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Effects of an Urban Park and Residential Area on the Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Flux in Seoul, Korea

Moon-Soo PARK,Seung Jin JOO,Chang Seok LEE,

大气科学进展 , 2013,
Abstract: The CO2 concentrations and fluxes over an urban forest site (Namsan) and an urban residential region (Boramae) in Seoul, Korea, during the non-growing season (2–4 March 2011), the growing season (10–12 June 2011), and the late-growing season (22–24 September 2011) were analyzed. The CO2 concentrations of two sites showed nearly the same diurnal variation, with a maximum value occurring during the night and a minimum value occurring during daytime, as well as the same seasonal variation, with a maximum value during the non-growing season (early spring) and a minimum value during the growing season (summer). The CO2 flux over the urban forest did not show any typical diurnal variation during the non-growing season, but did show diurnal variation with a small positive value during the night and a large negative value during daytime in the growing and late-growing seasons due to photosynthesis in the urban forest. The CO2 flux over the urban residential region showed a positive daily mean value for all periods, with large values during the non-growing season and small values during the growing season, and it also showed diurnal variation with two maxima at 0600–1000 LST and 1800–2400 LST, and two minima at 0300-0600 LST and 1100-1500 LST, and was strongly correlated with the use of liquefied natural gas for cooking and heating by surrounding houses.
Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity
J. Y. Lee,Y. P. Kim
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul is a megacity in Northeast Asia and its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region and is also affected by the regional emissions. To understand the degree of this relationship, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea were identified and quantified based on the measurement data between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, coal residential, coke oven, coal power plant, biomass burning, natural gas (NG) combustion. The major source of particulate PAHs at Seoul on the whole measurement period was gasoline and diesel vehicles, accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven) were shown in fall and winter accounted for 63% and 82% of the total PAHs concentration, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, these might be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. It implies that the air quality in the large urban city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.
Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity
J. Y. Lee ,Y. P. Kim
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul, Korea, is a megacity in Northeast Asia. Its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region, and in turn it is also affected by regional emissions. To understand the extent of these influences, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs in Seoul were identified and quantified based on measurements made between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG) combustion. The major sources of particulate PAHs in Seoul during the whole measurement period were gasoline and diesel vehicles, together accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven) were observed in fall and winter, accounting for 63% and 82% of the total concentration of PAHs, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, they are likely to be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. This implies that the air quality in a mega-city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.
Statistical Interpretation of Climate Change in Seoul, Korea, over the Last 98 Years  [cached]
Eun-Shik Kim
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology , 2010,
Abstract: I conducted extensive analyses of daily weather data of precipitation and temperature monitored from theSurface Synoptic Meteorological Station in Seoul from 1 October 1907 to 31 December 2009 to understand how theclimate is changing and the ecological implications for Seoul, Korea. Statistical analyses of the data, including the lengthsof seasons and growing degree-days (GDD), showed a clear warming trend in the Seoul area over the study period. Themean daily temperature in Seoul increased by 2.40°C over the period of one hundred years, which was about three timesfaster than the global trend and it was striking to notice that mean daily temperature in Seoul in recent 30 years wasincreasing with the rate of 5.50°C per hundred years, which is an extremely fast rate of increase in temperature. In the last100 years, an increase in the number of summer days was apparent, coupled with a reduction in the average number ofwinter days for about 27 to 28 days based on the analysis of mean daily temperature. Although the lengths of spring andautumn have not changed significantly over the century, early initiations of spring and late onsets of autumn were quiteapparent. Total annual precipitation significantly increased at the rate of 2.67 mm/year over the last 100 years, a trendnot apparent if the analysis is confined to periods of 30 to 40 years. The information has the potential to be used not onlyfor better understanding of ecological processes and hydrology in the area, but also for the sustainable management ofecosystems and environment in the region.
Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea
J.-B. Heo, P. K. Hopke,S.-M. Yi
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Seoul, Korea, every third day from March 2003 to December 2006 and analyzed for their chemical constituents. Sources were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF). A total of 393 samples were obtained during the sampling period, and 20 chemical species were measured. Nine PM2.5 source categories were identified providing physically realistic profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major contributors of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate (20.9%), secondary sulfate (20.5%), gasoline-fueled vehicles (17.2%), and biomass burning (12.1%), with lesser contributions from diesel emissions (8.1%), soil (7.4%), industry (6.7%), road salt and two-stroke vehicles (5.1%), and aged sea salt (2.2%). PM2.5 levels in Seoul were influenced by both local urban activities and regional-scale transport. Conditional probability function (CPF) results identified possible source directions of local sources such as motor vehicles (gasoline and diesel), industry, and road salt. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) results showed that possible source areas contributing to the elevated secondary particle concentrations (sulfate and nitrate) in Seoul to be the major industrial areas in China.
Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea
J.-B. Heo,P. K. Hopke,S.-M. Yi
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Seoul, Korea, every third day from March 2003 to December 2006 and analyzed for their chemical constituents. Sources were identified using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). A total of 393 samples were obtained during the sampling period, and 20 chemical species were measured. Nine PM2.5 sources were identified providing physically realistic profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major sources of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate (20%), secondary sulfate (20%), gasoline-fueled vehicles (17%), and biomass burning (12%), with lesser contributions from diesel emissions (8%), soil (7%), industry (6%), road salt and two-stroke engine (5%), and aged sea salt (2%). PM2.5 levels in Seoul were influenced by both local urban activities and regional-scale transport. Conditional Probability Function (CPF) results identified possible source directions of local sources such as motor vehicles (gasoline and diesel), industry, and road salt. Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) results showed that possible source areas contributing to the elevated secondary particle concentrations (sulfate and nitrate) in Seoul to be the major industrial areas in China.
‘Seoul Searching’: The History, Politics and Prejudice behind the Re-naming of Korea’s Capital in Chinese
Hyun Jin KIM,Peter Mauch,Niv Horesh
Provincial China , 2012,
Abstract: On 19 January 2005, Seoul Mayor at the time and South Korea’s president at present, Lee Myung Bak, announced his desire to see the Chinese name for Seoul changed from the traditional rendition of Hancheng (漢城), to Shouer (首爾). Lee made clear that he was motivated by a simple desire to remove a potential cause for Sino-Korean “confusion.” He further suggested that the principal beneficiary of the name change would be those Chinese in some way connected to Seoul. If Mayor Lee had hoped for an uncontroversial re-naming, he was proven right for the most part. Not only did the Chinese government grant Mayor Lee’s wish quickly and quietly, but regional media outlets also remained notably low-key on the naming issue. This article argues, nonetheless, that there is good reason to believe that Lee’s move was driven by overarching concerns about China’s growing regional clout, and that the significance of Seoul’s name change in Chinese extends well beyond semantics; it can in a sense be seen as a test-case for the PRC’s ability to leverage soft power in the region, and allay the concerns of its neighbours about the implications of its geo-strategic rise.
Spatial Analysis of Location-Based Social Networks in Seoul, Korea  [PDF]
Ilyoung Hong
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2015.73020
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial patterns of location-based social network (LBSN) data in Seoul using the spatial analysis techniques of geographic information system (GIS). The study explores the applications of LBSN data by analyzing the association between Seoul’s Foursquare venues data created based on user participation and the city’s characteristics. The data regarding Foursquare venues were compiled with a program we created based on Foursquare’s Python API. The compiled information was converted into GIS data, which in turn was depicted as a heat map. Cluster analysis was then performed based on hotspots and the correlation with census variables was analyzed for each administrative unit using geographically weighted regression (GWR). Based on analytical results, we were able to identify venue clusters around city centers, as well as differences in hotspots for various venue categories and correlations with census variables.
Epiphytic macrolichens in Seoul: 35 years after the first lichen study in Korea  [cached]
Chorong Ahn,Eunmi Chang,Hyesoon Kang*
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology , 2011,
Abstract: Many lichens have been used as bioindicators for air pollutants such as SO2. The first ecological study on lichens in Koreawas conducted in 1975 by Kim and Lee, disclosing that areas adjacent to the center of Seoul were lichen deserts. Air qualityin Seoul has improved significantly since the 1980s. However, the distribution of lichen species has not been reevaluatedsince then. We examined the spatial and temporal pattern of lichen distribution by selecting six (inner city green[ICG] and four (outer city green [OCG]) sites, based on the distance from the city center of Seoul and the land use pattern.The change in lichen distribution was related to yearly mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 for the years 1980-2009.Four and 13 lichen species were found in ICGs and OCGs, respectively. Although mean sample numbers per specieswere much higher in the former, species richness tended to increase with distance from the city center. Since 1980, SO2has declined drastically to < 0.01 ppm in both ICGs and OCGs, indicating that SO2 is no longer a limiting factor for lichenestablishment and growth. In contrast, NO2 has increased steadily for 20 years (1989-2009) and a considerable proportionof lichen species in both ICGs and OCGs are known as nitrophilic or pollution-tolerant species. Appearance of nitrophilesin both ICGs and OCGs and the dominance of a few lichen species in ICGs may reflect the effects of the increase in NO2.In contrast to SO2 and NO2, O3 was higher in OCGs, but it was difficult to identify a causal relationship between O3 andlichen distribution.
New Forms of Place-Making and Public Space in Contemporary Urban Development in Seoul, South Korea  [PDF]
Hee Sun (Sunny) Choi
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2017.53018
Abstract: Place-making and its evolving role in urban design has become a major issue in setting the 21st century urban development agenda. A key aspect of this within South East and East Asia in particular is an apparent tension between global aspirations and local tradition in emerging states such as China, South Korea and Malaysia. The intention of this paper is to provide a better understanding of how new place making can be incorporated in contemporary urban development, particularly within this South East/East Asian context, so that the needs of local cultures can be sustained and developed, whilst acknowledging the desire of emerging states to gain international respect and recognition. The focus of this research is on exploring how these two views of design—the globally aspirational, and the locally situated and informed— might be reconciled, using the particular context of South Korea and the city of Seoul as a case study.
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