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Relationships between Structure, Composition, and Dynamics of the Pristine Northern Boreal Forest and Air Temperature, Precipitation, and Soil Texture in Quebec (Canada)  [PDF]
Louis Duchesne,Rock Ouimet
International Journal of Forestry Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/398389
Abstract: This study reports on the contemporary structure, composition, and dynamics of the pristine northern boreal forest in Quebec, Canada, associated with air temperature, precipitation, and soil texture, using 147 permanent sample plots located at the limit of continuous forest in Quebec. The results show that tree species composition of stands is associated with stand age, soil texture, air temperature, and precipitation regime. After establishment of the pioneer cohort, the postsuccessional stand dynamics differed among temperature and precipitation regimes, probably because of their influence on tree growth. Our results support the hypothesis that shifts in forest composition related to stand dynamics and the subsequent senescing phase associated with the old growth stage generally occur sooner and proceed faster on more fertile sites due to quicker growth and the subsequent earlier mortality of pioneer species. This study suggests that climate warming should accelerate the successional dynamics of these ecosystems through its positive influence on tree growth.
The distribution of diatom flora in ice caves of the northern Yukon Territory, Canada: relationship to air circulation and freezing  [PDF]
Lauriol Bernard,Prévost Clément,Lacelle Denis
International Journal of Speleology , 2006,
Abstract: In the late 1980’s and early 1990’s, various media in karst environments in the Northern Yukon Territory were examined for their diatom content. Cryogenic cave calcite powders, grus and various ice formations (ice plugs, ice stalagmites and floor ice) were collected from three freezing caves and one slope cave to make an inventory of the diatom content, and to explain the spatial distribution of the diatoms within the caves. The results show that approximately 20% of diatoms in the caves originate from external biotopes and habitats (e.g., river, lake, stream), with the remaining 80% of local origin (i.e., from subaerial habitats near cave entrances). The results also indicate that the greater abundance of diatoms is found in the larger caves. This is explained by the fact that the air circulation dynamics are much more important in caves that have a larger entrance. Also grus, ice plugs and ice stalagmites have the lowest diatom diversity, but greater relative abundance, indicative of growth in specific habitats or under specific conditions. Overall, these results are a contribution to the study of particles transport in ice caves.
Impact of Future Climate on Radial Growth of Four Major Boreal Tree Species in the Eastern Canadian Boreal Forest  [PDF]
Jian-Guo Huang, Yves Bergeron, Frank Berninger, Lihong Zhai, Jacques C. Tardif, Bernhard Denneler
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056758
Abstract: Immediate phenotypic variation and the lagged effect of evolutionary adaptation to climate change appear to be two key processes in tree responses to climate warming. This study examines these components in two types of growth models for predicting the 2010–2099 diameter growth change of four major boreal species Betula papyrifera, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, and Populus tremuloides along a broad latitudinal gradient in eastern Canada under future climate projections. Climate-growth response models for 34 stands over nine latitudes were calibrated and cross-validated. An adaptive response model (A-model), in which the climate-growth relationship varies over time, and a fixed response model (F-model), in which the relationship is constant over time, were constructed to predict future growth. For the former, we examined how future growth of stands in northern latitudes could be forecasted using growth-climate equations derived from stands currently growing in southern latitudes assuming that current climate in southern locations provide an analogue for future conditions in the north. For the latter, we tested if future growth of stands would be maximally predicted using the growth-climate equation obtained from the given local stand assuming a lagged response to climate due to genetic constraints. Both models predicted a large growth increase in northern stands due to more benign temperatures, whereas there was a minimal growth change in southern stands due to potentially warm-temperature induced drought-stress. The A-model demonstrates a changing environment whereas the F-model highlights a constant growth response to future warming. As time elapses we can predict a gradual transition between a response to climate associated with the current conditions (F-model) to a more adapted response to future climate (A-model). Our modeling approach provides a template to predict tree growth response to climate warming at mid-high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.
Outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma among children and adults: A case-crossover study in northern Alberta, Canada
Paul J Villeneuve, Li Chen, Brian H Rowe, Frances Coates
Environmental Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-6-40
Abstract: A time stratified case-crossover design was used to examine 57,912 ED asthma visits among individuals two years of age and older in the census metropolitan area of Edmonton, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2002. Daily air pollution levels for the entire region were estimated from three fixed-site monitoring stations. Similarly, daily levels of aeroallergens were estimated using rotational impaction sampling methods for the period between 1996 and 2002. Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for temperature, relative humidity and seasonal epidemics of viral related respiratory disease.Positive associations for asthma visits with outdoor air pollution levels were observed between April and September, but were absent during the remainder of the year. Effects were strongest among young children. Namely, an increase in the interquartile range of the 5-day average for NO2 and CO levels between April and September was associated with a 50% and 48% increase, respectively, in the number of ED visits among children 2 – 4 years of age (p < 0.05). Strong associations were also observed with these pollutants among those 75 years of age and older. Ozone and particulate matter were also associated with asthma visits. Air pollution risk estimates were largely unchanged after adjustment for aeroallergen levels.Our findings, taken together, suggest that exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of ED visits for asthma, particularly among young children and the elderly.Asthma is a common, heterogeneous chronic lung disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental influences. It is well recognized that exposure to outdoor air pollution adversely affects respiratory health, even in non-asthmatics [1]. Numerous epidemiologic studies have documented that outdoor air pollution is associated with decreased lung function [2,3], and an increased numbe
Atmospheric Chemistry in Existing Air Atmospheric Dispersion Models and Their Applications: Trends, Advances and Future in Urban Areas in Ontario, Canada and in Other Areas of the World  [PDF]
Barbara Laskarzewska,Mehrab Mehrvar
International Journal of Engineering , 2009,
Abstract: Air quality is a major concern for the public. Therefore, the reliability in modeling and predicting the air quality accurately is of a major interest. This study reviews existing atmospheric dispersion models, specifically, the Gaussian Plume models and their capabilities to handle the atmospheric chemistry of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxides (SO2). It also includes a review of wet deposition in the form of in-cloud, below cloud, and snow scavenging. Existing dispersion models are investigated to assess their capability of handling atmospheric chemistry, specifically in the context of NOx and SO2 substances and their applications to urban areas. A number of previous studies have been conducted where Gaussian dispersion model was applied to major cities around the world such as London, Helsinki, Kanto, and Prague, to predict ground level concentrations of NOx and SO2. These studies demonstrated a good agreement between the modeled and observed ground level concentrations of NOx and SO2. Toronto, Ontario, Canada is also a heavily populated urban area where a dispersion model could be applied to evaluate ground level concentrations of various contaminants to better understand the air quality. This paper also includes a preliminary study of road emissions for a segment of the city of Toronto and its busy streets during morning and afternoon rush hours. The results of the modeling are compared to the observed data. The small scale test of dispersion of NO2 in the city of Toronto was utilized for the local hourly meteorological data and traffic emissions. The predicted ground level concentrations were compared to Air Quality Index (AQI) data and showed a good agreement. Another improvement addressed here is a discussion on various wet deposition such as in cloud, below cloud, and snow.
Spatial-temporal variations in surface ozone in Northern China as observed during 2009–2010 and possible implications for future air quality control strategies
G. Tang, Y. Wang, X. Li, D. Ji, S. Hsu,X. Gao
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: The Project of Atmospheric Combined Pollution Monitoring over Beijing and its Surrounding Areas, was an intensive field campaign conducted over Northern China between June 2009 and August 2011 to provide a comprehensive record of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and contribute to an in-depth understanding of air pollution in Northern China and its driving forces. In this campaign, 25 stations in an air-quality monitoring network provided regional-scale spatial coverage. In this study, we analyzed the data on O3 and NOx levels obtained at 22 sites (out of 25 sites due to data availability) over Northern China between 1 September 2009 and 31 August 2010. Our goal was to investigate the O3 spatial-temporal variations and control strategy in this area. Significant diurnal and seasonal variations were noted, with the highest concentrations typically found at around 03:00 p.m. (local time) and in June. The lowest concentrations were generally found during early morning hours (around 06:00 a.m.) and in December. Compared with July and August, June has increased photochemical production due to decreased cloud cover coupled with reduced O3 loss due to less dry deposition, inducing an O3 peak appearing in June. The averaged O3 concentrations were lower in the plains area compared with the mountainous area due to the titration effects of high NOx emissions in urban areas. When the characteristics of O3 pollution in different regions were distinguished by factor analysis, we found high levels of O3 that exceeded China's National Standard throughout the plains, especially over Beijing and the surrounding areas. An integrated analysis with emissions data, meteorological data, and topography over Northern China found that the meteorological conditions were the main factors that dominated the spatial variations of O3, with the presence of abundant emissions of precursors in this area. The smog production algorithm and space-based HCHO/NO2 column ratio were used to show the O3-NOx-VOCs sensitivity and examine the control strategy of O3 over Northern China. The results show that summer O3 production in the plains and northern mountainous areas was sensitive to VOCs and NOx, respectively. The presented results are intended to provide guidance for redefining government strategies to control the photochemical formation of air pollutants over Northern China and are relevant for developing urban agglomerations worldwide.
Spatial-temporal variations in surface ozone in Northern China as observed during 2009–2010 and possible implications for future air quality control strategies  [PDF]
G. Tang,Y. Wang,X. Li,D. Ji
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/acp-12-2757-2012
Abstract: The Project of Atmospheric Combined Pollution Monitoring over Beijing and its Surrounding Areas, was an intensive field campaign conducted over Northern China between June 2009 and August 2011 to provide a comprehensive record of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and contribute to an in-depth understanding of air pollution in Northern China and its driving forces. In this campaign, 25 stations in an air-quality monitoring network provided regional-scale spatial coverage. In this study, we analyzed the data on O3 and NOx levels obtained at 22 sites (out of 25 sites due to data availability) over Northern China between 1 September 2009 and 31 August 2010. Our goal was to investigate the O3 spatial-temporal variations and control strategy in this area. Significant diurnal and seasonal variations were noted, with the highest concentrations typically found at around 03:00 p.m. (local time) and in June. The lowest concentrations were generally found during early morning hours (around 06:00 a.m.) and in December. Compared with July and August, June has increased photochemical production due to decreased cloud cover coupled with reduced O3 loss due to less dry deposition, inducing an O3 peak appearing in June. The averaged O3 concentrations were lower in the plains area compared with the mountainous area due to the titration effects of high NOx emissions in urban areas. When the characteristics of O3 pollution in different regions were distinguished by factor analysis, we found high levels of O3 that exceeded China's National Standard throughout the plains, especially over Beijing and the surrounding areas. An integrated analysis with emissions data, meteorological data, and topography over Northern China found that the meteorological conditions were the main factors that dominated the spatial variations of O3, with the presence of abundant emissions of precursors in this area. The smog production algorithm and space-based HCHO/NO2 column ratio were used to show the O3-NOx-VOCs sensitivity and examine the control strategy of O3 over Northern China. The results show that summer O3 production in the plains and northern mountainous areas was sensitive to VOCs and NOx, respectively. The presented results are intended to provide guidance for redefining government strategies to control the photochemical formation of air pollutants over Northern China and are relevant for developing urban agglomerations worldwide.
Possible impacts of climate change on freezing rain in south-central Canada using downscaled future climate scenarios  [PDF]
C. S. Cheng,H. Auld,G. Li,J. Klaassen
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2007,
Abstract: Freezing rain is a major atmospheric hazard in mid-latitude nations of the globe. Among all Canadian hydrometeorological hazards, freezing rain is associated with the highest damage costs per event. Using synoptic weather typing to identify the occurrence of freezing rain events, this study estimates changes in future freezing rain events under future climate scenarios for south-central Canada. Synoptic weather typing consists of principal components analysis, an average linkage clustering procedure (i.e., a hierarchical agglomerative cluster method), and discriminant function analysis (a nonhierarchical method). Meteorological data used in the analysis included hourly surface observations from 15 selected weather stations and six atmospheric levels of six-hourly National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) upper-air reanalysis weather variables for the winter months (November–April) of 1958/59–2000/01. A statistical downscaling method was used to downscale four general circulation model (GCM) scenarios to the selected weather stations. Using downscaled scenarios, discriminant function analysis was used to project the occurrence of future weather types. The within-type frequency of future freezing rain events is assumed to be directly proportional to the change in frequency of future freezing rain-related weather types The results showed that with warming temperatures in a future climate, percentage increases in the occurrence of freezing rain events in the north of the study area are likely to be greater than those in the south. By the 2050s, freezing rain events for the three colder months (December–February) could increase by about 85% (95% confidence interval – CI: ±13%), 60% (95% CI: ±9%), and 40% (95% CI: ±6%) in northern Ontario, eastern Ontario (including Montreal, Quebec), and southern Ontario, respectively. The increase by the 2080s could be even greater: about 135% (95% CI: ±20%), 95% (95% CI: ±13%), and 45% (95% CI: ±9%). For the three warmer months (November, March, April), the percentage increases in future freezing rain events are projected to be much smaller with some areas showing either a decrease or little change in frequency of freezing rain. On average, northern Ontario could experience about 10% (95% CI: ±2%) and 20% (95% CI: ±4%) more freezing rain events by the 2050s and 2080s, respectively. However, future freezing rain events in southern Ontario could decrease about 10% (95% CI: ±3%) and 15% (95% CI: ±5%) by the 2050s and 2080s, respectively. In eastern Ontario (including Montreal, Quebec), the frequency of future
Holocene Climate and Climate Variability of the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Adjacent Northern Gulf Coast: A Review
Richard Z. Poore
The Open Paleontology Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874425700801010007]
Abstract: Marine records from the northern Gulf of Mexico indicate that significant multidecadal- and century-scale variability was common during the Holocene. Mean annual sea-surface temperature (SST) during the last 1,400 years may have varied by 3oC, and excursions to cold SST coincide with reductions in solar output. Broad trends in Holocene terrestrial climate and environmental change along the eastern portion of the northern Gulf Coast are evident from existing pollen records, but the high-frequency details of climate variability are not well known. Continuous and well-dated records of climate change and climate variability in the western portion of the northern Gulf Coast are essentially lacking. Information on Holocene floods, droughts, and storm frequency along the northern Gulf Coast is limited. Records of floods may be preserved in continental shelf sediments, but establishing continuity and chronologies for sedimentary sequences on the shelf presents challenges due to sediment remobilization and redeposition during storms. Studies of past storm deposits in coastal lakes and marshes show promise for constructing records of past storm frequency. A recent summary of sea-level history of the northern Gulf Coast indicates sea level was higher than modern sea level several times during the last few thousand years.
New Migration Stream between Mexico and Canada
Massey, Douglas S.;Brown, Amelia E.;
Migraciones internacionales , 2011,
Abstract: data from the mexican migration project is used to contrast processes of mexican migration to canada and the united states. all migrants to canada entered through the seasonal agricultural worker program and migration there is strongly predicted by marital status and number of dependents. conversely, most migrants to the united states are undocumented and thus self-selected without regard to marital status or parenthood. migrants to canada enjoy superior labor market outcomes with higher wages and more compact work schedules that yield higher earnings and shorter periods away from families. labor migration to canada also tends to operate as a circular flow with considerable repeat migration whereas undocumented migrants to the united states tend to stay longer, since crossing the mexico-u.s. border has become increasingly difficult.
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