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Twenty Years of High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Imagery around Australia: Inter-Annual and Annual Variability  [PDF]
Scott D. Foster, David A. Griffin, Piers K. Dunstan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100762
Abstract: The physical climate defines a significant portion of the habitats in which biological communities and species reside. It is important to quantify these environmental conditions, and how they have changed, as this will inform future efforts to study many natural systems. In this article, we present the results of a statistical summary of the variability in sea surface temperature (SST) time-series data for the waters surrounding Australia, from 1993 to 2013. We partition variation in the SST series into annual trends, inter-annual trends, and a number of components of random variation. We utilise satellite data and validate the statistical summary from these data to summaries of data from long-term monitoring stations and from the global drifter program. The spatially dense results, available as maps from the Australian Oceanographic Data Network's data portal (http://www.cmar.csiro.au/geonetwork/srv/?en/metadata.show?id=51805), show clear trends that associate with oceanographic features. Noteworthy oceanographic features include: average warming was greatest off southern West Australia and off eastern Tasmania, where the warming was around 0.6°C per decade for a twenty year study period, and insubstantial warming in areas dominated by the East Australian Current, but this area did exhibit high levels of inter-annual variability (long-term trend increases and decreases but does not increase on average). The results of the analyses can be directly incorporated into (biogeographic) models that explain variation in biological data where both biological and environmental data are on a fine scale.
Twenty-first Colin Clark Lecture: November 2011/Competition Regulation in Australia: A Report Card
Stephen P. King
Economic Analysis and Policy , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper I present a ’report card’ on the current state of Australia’s competition laws, focusing on antitrust laws. I consider the three core antitrust provisions in the Australian Competition and Consumer Act (2010) – the laws against cartels, abuse of market power and anticompetitive mergers. In each of these areas, particularly cartels, I find that Australia’s laws could be significantly improved. I also consider more innovative reforms to Australia’s competition regulations, to improve the transparency of pricing and to reduce customer switching costs. I note that these reforms have been broadly successful.
The Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Victoria, Australia (2002–2007) and Their Relationship with Rainfall  [PDF]
Leesa D. Bruggink,John A. Marshall
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7072822
Abstract: The relationship between the incidence of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks (NAGOs) in Victoria, Australia for the period 2002–2007 and rainfall was examined. Statistical analysis involving the correlation between time series indicated that there was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlation between monthly NAGO incidence and average monthly rainfall. There was a lag of an average of about three months between peak average rainfall and a NAGO epidemic. The findings thus indicate rainfall can influence NAGO incidence. In an era where there is concern about the potential effects of global warming on weather patterns, it should be borne in mind that future changes in NAGO incidence may reflect altered world weather patterns.
Comparison of hyaluronic acid-containing topical eye drops with carbomer-based topical ocular gel as a tear replacement in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca: A prospective study in twenty five dogs
David Williams,Sheldon Middleton,Hamidreza Fattahian,Roozbeh Moridpour
Veterinary Research Forum , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hyaluronic acid containing eye drop in ameliorating ocular surface pathology and discomfort in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Twenty five dogs with KCS treated with a topical carbomer (CA)-based tear replacement gel were moved to treatment with a hyaluronic acid (HA)-containing tear replacement eye drop. Dogs were subject to a full ophthalmic examination at the beginning of the study and after two and four weeks of treatment, Schirmer tear tests (STTs) were performed at each examination. Conjunctival hyperemia, ocular discharge and ocular irritation were evaluated and scored on a 0-3 semi-quantitative scale. Values were compared before and after 4 weeks of treatment using a paired t-test. Evaluation scores were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The transfer from CA-based to HA-containing tear replacement significantly decreased the conjunctival hyperemia score from 2.12 ± 0.73 to 1.26 ± 0.59 and ocular discomfort was lowered from 2.11 ± 0.97 to 0.93 ± 0.75. Ocular discharge was reduced from a score of 1.04 ± 0.82 to 0.70 ± 0.53, however, the decrease did not reach statistical significance. Schirmer tear test was increased with statistical significance (p < 0.001) but given that the increase was only from 5.42 ± 3.50 to 6.19 ± 3.86 mm min-1; this was not considered clinically significant. This study demonstrated that HA-containing eye drops used twice daily in dogs with KCS had greater ameliorative effects on ocular surface health and discomfort than did CA-based topical gels used as or more frequently.
Beyond Rock. Social commitment and political conscience through Popular Music in Australia 1976 - 2002. The case of Midnight Oil  [PDF]
Roger Bonastre
Coolabah , 2011,
Abstract: The work and career of Midnight Oil illustrate a case of interaction betweenculture and politics in Australia. Furthermore they represent an example of socialcommitment from the sphere of urban popular culture. For a quarter of a centuryMidnight Oil offered a critical and ideological interpretation of the Australian social andpolitical evolution. Aware of and sensitive to changes and events happening aroundthem, five Sydneysiders thought about Australian identity in terms of what theyconsidered to be their national challenges from a universal perspective. Hence, theyapproached issues like pacifism, Indigenous rights and environmentalism and developeda social and political discourse based on the defence of human rights and acondemnation of capitalist excesses. Through more than a hundred songs and almosttwo thousand gigs the band urged politicians to reassess the institutions. At the sametime they criticized people’s apathy asking them for a deeper engagement with thedevelopment of the country’s welfare. Finally, in December 2002, Peter Garrett quit hissinger-activist journey to launch a political career by joining the Australian Labor Party,for which he is the current Minister for School Education, Early Childhood and Youthin the Julia Gillard Government. It is thus that now we can make sense of the extent towhich the political and social message of a rock band can actually generate enoughcredibility to allow for the lead singer′s transition from the stage to parliament.
Estimación de la prevalencia de equinococosis canina en la XII Región, Chile, 2002 ESTIMATION OF THE CANINE ECHINOCOCCOSIS PREVALENCE IN THE XII REGION, CHILE, 2002
FRANCISCO ALVAREZ,RAFAEL TAMAYO,SANTIAGO ERNST
Parasitología latinoamericana , 2005,
Abstract: El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la prevalencia de equinococosis canina en la XII Región para el a o 2001.Se dise ó un muestreo aleatorio el que incluyó 228 perros distribuidos en las tres Provincias en donde se desarrolla el Proyecto de Control de la Hidatidosis. A nivel de terreno se efectuó la prueba de arecolina y paralelamente se aplicó un cuestionario a los propietarios de perros. Se encontraron sólo cuatro perros positivos (1,8%); tres en la Provincia de última Esperanza y uno en Tierra del Fuego. Como conclusión se destaca que la prevalencia de equinococosis canina en la XII Región se mantiene en niveles bajos desde el a o 1982, por lo que se debieran incrementar los esfuerzos para el control y / o adoptar nuevas estrategias que permitan disminuir de manera eficaz la prevalencia de la enfermedad The objetive of this study was to estimate the echinococcosis prevalence in dogs in the XII Region. In the three Provinces in which the Hydatidosis Control Proyect is developed a random sample of 228 dogs was taken. In the field the arecoline test was used and, addicionally, a questionary was applied to the dog owners. The results of the arecoline test showed four positive dogs (1,8%), three in the Ultima. Esperanza Province and one in Tierra del Fuego. It can be concluded that the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in the XII Region remained at a low level since 1982. It is important to increase the efforts and adopt new strategies in order to erradicate the disease from the Region
Use of a geographic information system to track smelter-related lead exposures in children: North Lake Macquarie, Australia, 1991–2002
Alan Willmore, Tim Sladden, Lucy Bates, Craig B Dalton
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-5-30
Abstract: An analysis of serial blood lead levels (BLL) of children less than 13 years of age in North Lake Macquarie participating in voluntary blood lead screening. Distance to the smelter and soil lead concentration of the child's place of residence was calculated. Categorical analysis of BLL by residential distance from smelter, residential soil lead concentration, age and year of sample was calculated. Linear regression models were fit for blood lead levels against residential distance from smelter, the log of residential soil lead concentration, age and year of BLL sample.Geometric mean BLLs were statistically significantly higher for distances less than 1.5 kilometres from the smelter and for residential soil lead concentrations greater than 300 ppm. Yearly BLLs since 1995 were statistically significantly lower than for preceding years, with an average decrease of 0.575 μg/dL per year since 1991. BLLs are statistically significantly higher for children whose age is 1 to 3 years old. Linear regression modelling of BLL predicted a statistically significant decrease in BLL of 3.0831 μg/dL per kilometre from the smelter and a statistically significant increase in BLL of 0.25 μg/dL per log of lead in residential soil. The model explained 28.2% of the variation in BLL.Residential distance to the smelter, log of residential soil lead concentration, child's age and year of BLL sample are statistically significant factors for predicting elevated BLLs in children living near a North Lake Macquarie lead smelter.Newcastle is a city on the Australian eastern seaboard with a history of heavy industry including coal mining; metal smelting, production and fabrication; and mineral export via a deep water port facility. Over time, heavy industry in the area has been scaled back, including the recent closure of the Cockle Creek lead-zinc smelter in September 2003. The smelter is situated approximately 20 kilometres southwest of Newcastle city on Cockle Creek, which drains into the northe
Clinical manifestations of canine distemper in Nigerian dogs infected with local isolate of canine distemper virus
M. C. O Ezeibe
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Twenty dogs of local breeds found in Nigeria, experimentally infected with local isolate of canine distemper virus, manifested fever, conjunctivitis, photophobia salivation, anorexia, dermatitis, and diarrhoea. Apart from these clinical signs already described for the disease in other breeds of dogs,45% of the dogs showed enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes ( especially the prescapular lymph node). Significance of this new clinical sign of canine distemper in the clinical diagnosis of the disease has been discussed. Key Words: Clinical signs, canine distemper (Nigerian Veterinary Journal: 2003 24(1): 44-47)
The Changing Epidemiology of Kunjin Virus in Australia  [PDF]
Natalie A. Prow
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10126255
Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans and horses, with particularly virulent strains causing recent outbreaks of disease in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and North America. A strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNV KUN), is endemic in northern Australia and infection with this virus is generally asymptomatic. However in early 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis in horses occurred in south-eastern Australia, resulting in mortality in approximately 10%–15% of infected horses. A WNV-like virus (WNV NSW2011) was isolated and found to be most closely related to the indigenous WNV KUN, rather than other exotic WNV strains. Furthermore, at least two amino acid changes associated with increased virulence of the North American New York 99 strain (WNV NY99) compared to the prototype WNV KUN were present in the WNV NSW2011 sequence. This review summarizes our current understanding of WNV KUN and how the epidemiology and ecology of this virus has changed. Analysis of virulence determinants of contemporary WNV KUN isolates will provide clues on where virulent strains have emerged in Australia. A better understanding of the changing ecology and epidemiology associated with the emergence of virulent strains is essential to prepare for future outbreaks of WNV disease in Australia.
A new species of Stenobiella Tillyard (Neuroptera, Berothidae) from Australia  [cached]
Shaun Winterton
ZooKeys , 2010, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.64.403
Abstract: Stenobiella variola sp. n., a new species of beaded lacewing (Neuroptera: Berothidae), is described and figured from south-eastern Australia. A preliminary key to Stenobiella species is presented.
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