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MILITARY COUPS AND MILITARY REGIMES IN AFRICA  [cached]
M. Japhet
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/8-4-756
Abstract: Growth of Military States As late as 1961 the African image had not been tarnished to any great extent by the incidence of military coups. Indeed, a field study tour conducted in 1960- 1 - the year of independence as it has been called - to investigate the place of the armed forces in societies in Africa did not provide the evidence on which to forecast the eventual spate of coups. Togo was the first country in West Africa to experience a military coup when on 13 January 1963 Togolese soldiers, recently demobilised from the French colonial armies and facing unemployment as a result of refusal of their applications to join 'the miniscule Togolese army, staged an armed coup that led to the assassination of President Sylvanus Olympio. At the time Africa's reaction to the coup in Zaire was one of severe disapproval, manifested by vociferous verbal attacks on the junta and international ostracism of the new government until it had legitimated itself through national elections. This can be seen to be largely motivated by the insecurity many civilian governments in Africa were experiencing and was to some considerable extent intended to be an object lesson to aspiring military commanders. At the same time the Organisation for African Unity discussed proposals covering measures to prevent the spread of coups or the legitimation of military regimes, however no common policy was produced.
MILITARY NURSING IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1914-1994  [cached]
Ian Van der Waag
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/25-2-258
Abstract: Military Nursing in South Africa is a pleasing paperback with a very modest yet striking cover. Its publication marks the 80th anniversary of military nursing in South Africa and is the product of the labours of two retired colonels who had seen years of service with the South African Medical Corps.
SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY ON THE MOVE  [cached]
J.P. McWilliams
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/18-1-415
Abstract: If one looks at the South African Defence Force (SADF), it becomes apparent that it is the strongest defence force in Africa based on trained manpower, organisation, weapons systems, mobilisation capacity and defence budget. The Republic of South Africa has the capability to procure and manufacture the overwhelming majority of its weapons and armaments through its existing parastatal, Armaments Corporation of South Africa Ltd. (Armcscor). According to The Military Balance, 1986-87, published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies, (IISS), South Africa has 250 Centurian/Olifant tanks, 1 600 Eland armoured cars, 1 500 Ratel Infantry combat vehicles, 372 combat aircraft, 16 armed helicopters and 144 other helicopters. The SADF can mobilize over 400 000 personnel. Defence expenditures for 1985/6 were 2,27 billion dollars. The defence budget for 1986/7 indicates allocations of 2,012 billion dollars.
The views of medical students on professionalism in South Africa
M Van Rooyen
South African Family Practice , 2004,
Abstract: An article on medical professionalism was published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in February 2002 outlining a charter, and the fifth-year medical students of the Medical School of the University of Pretoria were asked to comment on the charter. The question was asked whether the principles and responsibilities as set out in the charter could also be applied to the South African context. The responses of the students could be divided into three groups with overlapping themes: 15,64% of the students felt that the charter was not at all applicable to our country because of its diverse cultures and languages and the variety of social classes and religions; 24,02% of the students felt that the charter was a universally acceptable document; and 60,34% of the students felt that, to a great extent, the charter was the ideal and the goal to strive for, although they only accepted some of the principles and responsibilities while having serious doubts and criticism of others. In conclusion, the majority of the medical students felt that the charter was noteworthy and commendable in principle, but not totally applicable in our country with its unique problems and challenges. Our challenge is to take what resources we have and use it to the benefit of all.
A HISTORY OF MILITARY NOMENCLATURE IN SOUTH AFRICA  [cached]
No?lle Cowling
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/23-3-297
Abstract: Military nomenclature is an important dimension of military culture and receives a high profile in some armed forces, while in others it is a relatively low priority. In South Africa nomenclature played a very understated role for a long period but was accorded a higher degree of importance over the past fifty years. In order to understand the motivation and pattern of the trends in military nomenclature in South Africa, it is essential to acquaint oneself with the policy of the South African Defence Force which has regulated and determined the provision of names since 1912. Although the history of nomenclature in the Defence Force touches on politically sensitive issues, one should to bear in mind that, like most things, the provision of names and titles does not take place inside a vacuum. The nomenclature policy has therefore always been susceptible to the political climate, which has often determined the direction it has taken in South Africa over the past eighty years.
A SELECTION OF SOME SIGNIFICANT AND CONTEMPORARY PUBLICATIONS ON THE MILITARY HISTORY OF SOUTHERN AFRICA  [cached]
Thean Potgieter
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5787/33-2-13
Abstract: The military history of South Africa and the region receives scant attention. Yet, a fascinating and multifaceted military past exists, a military history full of drama, destruction, excitement and despair. This is also a military history that tells the story of many different peoples and the struggles they waged; a history of various different military traditions; of proud warriors fighting against the odds; of changes and developments in the military sphere and of a long struggle for freedom. It is from this military history that a few significant sources will be selected for discussion in this paper.
Post-cold war military intervention in Africa
MG Ramuhala
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies , 2011,
Abstract: Military intervention remains controversial both when it happens and when it fails to happen. Since the end of the Cold War, military intervention has attracted much scholarly interest, and it was demonstrated that several instances of the use of force or the threat to use force without Security Council endorsement were acceptable and necessary. Matters of national sovereignty remain the fundamental principle on which the international order was founded since the Treaty of Westphalia. Territorial integrity of states and non-interference in their domestic affair, continue to be the foundation of international law, codified by the United Nations Charter, and one of the international community s decisive factors in choosing between intervention and non-intervention. Nevertheless, since the end of the Cold War, matters of sovereignty and non-interference have been challenged by the emergent human rights discourse amidst genocide and war crimes. The aim of this article is to explain the extent to which military intervention in Africa has evolved since the end of the Cold War in terms of theory, practice and the way military intervention unfolded upon the African continent. This will be achieved by focusing on both successful and unsuccessful cases of military intervention in Africa. The unsuccessful cases include Somalia in 1992, Rwanda in 1994 and Darfur in 2003 on the one hand, and the successful cases being Sierra Leone in 2000 and the Comoros in 2008 on the other. While the unsuccessful cases attracted much scholarly attention and controversy, given their prolonged nature and difficulty in terms of conclusion, successful cases were short in terms of time and attracted little scholarly attention and controversy.
POST-COLD WAR MILITARY INTERVENTION IN AFRICA  [cached]
Mashudu Godfrey Ramuhala
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5787/39-1-101
Abstract: Military intervention remains controversial both when it happens and when it fails to happen. Since the end of the Cold War, military intervention has attracted much scholarly interest, and it was demonstrated that several instances of the use of force or the threat to use force without Security Council endorsement were acceptable and necessary. Matters of national sovereignty remain the fundamental principle on which the international order was founded since the Treaty of Westphalia. Territorial integrity of states and non-interference in their domestic affair, continue to be the foundation of international law, codified by the United Nations Charter, and one of the international community s decisive factors in choosing between intervention and non-intervention. Nevertheless, since the end of the Cold War, matters of sovereignty and non-interference have been challenged by the emergent human rights discourse amidst genocide and war crimes. The aim of this article is to explain the extent to which military intervention in Africa has evolved since the end of the Cold War in terms of theory, practice and the way military intervention unfolded upon the African continent. This will be achieved by focusing on both successful and unsuccessful cases of military intervention in Africa. The unsuccessful cases include Somalia in 1992, Rwanda in 1994 and Darfur in 2003 on the one hand, and the successful cases being Sierra Leone in 2000 and the Comoros in 2008 on the other. While the unsuccessful cases attracted much scholarly attention and controversy, given their prolonged nature and difficulty in terms of conclusion, successful cases were short in terms of time and attracted little scholarly attention and controversy.
The German Contribution to the Military History of South Africa and South-West Africa  [cached]
H.J. Botha,Jan Ploeger
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/2-4-963
Abstract: The Republic of South Africa is the spiritual. Cullural, econolll;c and military extension of the Occident on the Southern extremity of Africa. Situated where it is it does not only form an invaluable link between the East and the West, but at the same time it is one of the most important approaches to the Southern part of the African continent. The foundation of the white society at the Cape was laid by representatives from various Western European nations. In the course of time each one of them contributed towards the development of a young, vigorous nation in this vast land under the Southern Cross - a nation which since its birth, has always recognised the guidance of the Almighty God.
Survey and analysis of physics teachers' professionalism in the new curriculum reform  [cached]
Haibin SUN,Tingting LIU
Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching , 2007,
Abstract: Professionalism of physics teachers would play an important role in the reform of physics curriculum. Based on the questionnaire survey, we grasped the conditions of physics teachers' professionalism in ShanDong Province, and put forward the suggestion of fostering professionalism.
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