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Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review  [cached]
Mikael Fogelholm,Sigmund Anderssen,Ingibj?rg Gunnarsdottir,Marjaana Lahti-Koski
Food & Nutrition Research , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.19103
Abstract: This systematic literature review examined the role of dietary macronutrient composition, food consumption and dietary patterns in predicting weight or waist circumference (WC) change, with and without prior weight reduction. The literature search covered year 2000 and onwards. Prospective cohort studies, case–control studies and interventions were included. The studies had adult (18–70 y), mostly Caucasian participants. Out of a total of 1,517 abstracts, 119 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After a careful scrutiny, 50 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B or C. Forty-three papers with grading A or B were included in evidence grading, which was done separately for all exposure-outcome combinations. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or no conclusion. We found probable evidence for high intake of dietary fibre and nuts predicting less weight gain, and for high intake of meat in predicting more weight gain. Suggestive evidence was found for a protective role against increasing weight from whole grains, cereal fibre, high-fat dairy products and high scores in an index describing a prudent dietary pattern. Likewise, there was suggestive evidence for both fibre and fruit intake in protection against larger increases in WC. Also suggestive evidence was found for high intake of refined grains, and sweets and desserts in predicting more weight gain, and for refined (white) bread and high energy density in predicting larger increases in WC. The results suggested that the proportion of macronutrients in the diet was not important in predicting changes in weight or WC. In contrast, plenty of fibre-rich foods and dairy products, and less refined grains, meat and sugar-rich foods and drinks were associated with less weight gain in prospective cohort studies. The results on the role of dietary macronutrient composition in prevention of weight regain (after prior weight loss) were inconclusive.
Partial Chemical Characterization of Immunomodulatory Polysaccharides from Plantago palmata Hook. f. s. Leaves  [PDF]
Gabriel Biringanine,Moustapha Ouedraogo,Bernard Vray,Anne Berit Samuelsen,Pierre Duez
International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/458456
Abstract: A previous work on Plantago palmata polysaccharides (PS) attributed immunomodulatory properties of leaves to a polysaccharide fraction (PS50) that stimulated NO and TNF-α production by interferon gamma- (IFN-γ-) activated macrophages. The present work aims to elucidate the chemical structure of these immunomodulatory polysaccharides. Size exclusion chromatography showed that the active polymers present an active fraction with a very high molecular weight (about 1200?kDa). These polysaccharides are pectic in nature, with a predominantly unbranched galacturonan domain and with a domain bearing side chains that consist of highly branched arabinan, galactan, and/or arabinogalactan. Comparatively to the well-known Plantago major biologically active PS, Plantago palmata PS50 contained less arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) and had a different composition in glucose, galactose, and galacturonic acid. DNA contamination of the polysaccharide was estimated at about 0.04%, a concentration much lower than those reported immunomodulatory in hyaluronic acid preparations (3 to 15%). Therefore, the eventuality of a contaminating DNA-mediated biological activity could be ruled out. 1. Introduction Plantago palmata grows in the humid mountain regions of intertropical Africa at 1800 to 3000?m [1] and is widely used in traditional medicine in Burundi, Rwanda and South Kivu (Democratic Republic of Congo). Its leaves are often used as herbal remedies in the treatment of a number of diseases such as wounds, hepatitis, parasitic or infectious diseases, and pregnancy, and lactation troubles. They are also used for the improvement of health after disease [2, 3]. A survey of the literature indicates a certain convergence between these medicinal uses (antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and, immunomodulatory) and those of other Plantago species [4–11]. This led us to investigate three groups of Plantago metabolites possibly related to these traditional uses and biological activities, that is, iridoids, phenylethanoid glycosides and polysaccharides [3, 12]. We previously showed that Plantago palmata leaves (i) contain appreciable amounts of iridoids and phenylethanoid glycosides, with aucubin and acteoside as major compounds [2]; (ii) present immunomodulatory properties, which could be attributed to polysaccharides (PS) [3].The effects of crude extracts and fractions obtained by high performance liquid chromatography/size exclusion chromatography (SEC) were investigated by the measurement of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-10 (IL-10)
Immunomodulatory activities of five clinically used Chinese herbal polysaccharides
Xiaojuan He,Xuyan Niu,Jian Li,Shaohua Xu
Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Polysaccharide is a natural macromolecular compound with complex, important and multifaceted biological activities. Some of polysaccharides have been marketed in China as drugs or healthy products. More studies confirm that the active ingredient of many traditional Chinese medicine exist in the form of polysaccharides. They play a role in disease therapy by activating immune cells and the complement system; regulating the cytokines expression; promoting the production of antibodies; inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and inducing tumor cell apoptosis; inhibiting virus entering cells and replication; increasing activity of antioxidant enzyme; scavenging free radicals; and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. In this review, we focus on the immunomodulatory effects and its possible mechanism of polysaccharides from Chinese herbal polysaccharides products, including Lentinan, Astragalus polysaccharide, Polyporus polysaccharide and Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide. The immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides were categorized in the paper into general immunoregulatory activity, anti-tumor, anti-infections, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-mutagenic and radioprotective, anti-complementary, anti-adhesive, and anti-allergy since all the activities are related to modulate immune responses by the polysaccharides. Also the challenges in the research of polysaccharides will be discussed. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000): 15-27]
Dietary Protein and Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Wieke Altorf – van der Kuil,Mari?lle F. Engberink,Elizabeth J. Brink,Marleen A. van Baak,Stephan J. L. Bakker,Gerjan Navis,Pieter van 't Veer,Johanna M. Geleijnse
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012102
Abstract: Elevated blood pressure (BP), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, including protein from various sources, in relation to human BP.
Immunomodulatory Activity of Dietary Fiber: Arabinoxylan and Mixed-Linked Beta-Glucan Isolated from Barley Show Modest Activities in Vitro  [PDF]
Anne Berit Samuelsen,Anne Rieder,Stine Grimmer,Terje E. Michaelsen,Svein H. Knutsen
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12010570
Abstract: High intake of dietary fiber is claimed to protect against development of colorectal cancer. Barley is a rich source of dietary fiber, and possible immunomodulatory effects of barley polysaccharides might explain a potential protective effect. Dietary fiber was isolated by extraction and enzyme treatment. A mixed-linked β-glucan (WSM-TPX, 96.5% β-glucan, Mw 886 kDa), an arabinoxylan (WUM-BS-LA, 96.4% arabinoxylan, Mw 156 kDa), a mixed-linked β-glucan rich fraction containing 10% arabinoxylan (WSM-TP) and an arabinoxylan rich fraction containing 30% mixed-linked β-glucan (WUM-BS) showed no significant effect on IL-8 secretion and proliferation of two intestinal epithelial cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29, and had no significant effect on the NF-κB activity in the monocytic cell line U937-3κB-LUC. Further enriched arabinoxylan fractions (WUM-BS-LA) from different barley varieties (Tyra, NK96300, SB94897 and CDCGainer) were less active than the mixed-linked β-glucan rich fractions (WSM-TP and WSM-TPX) in the complement-fixing test. The mixed-linked β-glucan rich fraction from NK96300 and CDCGainer showed similar activities as the positive control while mixed?linked β-glucan rich fractions from Tyra and SB94897 were less active. From these results it is concluded that the isolated high molecular weight mixed-linked β-glucans and arabinoxylans from barley show low immunological responses in selected in vitro test systems and thus possible anti-colon cancer effects of barley dietary fiber cannot be explained by our observations.
Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Effect of Dietary Probiotics on the Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio
S. Balaji,V. Balasubramanian,S. Baskaran,M. Pavaraj
Research Journal of Immunology , 2013,
Abstract: Fish culture is increasing to compensate the shortage of animal protein all over the world. Fish under intensive culture conditions will be badly affected and often fall prey to different microbial pathogens that have been treated with chemotherapeutic substances of which antibiotics were intensively used. The use of natural immunostimulants in fish culture for the prevention of diseases is a promising new development and could solve the problems of massive antibiotic use. Evaluation of immunomodulatory effect of the dietary probiotics on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. has been studied for the period of one month and the experiments such as, mortality, phagocytic activity and growth rate are conducted through this present study. To prepare the probiotic enriched diet, the colony forming units were found. For Lactobacillus acidophilus, the colony forming units were found to be 4.6x107 CFU mL-1 for 105 and 2.1x109 CFU mL-1 for 107 concentrations. The Bacillus subtilis were found to be 3.47x107 CFU mL-1 for 105 concentrations and 1.64x109 CFU mL-1 for 107 concentrations. Then these bacterial suspensions of 5 mL were sprayed into the 50 g of feed (100 mL kg-1 diet) with constant mixing. The experimental group III fed with 105 cells of Bacillus subtilis showed minimum mortality rate and maximum mean leucocyte count and growth rate on all days when compared to other experimental groups.
Glycemic Index and Pregnancy: A Systematic Literature Review  [PDF]
Jimmy Chun Yu Louie,Jennie C. Brand-Miller,Tania P. Markovic,Glynis P. Ross,Robert G. Moses
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/282464
Abstract: Background/Aim. Dietary glycemic index (GI) has received considerable research interest over the past 25 years although its application to pregnancy outcomes is more recent. This paper critically evaluates the current evidence regarding the effect of dietary GI on maternal and fetal nutrition. Methods. A systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science, from 1980 through September 2010, was conducted. Results. Eight studies were included in the systematic review. Two interventional studies suggest that a low-GI diet can reduce the risk of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants in healthy pregnancies, but one epidemiological study reported an increase in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Evidence in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), though limited (=3), consistently supports the advantages of a low-GI diet. Conclusion. There is insufficient evidence to recommend a low-GI diet during normal pregnancy. In pregnancy complicated by GDM, a low-GI diet may reduce the need for insulin without adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Until larger-scale intervention trials are completed, a low-GI diet should not replace the current recommended pregnancy diets from government and health agencies. Further research regarding the optimal time to start a low-GI diet for maximum protection against adverse pregnancy outcomes is warranted.
Glycemic Index and Pregnancy: A Systematic Literature Review  [PDF]
Jimmy Chun Yu Louie,Jennie C. Brand-Miller,Tania P. Markovic,Glynis P. Ross,Robert G. Moses
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/282464
Abstract: Background/Aim. Dietary glycemic index (GI) has received considerable research interest over the past 25 years although its application to pregnancy outcomes is more recent. This paper critically evaluates the current evidence regarding the effect of dietary GI on maternal and fetal nutrition. Methods. A systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science, from 1980 through September 2010, was conducted. Results. Eight studies were included in the systematic review. Two interventional studies suggest that a low-GI diet can reduce the risk of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants in healthy pregnancies, but one epidemiological study reported an increase in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Evidence in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), though limited ( ), consistently supports the advantages of a low-GI diet. Conclusion. There is insufficient evidence to recommend a low-GI diet during normal pregnancy. In pregnancy complicated by GDM, a low-GI diet may reduce the need for insulin without adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Until larger-scale intervention trials are completed, a low-GI diet should not replace the current recommended pregnancy diets from government and health agencies. Further research regarding the optimal time to start a low-GI diet for maximum protection against adverse pregnancy outcomes is warranted. 1. Introduction Recent data suggest that mean birth weight has increased over time in many developed nations [1, 2]. Birth weight shows a “U” shaped relationship with adult obesity, such that both small and large babies are at increased risk [3, 4]. The long-term effects of higher body fat at birth are now attracting attention [5, 6]. Increasing birth weight was independently and linearly associated with increasing prevalence of obesity at age of 7 years in the Avon cohort of children [7]. In particular, infants defined as large for gestational age (LGA; birth weight ≥ 90th percentile) at birth remained in the upper tertile of weight throughout early childhood [8], even after controlling for social status, birth order, and maternal weight. Of concern, excessive fetal growth confers increased risk for obesity and diabetes that carries over to successive generations [9–11]. Maternal hyperglycemia leading to fetal hyperinsulinemia has been suggested to be responsible for some of this increase in risk [12]. These findings imply that avoidance of LGA or high body fat at birth should be a target for population-based obesity prevention strategies.
Weight loss before conception: A systematic literature review  [cached]
Elisabet Forsum,Anne Lise Brants?ter,Anna-Sigrid Olafsdottir,Sjurdur F. Olsen
Food & Nutrition Research , 2013, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v57i0.20522
Abstract: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women has increased during the last decades. This is a serious concern since a high BMI before conception is an independent risk factor for many adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Therefore, dietary counseling, intended to stimulate weight loss in overweight and obese women prior to conception has recently been recommended. However, dieting with the purpose to lose weight may involve health risks for mother and offspring. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify papers investigating the effects of weight loss due to dietary interventions before conception. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of weight loss prior to conception in overweight or obese women on a number of health-related outcomes in mother and offspring using studies published between January 2000 and December 2011. Our first literature search produced 486 citations and, based on predefined eligibility criteria, 58 were selected and ordered in full text. Two group members read each paper. Fifteen studies were selected for quality assessment and two of them were considered appropriate for inclusion in evidence tables. A complementary search identified 168 citations with four papers being ordered in full text. The two selected studies provided data for overweight and obese women. One showed a positive effect of weight loss before pregnancy on the risk of gestational diabetes and one demonstrated a reduced risk for large-for-gestational-age infants in women with a BMI above 25 who lost weight before pregnancy. No study investigated the effect of weight loss due to a dietary intervention before conception. There is a lack of studies on overweight and obese women investigating the effect of dietary-induced weight loss prior to conception on health-related variables in mother and offspring. Such studies are probably lacking since they are difficult to conduct. Therefore, alternative strategies to control the body weight of girls and women of reproductive age are needed.
Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research  [PDF]
Lucinda K. Bell,Rebecca K. Golley,Anthea M. Magarey
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/709626
Abstract: Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records). Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items) tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years) and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools ( , infants and toddlers birth-24 months; , preschoolers 2–5 years), met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires ( ), with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools ( , infants and toddlers; , preschoolers) are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. 1. Introduction Individuals do not consume single nutrients, foods, or food groups, but rather combinations of foods [1]. Therefore in nutrition research it is appealing to capture the mix of foods and/or nutrients likely to influence health [2]. Dietary indices, for example evaluate diet quality by assessing dietary intake against predetermined criteria, usually reflecting current dietary guidelines [3]. Childhood overweight and obesity is a global health problem with 40 million children under the age of five classified as overweight [4]. Given the consequences of obesity and the persistence of obesity from childhood into adulthood [5], it is of major importance to address overweight early in life. As recommendations for overweight prevention and treatment are consistent with food-based dietary guidelines [6, 7], dietary indices offer a way of understanding the contribution of early life food intake to obesity risk. Evaluation of diet against food-based dietary guidelines using an index [8] still requires accurate assessment of dietary intake at the food or food group level. In children under five, indices have commonly been applied to dietary data
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