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New dimensions of the modern warfare
Revista Roman? de Sociologie , 2008,
Abstract: The huge scientific and technologic progress made by mankind during the last century has had an obvious impact on the military phenomenon. It is a common place to say that the present day wars do not look like the previous ones at all. The military are not the same as the one in former days either, whatever their national insignia on various uniforms. Hence, some questions require a clear and imperative answer. How has the contemporary war been changed? How has the 21 Century military prophile evolved? Which is the trigger of all these changes? What are the new concepts of the modern warfare? To all those questions we are trying to get an answer based on our personal experience gained during a couple of NATO missions and on the respective military doctrines and policies. Why both the military and the politicians are trying to avoid the term war" by placing instead the much more innofensive syntagm of military operations" and what are the main characteristics of the 3rd Millenium officer? These are some of the topics of this essay. Quite new military concepts experimented by the most powefull armed forces of the world, such as Effect Based Operations Approach, Network Based Warfare, Information Operations and Psychologiocal Operations will be also examined as pillars of the modern warfare.
C.J. Jacobs
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/25-2-255
Abstract: Christopher Bellamy is 'n senior navorser verbonde aan die Sentrum vir Verdedigingstudies, Universiteit van Edinburgh. Sy akademiese opleiding sluit 'n MA-graad in Oorlogstudies aan die King's College in Londen in. Afgesien hiervan was hy ook 'n beroepsoldaat wat sy militêre skoling in die Koninklike Militêre Akademie te Sandhurst deurloop het. Hy het ook in die Britse Artillerie gedien. Bellamy is die skrywer van Red God of War: Soviet Artillery and Rocket Forces en The Future of Land Warfare.
Child Soldiery as a Tool of Modern Warfare(?): the Role of Child Soldiers in “New Wars”  [cached]
Obrana a Strategie , 2010,
Abstract: The hardly-known but regrettably prevalent phenomenon of child soldiery, which can be considered as a new development of modern warfare, might affect approximately 250,000 – 300,000 children worldwide. According to the estimates, 40% of our planet’s armed forces or armed groups deploy “child combatants” for different tasks, while the international community is still struggling against this form of the abuse of children. The global nature of child soldiery raises many questions in many fields, because it has deep political, social, economic, military, environmental, ethnic and religious etc. roots and far reaching consequences in the so-called Third World. Moreover, if we focus on the African peacekeeping missions of the European Union, child soldiery might also have indirect impacts on the European community. The aim of this study is to offer a comprehensive approach in connection with child soldiery, and pointing out the links between the post-colonial conflicts and this form of human rights breaches.
A Comparison of the Hawk Image in The Hawk in the Rain and Hawk Roosting
Xiang-na LI
Canadian Social Science , 2007,
Abstract: The Hawk in the Rain is Ted Hughes’s first collection of poetry in which the title poem is included. Hawk Roosting appearing in the second book of Ted Hughes is his masterpiece among his animal poems. Both of the hawk image in the above two poems have long been the focus of the critics and poetry reviewers, and they are often discussed separately. However, there must be some differences besides the similarities between the two so that why the same image “hawk” is used twice in Ted’s two important poems can be illustrated. This thesis will focus on this point to discover the meaning of these differences out of their similarities. Key words: Image Creation, Hawk, Man, Similarities, Differences Résumé: The Hawk in the Rain publié en 1957 est le premier recueil de poèmes du poète lauréat britannique Ted Hughes, dans lequel se trouve un poème au même titre The Hawk in the Rain. En 1960, il publia son deuxième recueil intitulé Lupercal dans lequel on trouve aussi un poème sur l’aigle- Hawk Roosting. Ces deux poèmes font depuis lontemps l’objet du sujet de discussion des critiques et des amateurs de littérature. En outre, la plupart des discussions sur l’image de l’aigle se font respectivement dans ces deux poèmes. Mais l’auteur pense qu’il y a certainement des causes profondes pour Hughes d’utiliser deux fois la même image pour créer deux poèmes différents dans ses deux recueils consécutivement publiés. Donc, l’exploration de ces raisons doit partir de l’analyse comparative de ces deux poèmes. L’article présent, commen ant par l’analyse de leurs ressemblances et différences, étudie la valeur et la signification spécifiques de la même image dans de différents poèmes. Mots-Clés: image, aigle, homme, ressemblance, différence
In The Light Of Modern Approaches Memduh Sevket Esendal’s Scientific Literature "Hayat Ne Tatl " In The Story Named A Glance
Bekir ?NCE
Sakarya University Journal of Education , 2012,
Abstract: Esendal Memduh Sevket, simplicity of language, the depiction of each semester with the simplicity and convenience in writing the name of Turkish story has been remarkable. And his short stories dealing with people from all walks of life to show people the beautiful side of people, the task of deploying ADEE Esendal hope, love of nature and how people have succeeded in showing us bakaca m z . Especially recommended reading for students by the Ministry of National Education of basic work, shown in 100 Esendal stories, significant texts in the language to know whether your bare simplicity and contrary to the depiction of simplicity, is important for students yeti tirebilmemiz as an informed reader of literature. When you write stories based on human and social crises experienced by the author, but the discomfort and pains of modern approaches to texts and literature show them accordingly re one of the most important features of the text so the reader can feel the significance. For this reason, apparently the love of life, which was built on tolerance and optimism about the expression "Life is so sweet," according to his story at this time studied the theory of aesthetics of reception.
Roman Warfare  [cached]
D.B. Saddington
Akroterion , 2012, DOI: 10.7445/55-0-20
Abstract: ROTH, Jonathan P 2009. Roman Warfare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pbk. R250. ISBN 978-0-521-53726-1. Jonathan Roth of San Jose State University, known as an expert on military logistics, has written this attractive Cambridge Introduction to Roman Civilization volume on Roman Warfare. The series is designed for students with no prior knowledge of Roman antiquity. The book comprises an Introduction on Sources and Methods (pp. 1-6) and 15 chapters on Roman warfare from the beginnings to the fall of the Western Empire in AD 476, using a chronological approach. There are 68 illustrations and maps, a Timeline, a Glossary, a Glossary of People, a Bibliography (which includes several websites) and an Index.
Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine  [PDF]
Andrew M. Colarik,Lech Janczewski
Journal of Strategic Security , 2012,
Abstract: Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national) cyber warfare doctrine (CWD). An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.
First documented record of Black-collared Hawk Busarellus nigricollis (Latham, 1790) for the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil
Felipe Zilio
Biotemas , 2009,
Abstract: The Black-collared Hawk has a wide distribution in Brazil, but records are scarce in the southern limits of its range. In the state of Santa Catarina its occurrence was reported for the first time in 1999. In April 2007, a juvenile was seen and photographed in southern Santa Catarina. This is the first documented record of the species for the state.
Biological and Chemical Warfare  [cached]
G.C. Odendaal
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/20-3-358
Abstract: 1. Chemical and biological warfare is very old indeed, at least 2 000 years old. The arsenal consists of poison tipped arrows and darts, as well as toxins found in certain wood fibres that were used to incapacitate fish in streams. Armies laying seige to cities would catapalt corpses and entrails over the walls to induce a plaque and defecate into wells and water supplies. The Romans tilted salt into the soils of Carthage to prevent Carthage from ever becoming a threat to them in the future - either militarily or economically. 2. Since World War II, bacteriological and chemical weapons have become an increasing possibility. But because there is no clear evidence that these agents have ever been used as modern military weapons, discussions of their characteristics and potential threat have to draw heavily upon experimental field and laboratory data, and on studies of naturally occurring outbreaks of epidemics of infectious disease, rather than on direct battlefield experience. The potential importance of biological agents in warfare can be sensed when one remembers that infectious disease even as recently as World War II caused numerous casualties. 3. The greater threat posed by chemical weapons today derives from the discovery and manufacture of new, more toxic compounds. On the other hand, bacteriological agents already exist in nature and can be selected for use in warfare. 4. It would appear that chemical and biological agents have been used on a wide scale today as weapons of war, especially against the inhabitants of Afghanistan. These weapons are mainly being used by the Soviets and it can therefore be concluded that the use of chemical and biological weapons in Southern Africa cannot be ruled out.
Of reindeer and man, modern and Neanderthal: A creation story founded on a historic perspective on how to conserve wildlife, woodland caribou in particular
Valerius Geist
Rangifer , 2003,
Abstract: A review of successful systems of wildlife conservation, the North American included, suggests that broad public support and determined effort by volunteers is essential for wildlife conservation. Since North American wildlife conservation is the only large-scale system of sustainable natural resource use, and exemplifies the great economic and cultural benefits of a renewable resource held in common, its lessons may be profitably applied to Rangifer conservation. Animals that have value are surrounded by myths that tell of their relationship to humans. In our Anglo-American culture reindeer and caribou are rather deficient in this respect. However, reindeer feature prominently in the rise of modern humans and the demise of Neanderthal man early in the Upper Paleolithic. The colonization by humans of the periglacial environments during the last glaciation depended on the rich periglacial megafauna, Rangifer included. Archeological sites of the European Upper Paleolithic show that reindeer were the most important food source. The Upper Paleolithic, characterized by exceptional physical development and health of people, as well as by the first flowering of art, extended from Spain to Crimea with surprisingly little cultural change for some 25 000 years. While the cave paintings express an infatuation with dangerous game (woolly mammoth, woolly rhino, steppe wisent, giant deer, cave lions, bears etc), the archeological sites indicate that reindeer was the staple food. Reindeer play a minor role in cave art. Neither this art, nor archeological sites, show any evidence of warfare. It is hypothesized that during a mid-glacial interstadial modern people entered Europe having developed a highly successful system of hunting reindeer using interception based on the discovery of chronologic time. This led to a first flowering of culture based on a rich economy, but also to additional hunting mortality of the periglacial mega-herbivores that Neanderthal people depended on. That would explain the slow decline into extinction of the previously invincible Neanderthal people. Therefore, modern humans owe much of what they are to reindeer. We need to reciprocate. What is urgently required is a foundation formed by volunteers for the conservation of caribou, similar to the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, focusing on the severely endangered wood land caribou.
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