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ECHOES OF WAR 1915-1918 (PART 4)  [cached]
G.G.J. Lawrence
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/8-4-764
Abstract: Dudng the summer months of 1917- 1918 there was a strange quiet on the Eastern front. The downfall of Russia afforded General E Ludendorff, who became the first quartermaster general of the German armies when Field Marshal von Hindenburg assumed the office of chief of the German general staff of the armies in the field, the opportunity to deal the Allies in the west a decisive blow. Instead he decided to work to perfect his preparations for his final coup. His plan was based on the highly specialized training of certain units, and was a legitimate conclusion from the German use of 'storm troops'. The first point was the absence of any preliminary massing near the front of attack. Men were brought up by night marches just before zero hour, and secrecy was thus obtained for the assembly. Again, there was no long bombardment to alarm the enemy, and the guns began at the moment when the infantry advanced, the enemy's back areas being confused by a deluge of gas shells. The assault was made by picked troops in open order, or rather in small clusters, carrying light trench mortars and many machine guns, with the field batteries close behind them in support. The actual mode of attack, which the French called 'infiltration: may be likened to a hand, of which the fingertips are shod with steel, and which is pushed into a soft substance. The picked troops at the finger-ends made gaps through which others poured, till each section of the defence found itself outflanked and encircled. A system of flares and rockets enabled the following troops to learn where the picked troops had made the breach, and the artillery came close behind the infantry. The men had unlimifed objectives, and carded iron rations for several days. When one division had reached the end of its strength, another took its place, so that the advance resembled a continuous game of leap-frog.
ECHOES OF WAR 1915-1918 (PART 4)  [cached]
G.G.J. Lawrence
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/8-3-778
Abstract: Third Ypres Menin Road Battle 20 September 1917 Our troop train crawled at snail's pace along the SW line leading to Ypres on a bright September morning in 1917. The enemy balloons were floating over their line all along the ill-famed Salient and we could only bank on the sketchy camouflage nets strung up between us to conceal what would be a prize target to the enemy observers perched on high and in close touch with their heavy batteries of guns below.
ECHOES OF WAR 1915-1918 (PART 2)  [cached]
G.G.J. Lawrence
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/8-2-785
Abstract: France and the Somme Battle - Delville Wood Landing in France to most of us was a thrilling adventure; to myself, barely out of my teens, everything was excitingly new and of great interest. The whole atmosphere was so different from Egypt and more'so from England and home. We had plenty of time around the dock area waiting whilst our effects were being unloaded, checked and assembled. The glimpses of the many civilians passing by, so different in dress and behaviour from what we were accustomed to was intriguing and in many cases intensely amusing; the happy-go-lucky attitude to the ordinary proprieties of life as we knew them were blissfully absent. Being only Tommies and the lowest of the low in the eyes of the world, we had a down-to-earth view of life around us.
”Tusinder af vingeskudte Tr kfugle”. Soldatergrave og dansk-franske erindringssteder 1915-1925 ca.  [cached]
Ning de Coninck-Smith
Kulturstudier , 2012,
Abstract: Thousands of Wing-Shot Migratory Birds. Soldier Graves and Danish-French Places of Remembrance Approx. 1915-1925 During the months following the end of the First World War in November 1918, some 100,000 prisoners of war passed through Denmark on their way home from the camps on the Eastern Front. Some did not make it all the way, but died from exhaustion and the Spanish flu during their stay in Denmark. The present article deals with the part that these dead soldiers came to play in the formation of a remembrance culture in a country which had not itself taken part in the war. More specifically, it deals with the monuments which a small group of nationally-conservative men and women with ties to the armed forces and the social elite erected between 1919 and 1925 in remembrance of the dead French soldiers. To their minds, France had been the sole serious ally in the struggle for the return of North Schleswig to Denmark. For that reason, they were also behind two monuments in France to commemorate the fallen Danish-minded Schleswigers and the fallen Danes of the French Foreign Legion. Their national-conservative engagement and criticism of the policy of neutrality pursued during the war by the Danish government largely determined the creation and the form of the cemeteries.
Morale among French colonial troops on the Western Front during World War I: 1914–1918
W Dean
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies , 2010,
Abstract: The traditional images of the French Army in World War I on the Western Front from Cyril Falls’s to Marc Ferro’s surveys (both entitled The Great War 1914– 1918) have been that of the grizzled yet determined French peasant or worker – the poilu. It is clear from recent research that this is far from accurate and that the French forces were far more heterogeneous than portrayed by previous images.1 Men were called from all over the French empire to serve in the frontline and in logistics units. Virtually every part of the French Empire responded, although somewhat grudgingly, even including Tahiti, which provided a Bataillon Pacifique. Bringing men to a foreign land and culture to fight in a new type of horrific war was quite a strain on these 600 000 soldiers.2 The bulk of these soldiers were drawn from North and West Africa, with smaller numbers coming from Madagascar, Indochina and Equatorial Africa. This article is an attempt at giving an impressionistic glimpse of this subject describing colonial morale both at the frontlines and behind the lines, seeing how they compare to their metropole comrades and trying to gain an understanding of the vie quotiedienne of the colonial soldier.
MORALE AMONG FRENCH COLONIAL TROOPS ON THE WESTERN FRONT DURING WORLD WAR I: 1914–1918  [cached]
William Dean
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5787/38-2-89
Abstract: The traditional images of the French Army in World War I on the Western Front from Cyril Falls’s to Marc Ferro’s surveys (both entitled The Great War 1914– 1918) have been that of the grizzled yet determined French peasant or worker – the poilu. It is clear from recent research that this is far from accurate and that the French forces were far more heterogeneous than portrayed by previous images.1 Men were called from all over the French empire to serve in the frontline and in logistics units. Virtually every part of the French Empire responded, although somewhat grudgingly, even including Tahiti, which provided a Bataillon Pacifique. Bringing men to a foreign land and culture to fight in a new type of horrific war was quite a strain on these 600 000 soldiers.2 The bulk of these soldiers were drawn from North and West Africa, with smaller numbers coming from Madagascar, Indochina and Equatorial Africa. This article is an attempt at giving an impressionistic glimpse of this subject describing colonial morale both at the frontlines and behind the lines, seeing how they compare to their metropole comrades and trying to gain an understanding of the vie quotiedienne of the colonial soldier.
South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia 1918-1920  [cached]
W.M. Bisset
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/15-4-477
Abstract: South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia (1917 -1920) has never been fully researched and it is probable that relatively few people are aware that South Africans were among those who fought against the Red Army in 1918-1920. Although it has not been possible to trace a roll of members of the South African Forces who served in Russia between 1918 and 1920, their autobiographies and letters published in The Nongqai have made it possible to compile an interim report on the subject. However, it is important to note that even if the roll of members of the South African Forces who served in Russia could be traced or compiled from the personnel record cards in the SADF Archives, this would not provide a complete picture because a number of the South Africans who served in Russia had served in the British Forces throughout the Great War.
Simulating the Spread of Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 Considering the Effect of the First World War  [PDF]
Teruhiko Yoneyama,Mukkai S. Krishnamoorthy
Quantitative Biology , 2010,
Abstract: The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919, also called Spanish Flu Pandemic, was one of the severest pandemics in history. It is thought that the First World War much influenced the spread of the pandemic. In this paper, we model the pandemic considering both civil and military traffic. We propose a hybrid model to determine how the pandemic spread through the world. Our approach considers both the SEIR-based model for local areas and the network model for global connection between countries. First, we reproduce the situation in 12 countries. Then, we simulate another scenario: there was no military traffic during the pandemic, to determine the influence of the influenced of the war on the pandemic. By considering the simulation results, we find that the influence of the war varies in countries; in countries which were deeply involved in the war, the infections were much influenced by the war, while in countries which were not much engaged in the war, the infections were not influenced by the war.
Arteries of empire: on the geographical imagination of South Africa's railway war, 1914/1915  [cached]
Giorgio Miescher
Kronos (Bellville) , 2012,
Abstract: This essay analyses a set of visual representations of the South African military campaign into German South West Africa in 1914/1915. This campaign is explored in terms of an imperial expansion and approached through the lens of visuality. Elaborating on an album produced by the Kimberley-based photographer Alfred Duggan-Cronin, and cartoons, photographs, and maps kept in the Transnet Heritage Library in Johannesburg, the article traces the ways in which the visual representation of the war favoured a distinct articulation of an imagined imperial space. The analysis of visualised imaginaries is anchored in an inquiry of materiality, and hence considers the importance of the railway system as the technology, vehicle and medium for a dramatic South African expansion in the region.1
PEACE, WAR AND AFTERWARDS 1914 TO 1919  [cached]
Louise Jooste
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/27-1-233
Abstract: Brian Wade left South Africa in February 1915 to join the British Army so as to serve the Empire during the First World War. After enlisting in King Edward's Horse as a private, he trained at Bishops Stortford and the Curragh in Ireland. He was later commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 7th London Regiment, served mainly in the transport section and saw action in the Somme and Ypres. Due to illness he was medically discharged in February 1918 and returned to South Africa. He subsequently performed colonial service in the former German territory, Tanganyika (present day Tanzania). During his military service and the first seven months he spent in Tanganyika, he kept up a regular correspondence with his mother - he regarded his weekly letter to her "as a sacred duty" - and these letters eventually resulted in Peace, War and Afterwards. As there are only a few personal accounts by South Africans of their experiences as soldiers during the First World War (and even fewer have been published) Peace, War and Afterwards is a most welcome publication.
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