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Aerosol indirect effect on warm clouds over South-East Atlantic, from co-located MODIS and CALIPSO observations
L. Costantino ,F.-M. Bréon
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2013,
Abstract: In this study, we provide a comprehensive analysis of aerosol interaction with warm boundary layer clouds over the South-East Atlantic. We use aerosol and cloud parameters derived from MODIS observations, together with co-located CALIPSO estimates of the layer altitudes, to derive statistical relationships between aerosol concentration and cloud properties. The CALIPSO products are used to differentiate between cases of mixed cloud-aerosol layers from cases where the aerosol is located well-above the cloud top. This technique allows us to obtain more reliable estimates of the aerosol indirect effect than from simple relationships based on vertically integrated measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. Indeed, it permits us to somewhat distinguish the effects of aerosol and meteorology on the clouds, although it is not possible to fully ascertain the relative contribution of each on the derived statistics. Consistently with the results from previous studies, our statistics clearly show that aerosol affects cloud microphysics, decreasing the Cloud Droplet Radius (CDR). The same data indicate a concomitant strong decrease in cloud Liquid Water Path (LWP), which is inconsistent with the hypothesis of aerosol inhibition of precipitation (Albrecht, 1989). We hypothesise that the observed reduction in LWP is the consequence of dry air entrainment at cloud top. The combined effect of CDR decrease and LWP decrease leads to rather small sensitivity of the Cloud Optical Thickness (COT) to an increase in aerosol concentration. The analysis of MODIS-CALIPSO coincidences also evidences an aerosol enhancement of low cloud cover. Surprisingly, the Cloud Fraction (CLF) response to aerosol invigoration is much stronger when (absorbing) particles are located above cloud top than in cases of physical interaction. This result suggests a relevant aerosol radiative effect on low cloud occurrence: absorbing particles above the cloud top may heat the corresponding atmosphere layer, decrease the vertical temperature gradient, increase the low tropospheric stability and provide favourable conditions for low cloud formation. We also analyse the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on precipitation, through the statistical analysis of CDR-COT co-variations. A COT value of 10 is found to be the threshold beyond which precipitation is mostly formed, in both clean and polluted environments. For larger COT, polluted clouds show evidence of precipitation suppression. Results suggest the presence of two competing mechanisms governing LWP response to aerosol invigoration: a drying effect due to aerosol enhanced entrainment of dry air at cloud top (predominant for optically thin clouds) and a moistening effect due to aerosol inhibition of precipitation (predominant for optically thick clouds).
Intercomparison of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in stratiform orographic mixed-phase clouds  [PDF]
A. Muhlbauer,T. Hashino,L. Xue,A. Teller
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-10-10487-2010
Abstract: Anthropogenic aerosols serve as a source of both cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) and affect microphysical properties of clouds. Increasing aerosol number concentrations is hypothesized to retard the cloud droplet collision/coalescence and the riming in mixed-phase clouds, thereby decreasing orographic precipitation. This study presents results from a model intercomparison of 2-D simulations of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in stratiform orographic mixed-phase clouds. The sensitivity of orographic precipitation to changes in the aerosol number concentrations is analyzed and compared for various dynamical and thermodynamical situations. Furthermore, the sensitivities of microphysical processes such as collision/coalescence, aggregation and riming to changes in the aerosol number concentrations are evaluated and compared. The participating models are the Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling's (COSMO) model with bulk-microphysics, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with bin-microphysics and the University of Wisconsin modeling system (UWNMS) with a spectral ice-habit prediction microphysics scheme. All models are operated on a cloud-resolving scale with 2 km horizontal grid spacing. The results of the model intercomparison suggest that the sensitivity of orographic precipitation to aerosol modifications varies greatly from case to case and from model to model. Neither a precipitation decrease nor a precipitation increase is found robustly in all simulations. Qualitative robust results can only be found for a subset of the simulations but even then quantitative agreement is scarce. Estimates of the second indirect aerosol effect on orographic precipitation are found to range from –19% to 0% depending on the simulated case and the model. Similarly, riming is shown to decrease in some cases and models whereas it increases in others which implies that a decrease in riming with increasing aerosol load is not a robust result. Furthermore, it is found that neither a decrease in cloud droplet coalescence nor a decrease in riming necessarily implies a decrease in precipitation due to compensation effects by other microphysical pathways. The simulations suggest that mixed-phase conditions play an important role in reducing the overall susceptibility of clouds and precipitation with respect to changes in the aerosols number concentrations. As a consequence the indirect aerosol effect on precipitation is suggested to be less pronounced or even inverted in regions with high terrain (e.g., the Alps or Rocky Mountains) or in reg
A numerical study of aerosol influence on mixed-phase stratiform clouds through modulation of the liquid phase
G. de Boer, T. Hashino, G. J. Tripoli,E. W. Eloranta
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2013,
Abstract: Numerical simulations were carried out in a high-resolution two-dimensional framework to increase our understanding of aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase stratiform clouds. Aerosol characteristics explored include insoluble particle type, soluble mass fraction, influence of aerosol-induced freezing point depression and influence of aerosol number concentration. Simulations were analyzed with a focus on the processes related to liquid phase microphysics, and ice formation was limited to droplet freezing. Of the aerosol properties investigated, aerosol insoluble mass type and its associated freezing efficiency was found to be most relevant to cloud lifetime. Secondary effects from aerosol soluble mass fraction and number concentration also alter cloud characteristics and lifetime. These alterations occur via various mechanisms, including changes to the amount of nucleated ice, influence on liquid phase precipitation and ice riming rates, and changes to liquid droplet nucleation and growth rates. Alteration of the aerosol properties in simulations with identical initial and boundary conditions results in large variability in simulated cloud thickness and lifetime, ranging from rapid and complete glaciation of liquid to the production of long-lived, thick stratiform mixed-phase cloud.
Intercomparison of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in stratiform orographic mixed-phase clouds
A. Muhlbauer, T. Hashino, L. Xue, A. Teller, U. Lohmann, R. M. Rasmussen, I. Geresdi,Z. Pan
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: Anthropogenic aerosols serve as a source of both cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) and affect microphysical properties of clouds. Increasing aerosol number concentrations is hypothesized to retard the cloud droplet coalescence and the riming in mixed-phase clouds, thereby decreasing orographic precipitation. This study presents results from a model intercomparison of 2-D simulations of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in stratiform orographic mixed-phase clouds. The sensitivity of orographic precipitation to changes in the aerosol number concentrations is analysed and compared for various dynamical and thermodynamical situations. Furthermore, the sensitivities of microphysical processes such as coalescence, aggregation, riming and diffusional growth to changes in the aerosol number concentrations are evaluated and compared. The participating numerical models are the model from the Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling (COSMO) with bulk microphysics, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with bin microphysics and the University of Wisconsin modeling system (UWNMS) with a spectral ice habit prediction microphysics scheme. All models are operated on a cloud-resolving scale with 2 km horizontal grid spacing. The results of the model intercomparison suggest that the sensitivity of orographic precipitation to aerosol modifications varies greatly from case to case and from model to model. Neither a precipitation decrease nor a precipitation increase is found robustly in all simulations. Qualitative robust results can only be found for a subset of the simulations but even then quantitative agreement is scarce. Estimates of the aerosol effect on orographic precipitation are found to range from 19% to 0% depending on the simulated case and the model. Similarly, riming is shown to decrease in some cases and models whereas it increases in others, which implies that a decrease in riming with increasing aerosol load is not a robust result. Furthermore, it is found that neither a decrease in cloud droplet coalescence nor a decrease in riming necessarily implies a decrease in precipitation due to compensation effects by other microphysical pathways. The simulations suggest that mixed-phase conditions play an important role in buffering the effect of aerosol perturbations on cloud microphysics and reducing the overall susceptibility of clouds and precipitation to changes in the aerosol number concentrations. As a consequence the aerosol effect on precipitation is suggested to be less pronounced or even inverted in regions with high terrain (e.g., the Alps or Rocky Mountains) or in regions where mixed-phase microphysics is important for the climatology of orographic precipitation.
Aerosol effects on ice clouds: can the traditional concept of aerosol indirect effects be applied to aerosol-cloud interactions in cirrus clouds?  [PDF]
S. S. Lee,J. E. Penner
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-10-10429-2010
Abstract: Cirrus clouds cover approximately 20–25% of the globe and thus play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget. This indicates that aerosol effects on cirrus clouds can have a substantial impact on the variation of global radiative forcing if the ice-water path (IWP) changes. This study examines the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) through changes in the IWP for a cirrus cloud case. We use a cloud-system resolving model (CSRM) coupled with a double-moment representation of cloud microphysics. Intensified interactions among the cloud ice number concentration (CINC), deposition and dynamics play a critical role in the IWP increases due to aerosol increases. Increased aerosols lead to increased CINC, providing increased surface area for water vapor deposition. The increased deposition causes depositional heating which produces stronger updrafts, and leads to the increased IWP. The conversion of ice crystals to aggregates through autoconversion and accretion plays a negligible role in the IWP responses to aerosols, as the sedimentation of aggregates. The sedimentation of ice crystals plays a more important role in the IWP response to aerosol increases than the sedimentation of aggregates, but, not more important than the interactions among the CINC, deposition and dynamics.
Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms
I. Sednev, S. Menon,G. McFarquhar
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM) scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP) on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during 9–10 October, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-h simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors' concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity) against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process of ice phase initiation due to freezing of supercooled water in both saturated and subsaturated (w.r.t. water) environments is as important as primary ice crystal origination from water vapor. We also find that the BFP is a process mainly responsible for the rates of glaciation of simulated clouds. These glaciation rates cannot be adequately represented by a water-ice saturation adjustment scheme that only depends on temperature and liquid and solid hydrometeors' contents as is widely used in bulk microphysics schemes and are better represented by processes that also account for supersaturation changes as the hydrometeors grow.
Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms  [PDF]
I. Sednev,S. Menon,G. McFarquhar
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM) scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP) on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during 9th–10th October, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-h simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors' concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity) against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process of ice phase initiation due to freezing of supercooled water in both saturated and undersaturated (w.r.t. water) environments is as important as primary ice crystal origination from water vapor. We also find that the BFP is a process mainly responsible for the rates of glaciation of simulated clouds. These glaciation rates cannot be adequately represented by a water-ice saturation adjustment scheme that only depends on temperature and liquid and solid hydrometeors' contents as is widely used in bulk microphysics schemes and are better represented by processes that also account for supersaturation changes as the
Aerosol effects on ice clouds: can the traditional concept of aerosol indirect effects be applied to aerosol-cloud interactions in cirrus clouds?  [PDF]
S. S. Lee,J. E. Penner
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-10345-2010
Abstract: Cirrus clouds cover approximately 20–25% of the globe and thus play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget. Therefore the effect of aerosols on cirrus clouds can have a substantial impact on global radiative forcing if either the ice-water path (IWP) and/or the cloud ice number concentration (CINC) changes. This study examines the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) through changes in the CINC and IWP for a cirrus cloud case. We use a cloud-system resolving model (CSRM) coupled with a double-moment representation of cloud microphysics. Intensified interactions among CINC, deposition and dynamics play a critical role in increasing the IWP as aerosols increase. Increased IWP leads to a smaller change in the outgoing LW radiation relative to that for the SW radiation for increasing aerosols. Increased aerosols lead to increased CINC, providing increased surface area for water vapor deposition. The increased deposition causes depositional heating which produces stronger updrafts, and leads to the increased IWP. The conversion of ice crystals to aggregates through autoconversion and accretion plays a negligible role in the IWP response to aerosols, and the sedimentation of aggregates is negligible. The sedimentation of ice crystals plays a more important role in the IWP response to aerosol increases than the sedimentation of aggregates, but not more than the interactions among the CINC, deposition and dynamics.
Aerosol Indirect Effects on Warm Clouds in the Grid-Point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG (GAMIL)
SHI Xiang-Jun,WANG Bin,LIU Xiao-Hong,WANG Ming-Huai,LI Li-Juan,DONG Li,
SHI Xiang-Jun
,WANG Bin,LIU Xiao-Hong,WANG Ming-Huai,LI Li-Juan,DONG Li

大气和海洋科学快报 , 2010,
Abstract: Aerosol indirect effects on warm clouds are estimated in the Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG (GAMIL) with a new two-moment cloud microphysics scheme using two different physically-based aerosol activation parameterizations: Abdul-Razzak and Ghan, and Nenes and Seinfeld. The annual global mean changes in shortwave cloud forcing from preindustrial times to present day (a measure of the aerosol indirect effects) estimated from these two parameterizations are remarkably similar: 0.76 W m-2 with the Abdul-Razzak and Ghan parameterization, and 0.78 W m-2 with the Nenes and Seinfeld parameterization. Physically-based parameterizations can provide robust representations of aerosol effects on droplet nucleation, meaning that aerosol activation is no longer the most uncertain factor in modeling aerosol indirect effects.
Aerosol indirect effects from shipping emissions: sensitivity studies with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM
K. Peters, P. Stier, J. Quaas,H. Gra l
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: In this study, we employ the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM to globally assess aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) resulting from shipping emissions of aerosols and aerosol precursor gases. We implement shipping emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2), black carbon (BC) and particulate organic matter (POM) for the year 2000 into the model and quantify the model's sensitivity towards uncertainties associated with the emission parameterisation as well as with the shipping emissions themselves. Sensitivity experiments are designed to investigate (i) the uncertainty in the size distribution of emitted particles, (ii) the uncertainty associated with the total amount of emissions, and (iii) the impact of reducing carbonaceous emissions from ships. We use the results from one sensitivity experiment for a detailed discussion of shipping-induced changes in the global aerosol system as well as the resulting impact on cloud properties. From all sensitivity experiments, we find AIEs from shipping emissions to range from 0.32 ± 0.01 W m 2 to 0.07 ± 0.01 W m 2 (global mean value and inter-annual variability as a standard deviation). The magnitude of the AIEs depends much more on the assumed emission size distribution and subsequent aerosol microphysical interactions than on the magnitude of the emissions themselves. It is important to note that although the strongest estimate of AIEs from shipping emissions in this study is relatively large, still much larger estimates have been reported in the literature before on the basis of modelling studies. We find that omitting just carbonaceous particle emissions from ships favours new particle formation in the boundary layer. These newly formed particles contribute just about as much to the CCN budget as the carbonaceous particles would, leaving the globally averaged AIEs nearly unaltered compared to a simulation including carbonaceous particle emissions from ships.
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