. Randall
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use of potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased of the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10–20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020 nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of ~30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that SAGE II and POAM III data sets are not well correlated at and below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.
SAGE III aerosol extinction validation in the Arctic winter: comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III  [PDF]
L. W. Thomason,L. R. Poole,C. E. Randall
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10–20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020 nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of ~30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that the two data sets are not well correlated below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.
Validation of 525 nm and 1020 nm aerosol extinction profiles derived from ACE imager data: comparisons with GOMOS, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, and OSIRIS  [PDF]
F. Vanhellemont,C. Tetard,A. Bourassa,M. Fromm
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: The Canadian ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission is dedicated to the retrieval of a large number of atmospheric trace gas species using the solar occultation technique in the infrared and UV/visible spectral domain. However, two additional solar disk imagers (at 525 nm and 1020 nm) were added for a number of reasons, including the retrieval of aerosol and cloud products. In this paper, we present the first validation results for these imager aerosol/cloud optical extinction coefficient profiles, by intercomparison with profiles derived from measurements performed by 3 solar occultation instruments (SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III), one stellar occultation instrument (GOMOS) and one limb sounder (OSIRIS). The results indicate that the ACE imager profiles are of good quality in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, although the aerosol extinction for the visible channel at 525 nm contains a significant negative bias at higher altitudes, while the profiles are systematically too high at 1020 nm. Both problems are probably related to ACE imager instrumental issues.
Aerosol extinction profiles at 525 nm and 1020 nm derived from ACE imager data: comparisons with GOMOS, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, and OSIRIS  [PDF]
F. Vanhellemont,C. Tetard,A. Bourassa,M. Fromm
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: The Canadian ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission is dedicated to the retrieval of a large number of atmospheric trace gas species using the solar occultation technique in the infrared and UV/visible spectral domain. However, two additional solar disk imagers (at 525 nm and 1020 nm) were added for a number of reasons, including the retrieval of aerosol and cloud products. In this paper, we present first comparison results for these imager aerosol/cloud optical extinction coefficient profiles, with the ones derived from measurements performed by 3 solar occultation instruments (SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III), one stellar occultation instrument (GOMOS) and one limb sounder (OSIRIS). The results indicate that the ACE imager profiles are of good quality in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, although the aerosol extinction for the visible channel at 525 nm contains a significant negative bias at higher altitudes, while the relative differences indicate that ACE profiles are almost always too high at 1020 nm. Both problems are probably related to ACE imager instrumental issues.
An evaluation of the SAGE III version 4 aerosol extinction coefficient and water vapor data products
L. W. Thomason, J. R. Moore, M. C. Pitts, J. M. Zawodny,E. W. Chiou
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: Herein, we provide an assessment of the data quality of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) Version 4 aerosol extinction coefficient and water vapor data products. The evaluation is based on comparisons with data from four instruments: SAGE II, the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III), the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Since only about half of the SAGE III channels have a direct comparison with measurements by other instruments, we have employed some empirical techniques to evaluate measurements at some wavelengths. We find that the aerosol extinction coefficient measurements at 449, 520, 755, 869, and 1021 nm are reliable with accuracies and precisions on the order of 10% in the mission's primary aerosol target range of 15 to 25 km. We also believe this to be true of the aerosol measurements at 1545 nm though we cannot exclude some positive bias below 15 km. We recommend use of the 385 nm measurements above 16 km where the accuracy is on par with other aerosol channels. The 601 nm measurement is much noisier (~20%) than other channels and we suggest caution in the use of these data. We believe that the 676 nm data are clearly defective particularly above 20 km (accuracy as poor as 50%) and the precision is also low (~30%). We suggest excluding this channel under most circumstances. The SAGE III Version 4 water vapor data product appears to be high quality and is recommended for science applications in the stratosphere below 45 km. In this altitude range, the mean differences with all four corroborative data sets are no bigger than 15% and often less than 10% with exceptional agreement with POAM III and MLS. Above 45 km, it seems likely that SAGE III water vapor values are increasingly too large and should be used cautiously or avoided. We believe that SAGE III meets its preflight goal of 15% accuracy and 10% precision between 15 and 45 km. SAGE III water vapor data does not appear to be affected by aerosol loading in the stratosphere.
An evaluation of the SAGE III Version 4 aerosol extinction coefficient and water vapor data products  [PDF]
L. W. Thomason,J. R. Moore,M. C. Pitts,J. M. Zawodny
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Herein, we provide an assessment of the data quality of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) Version 4 aerosol extinction coefficient and water vapor data products. The evaluation is based on comparisons with data from four instruments: SAGE II, the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III), the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Since only about half of the SAGE III channels have a direct comparison with measurements by other instruments, we have employed some empirical techniques to evaluate measurements at some wavelengths. We find that the aerosol extinction coefficient measurements at 449, 520, 755, 869, and 1021 nm are reliable with accuracies and precisions on the order of 10% in the primary aerosol range of 15 to 25 km. We also believe this to be true of the aerosol measurements at 1545 nm though we cannot exclude some positive bias below 15 km. We recommend use of the 385 nm measurements above 16 km where the accuracy is on par with other aerosol channels. The 601 nm measurement is much noisier (~20%) than other channels and we suggest caution in the use of these data. We believe that the 676 nm data are clearly defective particularly above 20 km (accuracy as poor as 50%) and the precision is also low (~30%). We suggest excluding this channel under most circumstances. The SAGE III Version 4 water vapor data product appears to be high quality and is recommended for science applications in the stratosphere below 45 km. In this altitude range, the mean differences with all four corroborative data sets are no bigger than 15% and often less than 10% with exceptional agreement with POAM III and MLS. Above 45 km, it seems likely that SAGE III water vapor values are increasingly too large and should be used cautiously or avoided. We believe that SAGE III meets its preflight goal of 15% accuracy and 10% precision between 15 and 45 km. We do not currently recommend limiting the SAGE III water vapor data utility in the stratosphere by aerosol loading.
2002–2003 Arctic ozone loss deduced from POAM III satellite observations and the SLIMCAT chemical transport model  [PDF]
C. S. Singleton,C. E. Randall,M. P. Chipperfield,S. Davies
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2004,
Abstract: The SLIMCAT three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) is used to infer chemical ozone loss from Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III observations of stratospheric ozone during the Arctic winter of 2002–2003. Inferring chemical ozone loss from satellite data requires quantifying ozone variations due to dynamical processes. To accomplish this, the SLIMCAT model was run in a "passive" mode from early December until the middle of March. In these runs, ozone is treated as an inert, dynamical tracer. Chemical ozone loss is inferred by subtracting the model passive ozone, evaluated at the time and location of the POAM observations, from the POAM measurements themselves. This "CTM Passive Subtraction" technique relies on accurate initialization of the CTM and a realistic description of vertical/horizontal transport, both of which are explored in this work. The analysis suggests that chemical ozone loss during the 2002–2003 winter began in late December. This loss followed a prolonged period in which many polar stratospheric clouds were detected, and during which vortex air had been transported to sunlit latitudes. A series of stratospheric warming events starting in January hindered chemical ozone loss later in the winter of 2003. Nevertheless, by 15 March, the final date of the analysis, ozone loss maximized at 425 K at a value of about 1.2 ppmv, a moderate amount of loss compared to loss during the unusually cold winters in the late-1990s. SLIMCAT was also run with a detailed stratospheric chemistry scheme to obtain the model-predicted loss. The SLIMCAT model simulation also shows a maximum ozone loss of 1.2 ppmv at 425 K, and the morphology of the loss calculated by SLIMCAT was similar to that inferred from the POAM data. These results from the recently updated version of SLIMCAT therefore give a much better quantitative description of polar chemical ozone loss than older versions of the same model. Both the inferred and modeled loss calculations show the early destruction in late December and the region of maximum loss descending in altitude through the remainder of the winter and early spring.
2002-2003 Arctic ozone loss deduced from POAM III satellite observations and the SLIMCAT chemical transport model
C. S. Singleton, C. E. Randall, M. P. Chipperfield, S. Davies, W. Feng, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, M. D. Fromm, G. L. Manney,V. L. Harvey
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2005,
Abstract: The SLIMCAT three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) is used to infer chemical ozone loss from Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III observations of stratospheric ozone during the Arctic winter of 2002-2003. Inferring chemical ozone loss from satellite data requires quantifying ozone variations due to dynamical processes. To accomplish this, the SLIMCAT model was run in a "passive" mode from early December until the middle of March. In these runs, ozone is treated as an inert, dynamical tracer. Chemical ozone loss is inferred by subtracting the model passive ozone, evaluated at the time and location of the POAM observations, from the POAM measurements themselves. This "CTM Passive Subtraction" technique relies on accurate initialization of the CTM and a realistic description of vertical/horizontal transport, both of which are explored in this work. The analysis suggests that chemical ozone loss during the 2002-2003 winter began in late December. This loss followed a prolonged period in which many polar stratospheric clouds were detected, and during which vortex air had been transported to sunlit latitudes. A series of stratospheric warming events starting in January hindered chemical ozone loss later in the winter of 2003. Nevertheless, by 15 March, the final date of the analysis, ozone loss maximized at 425K at a value of about 1.2ppmv, a moderate amount of loss compared to loss during the unusually cold winters in the late-1990s. SLIMCAT was also run with a detailed stratospheric chemistry scheme to obtain the model-predicted loss. The SLIMCAT model simulation also shows a maximum ozone loss of 1.2ppmv at 425K, and the morphology of the loss calculated by SLIMCAT was similar to that inferred from the POAM data. These results from the recently updated version of SLIMCAT therefore give a much better quantitative description of polar chemical ozone loss than older versions of the same model. Both the inferred and modeled loss calculations show the early destruction in late December and the region of maximum loss descending in altitude through the remainder of the winter and early spring.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.