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Response of pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars and lines to seed infection by Ascochyta blight fungi
Joanna Marcinkowska , Lech Boros , Anna Wawer
Plant Breeding and Seed Science , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10129-009-0006-6
Abstract: Seeds collected from 10 cultivars and lines of Pisum sativum of both ‘afila’ and normal foliage type, inoculated in field by Mycosphaerella pinodes and Phoma pinodella, were evaluated for incidence of fungi responsible for Ascochyta blight. Also seed germination and contamination by other fungi were considered. Surface sterilized seeds were plated on Coon agar medium. A sample contains 50 seeds. Data were taken after 8 days of incubation. Frequency of species occurrence depended not only on characters of cultivars and lines, weather conditions during 1998-2001, but on inoculation treatment. Clear response between cultivars and lines to tested factors was noted. Seeds of normal leaved line 344/87/3 and cv. Rubin were the most inhabited by all fungi, and germinated very poorly. Seeds of eight cultivars and lines, including cvs: Kwestor, Agra, Miko, were less infected and better germinated. Almost 40% of non-germinated seeds were inhabited by various fungi, but cultivars and lines differences were not clear. Seed infection by ascochyta blight fungi was rather low, reaching from 2.26 - 11.34 percent, a mean 4.81, but always the highest for M. pinodes. Percentage of contaminated seeds by other fungi, mainly saprobic, was always higher, even 5 times, with an average 16.73%. The best for seed germination was growing season of 2000, while for seed infestation, non-germinated and germinated, 2001.
Natan Fontoura da Silva,Iraídes Fernandes Carneiro,Ronaldo Mesquita Vieira,Darticléia Machado
Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical , 2007, DOI: 10.5216/pat.v20i1.2586
Abstract: The herbicides cyanazine and linuron were tested on the pea cultivars Marina, Mikado and Triofin, in Goiania, State of Goiás, from May to August 1989. The number of pods/plant, grains/pod, weight of 100 grains and yield of grains were not affected by the herbicides used. There was no interaction effect of herbicides and cultivars. Only a slight toxic effect on the foliage of young plants of all cultivars was caused by linuron and on young plants of Mikado by cyanazine at 1,250 g.a.i./ha. In most treatments, Marina and Mikado proved to be more productive than Triofin. Foi instalado em Goiania, Estado de Goiás, no período de maio a agosto de 1989, um ensaio para verificar a seletividade dos herbicidas cyanazine e linuron para as cultivares de ervilha Marina, Mikado e Triofin. Linuron provocou uma fraca fitotoxicidade em todas as cultivares, enquanto que cyanazine a 1.250 g.i.a./ha foi levemente fitotóxico apenas para a cultivar Mikado. O número de vagens por planta e gr os por vagem, peso de 100 gr os secos e a produ o de gr os n o foram afetados pela a o dos herbicidas. N o houve intera o herbicidas versus cultivares. Na maioria dos tratamentos, Marina e Mikado mostraram-se mais produtivas que Triofin.
Evaluation of Expression Stability of Candidate References Genes among Green and Yellow Pea Cultivars (Pisum sativum L.) Subjected to Abiotic and Biotic Stress  [PDF]
Gopesh C. Saha, George J. Vandemark
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.32028
Abstract: Dry pea (Pisum sativum L.) is grown as human and animal feed throughout the world. Large yield losses in pea due to biotic and abiotic stresses compel an improved understanding of mechanisms of stress tolerance and genetic determinants conditioning these tolerances. The availability of stably expressed reference genes is a prerequisite for examining differential gene expression. The objective of this study was to examine the expression profile of several candidate reference genes across a broad range of commercial pea cultivars. Expression profiles of five candidate reference genes; 18s rRNA, actin, TIF, β tubulin-2 and β tubulin-3 were examined. Relative quantifications of candidate reference genes were estimated from control plants, plants after 48 h of cold treatment, and plants 24 and 48 h after inoculation with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of white mold disease of pea. RT-qPCR was performed on cDNA synthesized from three food grade spring peas, Ariel, Aragorn, and Sterling, and two spring yellow peas, Delta and Universal, which are used as animal feed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of CT values demonstrated significant variation between varieties and treatments under cold and disease conditions. The most abundant transcripts among tested reference genes were for 18s rRNA. Stability analysis indicated that TIF and β tubulin-3 genes were the most stably expressed candidate genes under both cold and disease stress and could serve as reference genes across a wide range of pea cultivars.
Suitability of some green pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties for processing
Jokanovi? Marija R.,Jovi?evi? Dragan,Tepi? Aleksandra N.,Vuji?i? Biserka L.
Acta Periodica Technologica , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/apt0637013j
Abstract: Green pea (Pisum sativum L.) has a long tradition in Serbia and Montenegro as a processing crop. Short growing season, relatively simple production, pleasant taste and high nutritional value stimulate both production and consumption of peas. The objective of this paper is to present the main characteristics of two pea varieties, domestic cultivar Tamis and imported cultivar Jof and the influence of prolonged time between harvest and processing on the changes of main characteristics. Both cultivars have grains of very high quality that can be used for industrial processing as well as for garden growing (the green market). In the present paper the results of one-year study are shown: cultivar characteristics, growing season length, and physico-chemical (tenderometer value (TM), dry matter, alcohol insoluble solids (AIS), sugar and starch) measurements for texture determination. According to the results, the optimal way of processing for each variety was recommended. .
Some Seed Traits and Their Relationships to Seed Germination and Field Emergence in Pea (Pisum sativum L.)  [PDF]
Erkut Peksen,Aysun Peksen,Hatice Bozoglu,Ali Gulumser
Journal of Agronomy , 2004,
Abstract: This study investigated relationships among some seed traits, laboratory germination percentage and seedling emergence under field conditions in pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars. Jumbo, Jof, Green Pearly, Agromar AG-7306, Bolero, and Karina pea cultivars were used. It was determined that 100 seed weight negatively and highly significantly correlated with laboratory germination and field emergence percentages. Pea cultivars with high seed coat ratio gave lower electrical conductivity values than lower ones and their laboratory germination percentages were significantly higher. Electrical conductivity values showed positive and highly significant correlation with 100 seed weight, while it negatively and highly significantly correlated with laboratory germination and field emergence percentages. It was also found that emergence periods were prolonged with increases in electrical conductivity values and 100 seed weight.
Chilling Tolerance in Pisum sativum L. Seeds: An Ecological Adaptation  [PDF]
Nabeesa Salim,J. Shereena
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Pisum sativum L. plants are well-adapted to grow in the areas with cool and humid climatic conditions of tropics, subtropics and temperate regions with temperature ranging from 7-30°C. These plants grow as inter annual, can tolerate frost to -20°C in the seedling stage. In Pisum sativum seeds the heat shock given at 45 and 50°C resulted in seedling growth retardation at room temperature but the heat shock was ameliorated by chilling treatment since in all experimentals (treatments at 35, 40, 45 and 50°C) seedlings exhibited uniform proliferated growth in cold condition. This quality of Pisum sativum seeds seems to be an ecological adaptation to growth at a wide range of temperature regime.
Lucr?ri ?tiin?ifice : Management Agricol , 2009,
Abstract: The basic theoretic methodology for producing seeds of autogamous cultivars is conservative selection, which is a combination of simple individual selection and mass selection. Unlike using these methods in plant improvement, the conservative variant of the selection used in producing seeds is meant to preserve unaltered the genetic structure of the cultivars as long as they are being cultivated. Starting from this central objective, methodological schemes developed for the production of seeds of different autogamous cultivar types are rather similar, the differences residing in the prolongation of shortening of the conservative selection process in order to maintain unaltered the genetic structure of each type of cultivar apart. In producing seeds of the pure lines” parental forms and of the commercial hybrids the methodology appeals not only to selection but also to self-pollination, SIB cross-pollination and line guided hybridising.
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the Genomic Era  [PDF]
Petr Smykal,Gregoire Aubert,Judith Burstin,Clarice J. Coyne,Noel T. H. Ellis,Andrew J. Flavell,Rebecca Ford,Miroslav Hybl,Ji?í Macas,Pavel Neumann,Kevin E. McPhee,Robert J. Redden,Diego Rubiales,Jim L. Weller,Tom D. Warkentin
Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/agronomy2020074
Abstract: Pea ( Pisum sativum L.) was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866) of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS) programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems.
Arvejas (Pisum sativum) de Vaina Comestible Sugar Snap: Antecedentes y Comportamiento en el Sur de Chile
Mera,Mario; Kehr,Elizabeth; Mejías,Jaime; Ihl,Mónica; Bifani,Valerio;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000400002
Abstract: sugar snap peas (pisum sativum l.) are edible-podded peas that, unlike snow (chinese) peas, have thick pod walls. they are the result of the combination of at least six recessive genes controlling pod and grain traits, and two others are being incorporated in modern cultivars. sugar snap peas may be consumed fresh or frozen, and are highly appreciated in the united states and other countries. six genotypes from the usa were evaluated at two locations in la araucania region in southern chile in 2004 and 2005. most sugar snap varieties showed yields similar to a freezable cultivar used as a check. yield differences among sugar snap varieties were small and inconsistent; however, cv. sweet ann performed relatively well and showed the best freezing quality. over 15 t ha-1 of pods were obtained under favorable conditions, suggesting that yields around 10 t ha-1 are quite achievable commercially. all varieties presented, at variable levels, suture on both dorsal and ventral sides of the pods. a mild frost (-2 °c), harmless to the plant, may also deteriorate the appearance of the pods. sugar snap peas are a delicate produce and, if well managed, can be a sound option to diversify chilean horticultural offer.
Vertical Distribution of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seed Yield Depending on the Applied Bacterial Inoculants  [cached]
Zajac T.,Klimek-Kopyra A.,Oleksy A.,Lenart A.
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v5n1p260
Abstract: Among legumes, pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the second most important grain legume crop in the world, which is widely used both in human nutrition and as fodder. The yield potential of cultivars is one of the major factors that determine the use of field pea. Currently, pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds is a promising treatment and is one of agronomic solutions for sustainable agriculture development. The objective of the research was to estimate the productivity of the ‘afila’ and ‘semileafs’ morphotypes of field pea, depending on different inoculants based on symbiotic bacteria (Rhizobium)-commercial (NitragineTM) and noncommercial, produced by the Polish Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation (IUNG). The research was based on the precise field experiment, conducted in four replicates and carried out in the experimental field of Bayer company located in Modzurów, Silesian viovodeship. The experimental field soil was classified as Umbrisol-slightly degraded chernozem, formed from loess. The examined inoculants were applied during sowing. The presented results of the studies on the symbiotic nitrogen fixation by leguminous plants indicate that the productivity of pea was positively affected by the application of IUNG (noncommercial) inoculant. On the other hand, it is not recommended to use NitragineTM separately, as it inhibits the growth of pea. Plants of the ‘Klif’ variety used the symbiotically fixed nitrogen more effectively and demonstrated higher yield component and better phenotypic parameters.
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