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Evaluation of the sectional aerosol microphysics module SALSA implementation in ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model
T. Bergman, V.-M. Kerminen, H. Korhonen, K. J. Lehtinen, R. Makkonen, A. Arola, T. Mielonen, S. Romakkaniemi, M. Kulmala,H. Kokkola
Geoscientific Model Development (GMD) & Discussions (GMDD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/gmd-5-845-2012
Abstract: We present the implementation and evaluation of a sectional aerosol microphysics module SALSA within the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. This aerosol microphysics module has been designed to be flexible and computationally efficient so that it can be implemented in regional or global scale models. The computational efficiency has been achieved by minimising the number of variables needed to describe the size and composition distribution. The aerosol size distribution is described using 10 size classes with parallel sections which can have different chemical compositions. Thus in total, the module tracks 20 size sections which cover diameters ranging from 3 nm to 10 μm and are divided into three subranges, each with an optimised selection of processes and compounds. The implementation of SALSA into ECHAM5-HAM includes the main aerosol processes in the atmosphere: emissions, removal, radiative effects, liquid and gas phase sulphate chemistry, and the aerosol microphysics. The aerosol compounds treated in the module are sulphate, organic carbon, sea salt, black carbon, and mineral dust. In its default configuration, ECHAM5-HAM treats aerosol size distribution using the modal method. In this implementation, the aerosol processes were converted to be used in a sectional model framework. The ability of the module to describe the global aerosol properties was evaluated by comparing against (1) measured continental and marine size distributions, (2) observed variability of continental number concentrations, (3) measured sulphate, organic carbon, black carbon and sea-salt mass concentrations, (4) observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and other aerosol optical properties from satellites and AERONET network, (5) global aerosol budgets and concentrations from previous model studies, and (6) model results using M7, which is the default aerosol microphysics module in ECHAM5-HAM. The evaluation shows that the global aerosol properties can be reproduced reasonably well using a coarse resolution of 10 sections in size space. The simulated global aerosol budgets are within the range of previous studies. Surface concentrations of sulphate and carbonaceous species have an annual mean within a factor of two of the observations. The simulated sea-salt concentrations reproduce the observations within a factor of two, apart from the Southern Ocean over which the concentrations are within a factor of five. Regionally, AOD is in a relatively good agreement with the observations (within a factor of two). At mid-latitudes the observed AOD is captured well, while at high-latitudes as well as in some polluted and dust regions the modelled AOD is significantly lower than observed. Regarding most of the investigated aerosol properties, the SALSA and the modal aerosol module M7 perform comparably well against observations. However, SALSA reproduces the observed number concentrations and the size distribution of CCN sized particles much more accurately than M7, and is the
Evaluation of the sectional aerosol microphysics module SALSA implementation in ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model
T. Bergman,V.-M. Kerminen,H. Korhonen,K. J. Lehtinen
Geoscientific Model Development Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/gmdd-4-3623-2011
Abstract: We present the implementation and evaluation of a sectional aerosol microphysics model SALSA within the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. This aerosol microphysics module has been designed to be flexible and computationally efficient so that it can be implemented in regional or global scale models. The computational efficiency has been achieved by keeping the number of variables needed to describe the size and composition distribution to the minimum. The aerosol size distribution is described using 20 size sections with 10 size sections in size space which cover diameters ranging from 3 nm to 10 μm divided to three subranges each having distinct optimised process and compound selection. The ability of the module to describe the global aerosol properties was evaluated by comparison against (1) measured continental and marine size distributions, (2) observed variability of continental modal number concentrations, (3) measured sulphate, organic carbon, black carbon and sea salt mass concentrations, (4) observations of AOD and other aerosol optical properties from satellites and AERONET network, (5) global aerosol budgets and concentrations from previous model studies, and (6) model results using M7 which is the default aerosol microphysics module in ECHAM5-HAM. The evaluation shows that the global aerosol properties can be reproduced reasonably well using the coarse resolution of 10 size sections in size space. The simulated global aerosol budgets are within the range of previous studies. Surface concentrations of sea salt, sulphate and carbonaceous species have an annual mean within a factor of five of the observations, while the simulated sea salt concentrations reproduce the observations less accurately and show high variability. Regionally, AOD is in relatively good agreement with the observations (within a factor of two). At mid-latitudes the observed AOD is captured well, while at high-latitudes as well as in some polluted and dust regions the modeled AOD is significantly lower than the observed. Regarding the most investigated aerosol properties, the performances of SALSA and the modal aerosol module M7 against observations are comparable. However, SALSA reproduces the observed number concentrations and the size distributions of CCN sized particles much more accurately than M7, and is therefore a good choice for aerosol-cloud interaction studies in global models. Our study also shows that when including activation type nucleation process in the boundary layer, the modeled concentrations of particles under 50 nm in diameter are reproduced much better
Global anthropogenic aerosol effects on convective clouds in ECHAM5-HAM  [PDF]
U. Lohmann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei and may have an influence on the hydrological cycle. Here we investigate aerosol effects on convective clouds by extending the double-moment cloud microphysics scheme developed for stratiform clouds, which is coupled to the HAM double-moment aerosol scheme, to convective clouds in the ECHAM5 general circulation model. This enables us to investigate whether more, and smaller cloud droplets suppress the warm rain formation in the lower parts of convective clouds and thus release more latent heat upon freezing, which would then result in more vigorous convection and more precipitation. In ECHAM5, including aerosol effects in large-scale and convective clouds (simulation ECHAM5-conv) reduces the sensitivity of the liquid water path increase with increasing aerosol optical depth in better agreement with observations and large-eddy simulation studies. In simulation ECHAM5-conv with increases in greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions since pre-industrial times, the geographical distribution of the changes in precipitation better matches the observed increase in precipitation than neglecting microphysics in convective clouds. In this simulation the convective precipitation increases the most suggesting that the convection has indeed become more vigorous.
Estimating the direct and indirect effects of secondary organic aerosols using ECHAM5-HAM  [PDF]
D. O'Donnell,K. Tsigaridis,J. Feichter
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-8635-2011
Abstract: Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) has been introduced into the global climate-aerosol model ECHAM5/HAM. The SOA module handles aerosols originating from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The model simulates the emission of precursor gases, their chemical conversion into condensable gases, the partitioning of semi-volatile condenable species into the gas and aerosol phases. As ECHAM5/HAM is a size-resolved model, a new method that permits the calculation of partitioning of semi-volatile species between different size classes is introduced. We compare results of modelled organic aerosol concentrations against measurements from extensive measurement networks in Europe and the United States, running the model with and without SOA. We also compare modelled aerosol optical depth against measurements from the AERONET network of grond stations. We find that SOA improves agreement between model and measurements in both organic aerosol mass and aerosol optical depth, but does not fully correct the low bias that is present in the model for both of these quantities. Although many models now include SOA, any overall estimate of the direct and indirect effects of these aerosols is still lacking. This paper makes a first step in that direction. The model is applied to estimate the direct and indirect effects of SOA under simulated year 2000 conditions. The modelled SOA spatial distribution indicates that SOA is likely to be an important source of free and upper tropospheric aerosol. We find a negative shortwave (SW) forcing from the direct effect, amounting to 0.31 Wm 2 on the global annual mean. In contrast, the model indicates a positive indirect effect of SOA of +0.23 Wm 2, arising from the enlargement of particles due to condensation of SOA, together with an enhanced coagulation sink of small particles. In the longwave, model results are a direct effect of +0.02 Wm 2 and an indirect effect of 0.03 Wm 2.
The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM
P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin,A. Petzold
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2005,
Abstract: The aerosol-climate modelling system ECHAM5-HAM is introduced. It is based on a flexible microphysical approach and, as the number of externally imposed parameters is minimised, allows the application in a wide range of climate regimes. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the evolution of an ensemble of microphysically interacting internally- and externally-mixed aerosol populations as well as their size-distribution and composition. The size-distribution is represented by a superposition of log-normal modes. In the current setup, the major global aerosol compounds sulfate (SU), black carbon (BC), particulate organic matter (POM), sea salt (SS), and mineral dust (DU) are included. The simulated global annual mean aerosol burdens (lifetimes) for the year 2000 are for SU: 0.80 Tg(S) (3.9 days), for BC: 0.11 Tg (5.4 days), for POM: 0.99 Tg (5.4 days), for SS: 10.5 Tg (0.8 days), and for DU: 8.28 Tg (4.6 days). An extensive evaluation with in-situ and remote sensing measurements underscores that the model results are generally in good agreement with observations of the global aerosol system. The simulated global annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is with 0.14 in excellent agreement with an estimate derived from AERONET measurements (0.14) and a composite derived from MODIS-MISR satellite retrievals (0.16). Regionally, the deviations are not negligible. However, the main patterns of AOD attributable to anthropogenic activity are reproduced.
The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM  [PDF]
P. Stier,J. Feichter,S. Kinne,S. Kloster
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2004,
Abstract: The aerosol-climate modelling system ECHAM5-HAM is introduced. It is based on a flexible microphysical approach and, as the number of externally imposed parameters is minimised, allows the application in a wide range of climate regimes. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the evolution of an ensemble of microphysically interacting internally- and externally-mixed aerosol populations as well as their size-distribution and composition. The size-distribution is represented by a superposition of log-normal modes. In the current setup, the major global aerosol compounds sulfate (SU), black carbon (BC), particulate organic matter (POM), sea salt (SS), and mineral dust (DU) are included. The simulated global annual mean aerosol burdens (lifetimes) for the year 2000 are for SO4: 0.80 Tg(S) (3.9 days), for BC: 0.11 Tg (5.4 days), for POM: 0.99 Tg (5.4 days), for SS: 10.5 Tg (0.8 days), and for DU: 8.28 Tg (4.6 days). An extensive evaluation with in-situ and remote sensing measurements underscores that the model results are generally in good agreement with observations of the global aerosol system. The simulated global annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is with 0.14 in excellent agreement with an estimate derived from AERONET measurements (0.14) and a composite derived from MODIS-MISR satellite retrievals (0.16). Regionally, the deviations are not negligible. However, the main patterns of AOD attributable to anthropogenic activity are reproduced.
The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM  [PDF]
P. Stier,J. Feichter,S. Kinne,S. Kloster
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2005,
Abstract: The aerosol-climate modelling system ECHAM5-HAM is introduced. It is based on a flexible microphysical approach and, as the number of externally imposed parameters is minimised, allows the application in a wide range of climate regimes. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the evolution of an ensemble of microphysically interacting internally- and externally-mixed aerosol populations as well as their size-distribution and composition. The size-distribution is represented by a superposition of log-normal modes. In the current setup, the major global aerosol compounds sulfate (SU), black carbon (BC), particulate organic matter (POM), sea salt (SS), and mineral dust (DU) are included. The simulated global annual mean aerosol burdens (lifetimes) for the year 2000 are for SU: 0.80 Tg(S) (3.9 days), for BC: 0.11 Tg (5.4 days), for POM: 0.99 Tg (5.4 days), for SS: 10.5 Tg (0.8 days), and for DU: 8.28 Tg (4.6 days). An extensive evaluation with in-situ and remote sensing measurements underscores that the model results are generally in good agreement with observations of the global aerosol system. The simulated global annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is with 0.14 in excellent agreement with an estimate derived from AERONET measurements (0.14) and a composite derived from MODIS-MISR satellite retrievals (0.16). Regionally, the deviations are not negligible. However, the main patterns of AOD attributable to anthropogenic activity are reproduced.
Aerosol microphysics modules in the framework of the ECHAM5 climate model – intercomparison under stratospheric conditions
H. Kokkola, R. Hommel, J. Kazil, U. Niemeier, A.-I. Partanen, J. Feichter,C. Timmreck
Geoscientific Model Development (GMD) & Discussions (GMDD) , 2009, DOI: 10.5194/gmd-2-97-2009
Abstract: In this manuscript, we present an intercomparison of three different aerosol microphysics modules that are implemented in the climate model ECHAM5. The comparison was done between the modal aerosol microphysics module M7, which is currently the default aerosol microphysical core in ECHAM5, and two sectional aerosol microphysics modules SALSA, and SAM2. The detailed aerosol microphysical model MAIA was used as a reference to evaluate the results of the aerosol microphysics modules with respect to sulphate aerosol. The ability of the modules to describe the development of the aerosol size distribution was tested in a zero dimensional framework. We evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches under different types of stratospheric conditions. Also, we present an improved method for the time integration in M7 and study how the setup of the modal aerosol modules affects the evolution of the aerosol size distribution. Intercomparison simulations were carried out with varying SO2 concentrations from background conditions to extreme values arising from stratospheric injections by large volcanic eruptions. Under background conditions, all microphysics modules were in good agreement describing the shape of the aerosol size distribution, but the scatter between the model results increased with increasing SO2 concentrations. In particular in the volcanic case the setups of the aerosol modules have to be adapted in order to dependably capture the evolution of the aerosol size distribution, and to perform in global model simulations. In summary, this intercomparison serves as a review of the different aerosol microphysics modules which are currently available for the climate model ECHAM5.
Aerosol microphysics modules in the framework of the ECHAM5 climate model – intercomparison under stratospheric conditions  [PDF]
H. Kokkola,R. Hommel,J. Kazil,U. Niemeier
Geoscientific Model Development Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: In this manuscript, we present an intercomparison of three different aerosol microphysics modules that are implemented in the climate model ECHAM5. The comparison was done between the modal aerosol microphysics module M7, which is currently the default aerosol microphysical core in ECHAM5, and two sectional aerosol microphysics modules SALSA, and SAM2. A detailed aerosol microphycical model MAIA was used as a reference model to evaluate the results of the aerosol microphysics modules with respect to sulphate aerosol. The ability of the modules to describe the development of the aerosol size distribution was tested in a zero dimensional framework. We evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches under different types of stratospheric conditions. Also, we present an improved method for the time integration in M7 and study how the setup of the modal approach affects the evolution of the aerosol size distribution. Intercomparison simulations were carried out with varying SO2 concentrations from background conditions to extreme values arising from stratospheric injections of large volcanic eruptions. Under background conditions, all microphysics modules were in good agreement describing the shape of the size distribution but the scatter between the model results increased with increasing SO2 concentrations. In particular for the volcanic case the module setups have to be redefined to be applied in global model simulations capturing respective sulphate particle formation events. Summarized, this intercomparison serves as a review on the different aerosol microphysics modules which are currently available for the climate model ECHAM5.
BVOC-aerosol-climate interactions in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5.5-HAM2
R. Makkonen, A. Asmi, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Boy, A. Arneth, A. Guenther,M. Kulmala
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: The biosphere emits volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) which, after oxidation in the atmosphere, can partition on the existing aerosol population or even form new particles. The large quantities emitted provide means for a large potential impact on both aerosol direct and indirect effects. Biogenic responses to atmospheric temperature change can establish feedbacks even in rather short timescales. However, due to the complexity of organic aerosol partitioning, even the sign of these feedbacks is of large uncertainty. We use the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5.5-HAM2 to explore the effect of BVOC emissions on new particle formation, clouds and climate. Two BVOC emission models, MEGAN2 and LPJ-GUESS, are used. MEGAN2 shows a 25% increase while LPJ-GUESS shows a slight decrease in global BVOC emission between years 2000 and 2100. The change of shortwave cloud forcing from year 1750 to 2000 ranges from 1.4 to 1.8 W m 2 with 5 different nucleation mechanisms. We show that the change in shortwave cloud forcing from the year 2000 to 2100 ranges from 1.0 to 1.5 W m 2. Although increasing future BVOC emissions provide 3–5% additional CCN, the effect on the cloud albedo change is modest. Due to simulated decreases in future cloud cover, the increased CCN concentrations from BVOCs can not provide significant additional cooling in the future.
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