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Validation of 525 nm and 1020 nm aerosol extinction profiles derived from ACE imager data: comparisons with GOMOS, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, and OSIRIS  [PDF]
F. Vanhellemont,C. Tetard,A. Bourassa,M. Fromm
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: The Canadian ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission is dedicated to the retrieval of a large number of atmospheric trace gas species using the solar occultation technique in the infrared and UV/visible spectral domain. However, two additional solar disk imagers (at 525 nm and 1020 nm) were added for a number of reasons, including the retrieval of aerosol and cloud products. In this paper, we present the first validation results for these imager aerosol/cloud optical extinction coefficient profiles, by intercomparison with profiles derived from measurements performed by 3 solar occultation instruments (SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III), one stellar occultation instrument (GOMOS) and one limb sounder (OSIRIS). The results indicate that the ACE imager profiles are of good quality in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, although the aerosol extinction for the visible channel at 525 nm contains a significant negative bias at higher altitudes, while the profiles are systematically too high at 1020 nm. Both problems are probably related to ACE imager instrumental issues.
SAGE III aerosol extinction validation in the Arctic winter: comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III
L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole,C. E. Randall
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use of potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased of the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10–20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020 nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of ~30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that SAGE II and POAM III data sets are not well correlated at and below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.
SAGE III aerosol extinction validation in the Arctic winter: comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III  [PDF]
L. W. Thomason,L. R. Poole,C. E. Randall
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10–20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020 nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of ~30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that the two data sets are not well correlated below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.
Aerosol optical depth measurements by airborne sun photometer in SOLVE II: Comparisons to SAGE III, POAM III and airborne spectrometer measurements
P. Russell, J. Livingston, B. Schmid, J. Eilers, R. Kolyer, J. Redemann, S. Ramirez, J.-H. Yee, W. Swartz, R. Shetter, C. Trepte, A. Risley Jr., B. Wenny, J. Zawodny, W. Chu, M. Pitts, J. Lumpe, M. Fromm, C. Randall, K. Hoppel,R. Bevilacqua
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2005,
Abstract: The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) measured solar- beam transmission on the NASA DC-8 during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II). This paper presents AATS-14 results for multiwavelength aerosol optical depth (AOD), including comparisons to results from two satellite sensors and another DC-8 instrument, namely the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III (POAM III) and the Direct-beam Irradiance Airborne Spectrometer (DIAS). AATS-14 provides aerosol results at 13 wavelengths λ spanning the range of SAGE III and POAM III aerosol wavelengths. Because most AATS measurements were made at solar zenith angles (SZA) near 90°, retrieved AODs are strongly affected by uncertainties in the relative optical airmass of the aerosols and other constituents along the line of sight (LOS) between instrument and sun. To reduce dependence of the AATS-satellite comparisons on airmass, we perform the comparisons in LOS transmission and LOS optical thickness (OT) as well as in vertical OT (i.e., optical depth, OD). We also use a new airmass algorithm that validates the algorithm we previously used to within 2% for SZA<90°, and in addition provides results for SZA≥90°. For 6 DC-8 flights, 19 January-2 February 2003, AATS and DIAS results for LOS aerosol OT at λ=400nm agree to ≤12% of the AATS value. Mean and root-mean-square (RMS) differences, (DIAS-AATS)/AATS, are -2.3% and 7.7%, respectively. For DC-8 altitudes, AATS-satellite comparisons are possible only for λ>440nm, because of signal depletion for shorter λ on the satellite full-limb LOS. For the 4 AATS-SAGE and 4 AATS-POAM near-coincidences conducted 19-31 January 2003, AATS-satellite AOD differences were ≤0.0041 for all λ>440nm. RMS differences were ≤0.0022 for SAGE-AATS and ≤0.0026 for POAM-AATS. RMS relative differences in AOD ([SAGE-AATS]/AATS) were ≤33% for λ<~755nm, but grew to 59% for 1020nm and 66% at 1545nm. For λ>~755nm, AATS-POAM differences were less than AATS-SAGE differences, and RMS relative differences in AOD ([AATS-POAM]/AATS) were ≤31% for all λ between 440 and 1020nm. Unexplained differences that remain are associated with transmission differences, rather than differences in gas subtraction or conversion from LOS to vertical quantities. The very small stratospheric AOD values that occurred during SOLVE II added to the challenge of the comparisons, but do not explain all the differences. Final Revised Paper (PDF, 4498 KB) Discussion Paper (ACPD) Special Issue Citation: Russell, P., Livingston, J., Schmid, B., Eilers, J., Kolyer, R., Redemann, J., Ramirez, S., Yee, J.-H., Swartz, W., Shetter, R., Trepte, C., Risley Jr., A., Wenny, B., Zawodny, J., Chu, W., Pitts, M., Lumpe, J., Fromm, M., Randall, C., Hoppel, K., and Bevilacqua, R.: Aerosol optical depth measurements by airborne sun photometer in SOLVE II: Comparisons to SAGE III, POAM III and airborne spectrometer measur
Aerosol optical depth measurements by airborne sun photometer in SOLVE II: Comparisons to SAGE III, POAM III and airborne spectrometer measurements  [PDF]
P. Russell,J. Livingston,B. Schmid,J. Eilers
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2004,
Abstract: The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) measured solar-beam transmission on the NASA DC-8 during the Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II). This paper presents AATS-14 results for multiwavelength aerosol optical depth (AOD), including its spatial structure and comparisons to results from two satellite sensors and another DC-8 instrument. These are the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III (POAM III) and the Direct-beam Irradiance Airborne Spectrometer (DIAS). AATS-14 provides aerosol results at 13 wavelengths λ spanning the full range of SAGE III and POAM III aerosol wavelengths. Because most AATS measurements were made at solar zenith angles (SZA) near 90°, retrieved AODs are strongly affected by uncertainties in the relative optical airmass of the aerosols and other constituents along the refracted line of sight (LOS) between instrument and sun. To reduce dependence of the AATS-satellite comparisons on airmass, we perform the comparisons in line-of-sight (LOS) transmission and LOS optical thickness (OT) as well as in vertical OT (i.e., optical depth, OD). We also use a new airmass algorithm that validates the algorithm we previously used to within 2% for SZA<90°, and in addition provides results for SZA≥90°. For 6 DC-8 flights, 19 January–2 February 2003, AATS and DIAS results for LOS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at λ=400 nm agree to ≤12% of the AATS value. Mean and root-mean-square (RMS) differences, (DIAS-AATS)/AATS, are –2.3% and 7.7%, respectively. For DC-8 altitudes, AATS-satellite comparisons are possible only for λ>440 nm, because of signal depletion for shorter λ on the satellite full-limb LOS. For the 4 AATS-SAGE and 4 AATS-POAM near-coincidences conducted 19–31 January 2003, AATS-satellite AOD differences were ≤0.0041 for all λ>440 nm. RMS differences were ≤0.0022 for SAGE-AATS and ≤0.0026 for POAM-AATS. RMS percentage differences in AOD ([SAGE-AATS]/AATS) were ≤33% for λ<~755 nm, but grew to 59% for 1020 nm and 66% at 1545 nm. For λ>~755 nm, AATS-POAM differences were less than AATS-SAGE differences, and RMS percentage differences in AOD ([AATS-POAM]/AATS) were ≤31% for all λ between 440 and 1020 nm. Unexplained differences that remain are associated with transmission differences, rather than differences in gas subtraction or conversion from LOS to vertical quantities. The very small stratospheric AOD values that occurred during SOLVE II added to the challenge of the comparisons, but do not explain all the differences.
Optical extinction by upper tropospheric/stratospheric aerosols and clouds: GOMOS observations for the period 2002–2008  [PDF]
F. Vanhellemont,D. Fussen,N. Mateshvili,C. Tétard
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-7997-2010
Abstract: Although the retrieval of aerosol extinction coefficients from satellite remote measurements is notoriously difficult (in comparison with gaseous species) due to the lack of typical spectral signatures, important information can be obtained. In this paper we present an overview of the current operational nighttime UV/Vis aerosol extinction profile results for the GOMOS star occultation instrument, spanning the period from August 2002 to May 2008. Some problems still remain, such as the ones associated with incomplete scintillation correction and the aerosol spectral law implementation, but good quality extinction values are obtained at a wavelength of 500 nm. Typical phenomena associated with atmospheric particulate matter in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) are easily identified: Polar Stratospheric Clouds, tropical subvisual cirrus clouds, background stratospheric aerosols, and post-eruption volcanic aerosols (with their subsequent dispersion around the globe). For the first time, we show comparisons of GOMOS 500 nm particle extinction profiles with the ones of other satellite occultation instruments (SAGE II, SAGE III and POAM III), of which the good agreement lends credibility to the GOMOS data set. Yearly zonal statistics are presented for the entire period considered. Time series furthermore convincingly show an important new finding: the sensitivity of GOMOS to the sulfate input by moderate volcanic eruptions such as Manam (2005) and Soufrière Hills (2006). Finally, PSCs are well observed by GOMOS and a first qualitative analysis of the data agrees well with the theoretical PSC formation temperature. Therefore, the importance of the GOMOS aerosol/cloud extinction profile data set is clear: a long-term data record of PSCs, subvisual cirrus, and background and volcanic aerosols in the UTLS region, consisting of hundreds of thousands of altitude profiles with near-global coverage, with the potential to fill the aerosol/cloud extinction data gap left behind after the discontinuation of occultation instruments such as SAGE II, SAGE III and POAM III.
An evaluation of the SAGE III version 4 aerosol extinction coefficient and water vapor data products
L. W. Thomason, J. R. Moore, M. C. Pitts, J. M. Zawodny,E. W. Chiou
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: Herein, we provide an assessment of the data quality of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) Version 4 aerosol extinction coefficient and water vapor data products. The evaluation is based on comparisons with data from four instruments: SAGE II, the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III), the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Since only about half of the SAGE III channels have a direct comparison with measurements by other instruments, we have employed some empirical techniques to evaluate measurements at some wavelengths. We find that the aerosol extinction coefficient measurements at 449, 520, 755, 869, and 1021 nm are reliable with accuracies and precisions on the order of 10% in the mission's primary aerosol target range of 15 to 25 km. We also believe this to be true of the aerosol measurements at 1545 nm though we cannot exclude some positive bias below 15 km. We recommend use of the 385 nm measurements above 16 km where the accuracy is on par with other aerosol channels. The 601 nm measurement is much noisier (~20%) than other channels and we suggest caution in the use of these data. We believe that the 676 nm data are clearly defective particularly above 20 km (accuracy as poor as 50%) and the precision is also low (~30%). We suggest excluding this channel under most circumstances. The SAGE III Version 4 water vapor data product appears to be high quality and is recommended for science applications in the stratosphere below 45 km. In this altitude range, the mean differences with all four corroborative data sets are no bigger than 15% and often less than 10% with exceptional agreement with POAM III and MLS. Above 45 km, it seems likely that SAGE III water vapor values are increasingly too large and should be used cautiously or avoided. We believe that SAGE III meets its preflight goal of 15% accuracy and 10% precision between 15 and 45 km. SAGE III water vapor data does not appear to be affected by aerosol loading in the stratosphere.
An evaluation of the SAGE III Version 4 aerosol extinction coefficient and water vapor data products  [PDF]
L. W. Thomason,J. R. Moore,M. C. Pitts,J. M. Zawodny
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Herein, we provide an assessment of the data quality of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) Version 4 aerosol extinction coefficient and water vapor data products. The evaluation is based on comparisons with data from four instruments: SAGE II, the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III), the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Since only about half of the SAGE III channels have a direct comparison with measurements by other instruments, we have employed some empirical techniques to evaluate measurements at some wavelengths. We find that the aerosol extinction coefficient measurements at 449, 520, 755, 869, and 1021 nm are reliable with accuracies and precisions on the order of 10% in the primary aerosol range of 15 to 25 km. We also believe this to be true of the aerosol measurements at 1545 nm though we cannot exclude some positive bias below 15 km. We recommend use of the 385 nm measurements above 16 km where the accuracy is on par with other aerosol channels. The 601 nm measurement is much noisier (~20%) than other channels and we suggest caution in the use of these data. We believe that the 676 nm data are clearly defective particularly above 20 km (accuracy as poor as 50%) and the precision is also low (~30%). We suggest excluding this channel under most circumstances. The SAGE III Version 4 water vapor data product appears to be high quality and is recommended for science applications in the stratosphere below 45 km. In this altitude range, the mean differences with all four corroborative data sets are no bigger than 15% and often less than 10% with exceptional agreement with POAM III and MLS. Above 45 km, it seems likely that SAGE III water vapor values are increasingly too large and should be used cautiously or avoided. We believe that SAGE III meets its preflight goal of 15% accuracy and 10% precision between 15 and 45 km. We do not currently recommend limiting the SAGE III water vapor data utility in the stratosphere by aerosol loading.
Observations and analysis of polar stratospheric clouds detected by POAM III and SAGE III during the SOLVE II/VINTERSOL campaign in the 2002/2003 Northern Hemisphere winter
J. Alfred, M. Fromm, R. Bevilacqua, G. Nedoluha, A. Strawa, L. Poole,J. Wickert
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment instruments both observed high numbers of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in the polar region during the second SAGE Ozone Loss and Validation (SOLVE II) and Validation of INTERnational Satellites and Study of Ozone Loss (VINTERSOL) campaign, conducted during the 2002/2003 Northern Hemisphere winter. Between 15 November 2002 (14 November 2002) and 18 March 2003 (21 March 2003) SAGE (POAM) observed 122 (151) aerosol extinction profiles containing PSCs. PSCs were observed on an almost daily basis, from early December through 15 January, in both instruments. No PSCs were observed from either instrument from 15 January until 4 February, and from then only sparingly in three periods in mid- and late February and mid-March. In early December, PSCs were observed in the potential temperature range from roughly 375 K to 750 K. Throughout December the top of this range decreases to near 600 K. In February and March, PSC observations were primarily constrained to potential temperatures below 500 K. The PSC observation frequency as a function of ambient temperature relative to the nitric acid-trihydrate saturation point (using a nitric acid profile prior to denitrification) was used to infer irreversible denitrification. By late December 38% denitrification was inferred at both the 400–475 K and 475–550 K potential temperature ranges. By early January extensive levels of denitrification near 80% were inferred at both potential temperature ranges, and the air remained denitrified at least through early March.
Observations and analysis of polar stratospheric clouds detected by POAM III and SAGE III during the SOLVE II/VINTERSOL campaign in the 2002/2003 Northern Hemisphere winter  [PDF]
J. Alfred,M. Fromm,R. Bevilacqua,G. Nedoluha
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment instruments both observed high numbers of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in the polar region during the second SAGE Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II) and Validation of INTERnational Satellites and Study of Ozone Loss (VINTERSOL) campaign, conducted during the 2002/2003 Northern Hemisphere winter. Between 15 November 2002 (14 November 2002) and 18 March 2003 (21 March 2003) SAGE (POAM) observed 122 (151) aerosol extinction profiles containing PSCs. PSCs were observed on an almost daily basis, from early December through 15 January, in both instruments. No PSCs were observed from either instrument until 4 February, and sparingly in three periods in mid-and-late February and mid-March. In early December, PSCs were observed in the potential temperature range from roughly 375 K to 750 K. Throughout December the top of this range decreases to near 600 K. In February and March, PSC observations were primarily constrained to potential temperatures below 500 K. The PSC observation frequency as a function of ambient temperature relative to the NAT saturation point was used to infer irreversible denitrification. By late December 38% denitrification was inferred at both the 400–475 K and 475–550 K potential temperature ranges. By early January extensive levels of denitrification near 80% were inferred at both potential temperature ranges, and the air remained denitrified at least through early March.
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