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Failed catharsis after the Second World War  [PDF]
Bijeli? Biljana
Temida , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/tem0204059b
Abstract: The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugoslavs’ examples, where ethnic violence in after war period was overshadowed by general suffering from foreign occupants and local traitors in the Second World War. Instead of reassessment of existing ethnic and national identities, the process of reconciliation between Croatian and Serbian community after the Second World War was exhilarated with radical changes of collective identities.
THE RAILWAYS AND THE WAR EFFORT, 1939-1945  [cached]
R.J. Bouch
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/5-2-891
Abstract: South Africa's armed forces were small, and their material resources meagre, when the country entered the Second World War on 6 September 1939. The Permanent Force was nearly 50% under strength; the shortage of trained infantrymen was estimated at over 39000; ammunition for artillery pieces and anti-aircraft guns was sufficient for one day's shooting, and only two obsolete armoured cars were available. Two experimental armoured cars had been built locally. During the first years of the war it was not possible to obtain much equipment from the United Kingdom or the United States. Local ingenuity was heavily taxed as attention concentrated on preparing the South African armed forces for long campaigns. Gradually regiments were mobilized and equipped, and an extensive munitions production drive was launched
SADF Archives SADF Archives
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/19-3-378
Abstract: UNION DEFENCE FORCE: LAND FORCES Organisation of Union Defence Force (a) Pre-War. At the outbreak of war in September, 1939, the armed forces of the Union consisted of a Permanent Force of 352 Officers and 5033 men, and an Active Citizen Force of 918 Officers and 12 572 men. Of the Permanent Force, 173 Officers and 1664 men formed the South African Air Force, 47 Officers and 562 men were members of the South African Artillery and 17 Officers and 1 705 men formed the Special Service Battalion, a unit consisting of men who served on a short-service basis for a minimum of one year. The rest were concerned principally in the supply services and in administering the Active Citizen Force. The latter was roughly parallel to the Territorial Army in Britain, since membership, although nominally compulsory, was in effect restricted to volunteers from among the various age groups called up annually for compulsory registration. Members of the Active Citizen Force were enrolled in units, some of which could show a history dating back to the middle of the last century, and were required to perform 1 to 4 hours of non-continuous training per week, and 15 days of continuous training, in camp, each year.
Scales of Memory in the Archaeology of the Second World War
Gabriel Moshenska
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2006, DOI: 10.5334/pia.269
Abstract: The growing interest in archaeologies of the recent past has included attempts to link archaeology with memory in its various forms but has lacked a coherent theoretical and methodological approach. This paper outlines a model for engaging with memory in the archaeology of the Second World War, drawing on recent work in memory studies and oral history. One of the principal pitfalls in memory work is the conflation and confusion of individual and social memory: in this paper I attempt to identify and outline different forms or scales of memory: individual memory, group narratives, and social memorialisation. If we distinguish between these models in relation to Second World War archaeological sites we can assess their accuracy and usefulness and begin to trace the intricate power relations implicit in memory work. The sites in question, a Nazi prison in Berlin and a Prisoner of War camp in Poland, illustrate the contested and highly politicised nature of memory-based work and archaeological studies of this period. By opening up such sites to the popular gaze, archaeologists have the power to bring these debates into the public sphere, potentially undermining the hegemony of officially sanctioned memory and making the production of meaningful pasts a more inclusive process.
Identity Under (Re)construction: The Jewish Community from Transylvania before and after the Second World War  [cached]
Codruta Cuceu
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2008,
Abstract: When talking about the identity of a certain community, we are inclined to appeal to essentialist, almost metaphysical notions. This often results in a unitary, deeply rooted and stable perception of the analyzed community. But this view is not always accurate enough, for it does not offer an account of a specific history. By offering a short history and a structural presentation of the Jewish community from Transylvania, before and shortly after the Second World War, our article’s purpose is to overpass, by questioning, the shortcomings of an essentialist interpretation of the discussed community. Taking into account the long history of pogroms, applied anti-Semitism and persecutions on religious or ethnic grounds that took place along the 20th century, our work aims at depicting whether religion was and remained a major characteristic, i.e. an unique communal specificity in the re(creation) of Jewish identity in Transylvania, before and after the Second World War.
The Relationship Between Turkey and USA After The Second World War (1945-1950)
Yavuz GüLER
Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty , 2004,
Abstract: In this article it was studied the relationship between Turkey and USA after the Second World War. To come into existence of the relationship in the conjuncture of the world after the Second World War and the public opinon of Turkey about thisrelationship investigated in this study.
A Subject Bibliography of the Second World War: Books in English 1939.1974  [cached]
A.G. Claase
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/11-3-673
Abstract: A vast number of books have already been published on the Second World War and the publication explosion on this subject has still not been exhausted as can be seen from the continuous flood of new titles which appear almost daily.
Changes in Scottish suicide rates during the Second World War
Rob Henderson, Cameron Stark, Roger W Humphry, Sivasubramaniam Selvaraj
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-167
Abstract: Data on deaths in Scotland recorded as suicide during the period 1931 – 1952, and population estimates for each of these years, were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland. Using computer spreadsheets, suicide rates by gender, age and method were calculated. Forward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess the effect of gender, war and year on suicide rates using SAS V8.2.The all-age suicide rate among both men and women declined during the period studied. However, when this long-term decline is taken into account, the likelihood of suicide during the Second World War was higher than during both the pre-War and post-War periods. Suicide rates among men aged 15–24 years rose during the Second World War, peaking at 148 per million (41 deaths) during 1942 before declining to 39 per million (10 deaths) by 1945, while the rate among men aged 25–34 years reached 199 per million (43 deaths) during 1943 before falling to 66 per million (23 deaths) by 1946. This was accompanied by an increase in male suicides attributable to firearms and explosives during the War years which decreased following its conclusion.All age male and female suicide rates decreased in Scotland during World War II. However, once the general background decrease in suicide rates over the whole period is accounted for, the likelihood of suicide among the entire Scottish population during the Second World War was elevated. The overall decrease in suicide rates concealed large increases in younger male age groups during the War years, and an increase in male suicides recorded as due to the use of firearms. We conclude that the effects of war on younger people, reported in recent conflicts in Central Europe, were also seen in Scotland during the Second World War. The results support the findings of studies of recent conflicts which have found a heterogeneous picture with respect to age specific suicide rates during wartime.Suicide rates are thought to fall during wartime. Durkheim [1]
'An Audacious of Appropriation' Jewish Intellectuals, The Legacy of the Second World War and the Emergence of Neoconservatism  [PDF]
Nadja A. Janssen
United Academics Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The 1930s and the 1940s were characterised by intense bigotry and some of the most concerted efforts in the American Jewish experience to exclude Jews from mainstream American society. Yet, in the aftermath of the Second World War a more inclusive and universalistic approach to Americaness emerged in which particularistic identities, while still subordinated, came to play an ever-larger role. In the growing pluralistic Zeitgeist of post-Second World War America, particularistic contributions to American culture and life not only came to be understood as desirable, but necessary - especially in light of the developing struggle with the Soviet Union. Within this context, and in reaction to the Second World War and especially the Holocaust, Jewish communal debates of the 1950s and 1960s were defined by efforts to develop patterns of identification, which would bring further integration, while at the same time provide possibilities to be openly and outwardly Jewish. One such pattern, to emerge fully in the late 1960s and early 1970s, was that of neoconservatism, directly and consciously opposing widespread ideas that American Jewish identity was directly related to a politically liberal outlook. The author shows how the Second World War and the Holocaust played an important role in defining debates of integration, assimilation and identity amongst a number of Jewish intellectuals, who moved within the realm of so-called New York intellectuals, and some of whom would later become known as neoconservatives. While many of these intellectuals remained silent while the Holocaust unfolded, they began to reclaim both their Jewish and American identities emphatically in the immediate aftermath of the war – a process that was accompanied by an often-divisive discussion of the Holocaust and its lessons for the American scene and especially for American Jews. Renegotiating their Jewishness and their Americaness simultaneously, they began to promote a rigid and hyper-nationalist defence of the American status quo as well as a highly defensive and ethnocentric approach to Jewish identity based almost exclusively on concerns with Jewish safety and vulnerability. Scrutinising how they discussed the Holocaust and the Second World War demonstrates that American Jews were far from silent in discussing the Holocaust in the immediate aftermath of the war – as is often contended. Moreover, in the case of budding neoconservative intellectuals, analogies of the Second World War and the Holocaust foreshadowed an argumentative repertoire which became an integral part of neoconserva
Second World War Archaeology in Schools: A Backdoor to the History Curriculum
Gabriel Moshenska
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2009, DOI: 10.5334/pia.324
Abstract: The absence of a compulsory archaeological element in the English National Curriculum is a systemic weakness, and a problem for archaeological educators. However, historical or post-medieval archaeology offers the opportunity to make connections with the existing history curriculum at various stages, thereby introducing elements of archaeological methods and concepts into classrooms. In this paper I consider the potential for Second World War archaeology in or around the school building itself to involve students in archaeological fieldwork integrated into the National Curriculum, specifically history at Key Stage Two. Drawing on a case study of a school air raid shelter excavation in North London I examine the strengths and weaknesses of this model and discuss the scope for its broader application.
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