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Incidence, Seasonality and Mortality Associated with Influenza Pneumonia in Thailand: 2005–2008  [PDF]
James Mark Simmerman,Malinee Chittaganpitch,Jens Levy,Somrak Chantra,Susan Maloney,Timothy Uyeki,Peera Areerat,Somsak Thamthitiwat,Sonja J. Olsen,Alicia Fry,Kumnuan Ungchusak,Henry C. Baggett,Supamit Chunsuttiwat
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007776
Abstract: Data on the incidence, seasonality and mortality associated with influenza in subtropical low and middle income countries are limited. Prospective data from multiple years are needed to develop vaccine policy and treatment guidelines, and improve pandemic preparedness.
A comprehensive emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds in Europe: improved seasonality and land-cover
D. C. Oderbolz, S. Aksoyoglu, J. Keller, I. Barmpadimos, R. Steinbrecher, C. A. Skj th, C. Pla -Dülmer,A. S. H. Prév t
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2013,
Abstract: Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted from vegetation are important for the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Therefore, BVOC emission are an important input for air quality models. To model these emissions with high spatial resolution, the accuracy of the underlying vegetation inventory is crucial. We present a BVOC emission model that accommodates different vegetation inventories and uses satellite-based measurements of greenness instead of pre-defined vegetation periods. This approach to seasonality implicitly treats effects caused by water or nutrient availability, altitude and latitude on a plant stand. Additionally, we test the influence of proposed seasonal variability in enzyme activity on BVOC emissions. In its present setup, the emission model calculates hourly emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC) methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone and acetic acid. In this study, emissions based on three different vegetation inventories are compared with each other and diurnal and seasonal variations in Europe are investigated for the year 2006. Two of these vegetation inventories require information on tree-cover as an input. We compare three different land-cover inventories (USGS GLCC, GLC2000 and Globcover 2.2) with respect to tree-cover. The often-used USGS GLCC land-cover inventory leads to a severe reduction of BVOC emissions due to a potential miss-attribution of broad-leaved trees and reduced tree-cover compared to the two other land-cover inventories. To account for uncertainties in the land-cover classification, we introduce land-cover correction factors for each relevant land-use category to adjust the tree-cover. The results are very sensitive to these factors within the plausible range. For June 2006, total monthly BVOC emissions decreased up to 27% with minimal and increased up to +71% with maximal factors, while in January 2006, the changes in monthly BVOC emissions were 54 and +56% with minimal and maximal factors, respectively. The new seasonality approach leads to a reduction in the annual emissions compared with non-adjusted data. The strongest reduction occurs in OVOC (up to 32%), the weakest in isoprene (as little as 19%). If also enzyme seasonality is taken into account, however, isoprene reacts with the steepest decrease of annual emissions, which are reduced by 44% to 49%, annual emissions of monoterpenes reduce between 30 and 35%. The sensitivity of the model to changes in temperature depends on the climatic zone but not on the vegetation inventory. The sensitivity is higher for temperature increases of 3 K (+31% to +64%) than decreases by the same amount ( 20 to 35%). The climatic zones "Cold except summer" and "arid" are most sensitive to temperature changes in January for isoprene and monoterpenes, respectively, while in June, "polar" i
Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric submicron particles during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer
X.-F. Huang, L.-Y. He, M. Hu, M. R. Canagaratna, Y. Sun, Q. Zhang, T. Zhu, L. Xue, L.-W. Zeng, X.-G. Liu, Y.-H. Zhang, J. T. Jayne, N. L. Ng,D. R. Worsnop
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: As part of Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region-2008 (CAREBeijing-2008), an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in urban Beijing to characterize submicron aerosol particles during the time of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (24 July to 20 September 2008). The campaign mean PM1 mass concentration was 63.1 ± 39.8 μg m 3; the mean composition consisted of organics (37.9%), sulfate (26.7%), ammonium (15.9%), nitrate (15.8%), black carbon (3.1%), and chloride (0.87%). The average size distributions of the species (except BC) were all dominated by an accumulation mode peaking at about 600 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter, and organics was characterized by an additional smaller mode extending below 100 nm. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset differentiated the organic aerosol into four components, i.e., hydrocarbon-like (HOA), cooking-related (COA), and two oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA-1 and OOA-2), which on average accounted for 18.1, 24.4, 33.7 and 23.7% of the total organic mass, respectively. The HOA was identified to be closely associated with primary combustion sources, while the COA mass spectrum and diurnal pattern showed similar characteristics to that measured for cooking emissions. The OOA components correspond to aged secondary organic aerosol. Although the two OOA components have similar elemental (O/C, H/C) compositions, they display differences in mass spectra and time series which appear to correlate with the different source regions sampled during the campaign. Back trajectory clustering analysis indicated that the southerly air flows were associated with the highest PM1 pollution during the campaign. Aerosol particles in southern airmasses were especially rich in inorganic and oxidized organic species. Aerosol particles in northern airmasses contained a large fraction of primary HOA and COA species, probably due to stronger influences from local emissions. The lowest concentration levels for all major species were obtained during the Olympic game days (8 to 24 August 2008), possibly due to the effects of both strict emission controls and favorable meteorological conditions.
Source identification and airborne chemical characterisation of aerosol pollution from long-range transport over Greenland during POLARCAT summer campaign 2008
J. Schmale, J. Schneider, G. Ancellet, B. Quennehen, A. Stohl, H. Sodemann, J. F. Burkhart, T. Hamburger, S. R. Arnold, A. Schwarzenboeck, S. Borrmann,K. S. Law
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: We deployed an aerosol mass spectrometer during the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport) summer campaign in Greenland in June/July 2008 on the research aircraft ATR-42. Online size resolved chemical composition data of submicron aerosol were collected up to 7.6 km altitude in the region 60 to 71° N and 40 to 60° W. Biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel combustion (FF) plumes originating from North America, Asia, Siberia and Europe were sampled. Transport pathways of detected plumes included advection below 700 hPa, air mass uplifting in warm conveyor belts, and high altitude transport in the upper troposphere. By means of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, trace gas analysis of O3 and CO, particle size distributions and aerosol chemical composition 48 pollution events were identified and classified into five chemically distinct categories. Aerosol from North American BB consisted of 22% particulate sulphate, while with increasing anthropogenic and Asian influence aerosol in Asian FF dominated plumes was composed of up to 37% sulphate category mean value. Overall, it was found that the organic matter fraction was larger (85%) in pollution plumes than for background conditions (71%). Despite different source regions and emission types the particle oxygen to carbon ratio of all plume classes was around 1 indicating low-volatility highly oxygenated aerosol. The volume size distribution of out-of-plume aerosol showed markedly smaller modes than all other distributions with two Aitken mode diameters of 24 and 43 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg of 1.12 and 1.22, respectively, while another very broad mode was found at 490 nm (σg = 2.35). Nearly pure BB particles from North America exhibited an Aitken mode at 66 nm (σg = 1.46) and an accumulation mode diameter of 392 nm (σg = 1.76). An aerosol lifetime, including all processes from emission to detection, in the range between 7 and 11 days was derived for North American emissions.
No upward trend in normalised windstorm losses in Europe: 1970–2008
J. I. Barredo
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2010,
Abstract: On 18 January 2007, windstorm Kyrill battered Europe with hurricane-force winds killing 47 people and causing 10 billion US$ in damage. Kyrill poses several questions: is Kyrill an isolated or exceptional case? Have there been events costing as much in the past? This paper attempts to put Kyrill into an historical context by examining large historical windstorm event losses in Europe for the period 1970–2008 across 29 European countries. It asks the question what economic losses would these historical events cause if they were to recur under 2008 societal conditions? Loss data were sourced from reinsurance firms and augmented with historical reports, peer-reviewed articles and other ancillary sources. Following the same conceptual approach outlined in previous studies, the data were then adjusted for changes in population, wealth, and inflation at the country level and for inter-country price differences using purchasing power parity. The analyses reveal no trend in the normalised windstorm losses and confirm increasing disaster losses are driven by societal factors and increasing exposure.
Macrostate Parameter and Investment Risk Diagrams for 2008 and 2009  [PDF]
Anca Gheorghiu,Ion Spanulescu
Quantitative Finance , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper are made some considerations of the application of phenomenological thermodynamics in risk analysis for the transaction on financial markets, using the concept of economic entropy and the macrostate parameter introduced by us in a previous works [15,16]. The investment risk diagrams for a number of Romanian listed companies in 2008 and 2009 years were calculed. Also, the evolution of the macrostate parameter during financial and economic crisis in Romania are studied.
Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008
Vanessa Field, Philippe Gautret, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Gerd-Dieter Burchard, Eric Caumes, Mogens Jensenius, Francesco Castelli, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Leisa Weld, Rogelio Lopez-Velez, Peter de Vries, Frank von Sonnenburg, Louis Loutan, Philippe Parola, the EuroTravNet network
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-330
Abstract: To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition.Gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%), dermatological conditions (12%) and respiratory illnesses (8%). There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria.GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%), as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%). Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4%) accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9%) and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several diagnoses such as Chagas disease in immigrant travellers from South America and P. falciparum malaria in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Travel within Europe was also associated with health risks with distinctive profiles for Eastern and Western Europe.In
An outbreak of pertussis in Bloemfontein, South Africa, 2008–2009
UM Hallbauer, Y Goosen
South African Family Practice , 2011,
Abstract: Background: In April 2008, the first case of pertussis since 1998 was diagnosed in the Free State province. The outbreak that occurred over a 12-month period is described in this article. Method: This is a case series of 18 children diagnosed with pertussis in Bloemfontein, Free State province, between April 2008 and March 2009. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by means of a Bordetella polymerase chain reaction test done on a nasal swab. Data were collected from every child with a confirmed diagnosis of pertussis. Results: Eighteen cases of pertussis were diagnosed in the 12-month period; 15 in the public sector and three in the private sector. A peak of cases was observed in the autumn and early winter months. Twelve infants were under six months of age and were thus regarded as ”pre-vaccinated”. Fourteen children required admission to hospital, of whom five required intensive care. No deaths occurred. The cost of managing these children was high. Conclusions: Pertussis is not commonly diagnosed in South Africa. Young children are worst affected by the disease. Ongoing surveillance is needed. A vaccination plan to prevent pertussis in South Africa requires consideration.
Molecules’ Highlights in 2008 and a Look Forward to 2009  [PDF]
Shu-Kun Lin,Derek McPhee
Molecules , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/molecules14010584
Abstract: As has now become a custom for Molecules, as one year ends and another starts its Publisher and Editor-in-Chief would like to take stock of our progress in 2008 and offer our readership a preview of things to come in 2009. Just as we had hoped in last year’s editorial [1], the year that just concluded proved to be another outstanding one for MDPI's flagship journal Molecules. By year’s end we had published 239 papers and three Editorials or Editor's Notes for a total of 3,252 pages. While the 8% growth in the number of papers published compared to 2007 may appear modest, the number of pages published represented a 22% increase over the prior year, and was largely attributable to the increase in the number of reviews published. [...]
Speckle interferometry at the Blanco and SOAR telescopes in 2008 and 2009  [PDF]
Andrei Tokovinin,Brian D. Mason,William I. Hartkopf
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/139/2/743
Abstract: The results of speckle interferometric measurements of binary and multiple stars conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the Blanco and SOAR 4-m telescopes in Chile are presented. A total of 1898 measurements of 1189 resolved pairs or sub-systems and 394 observations of 285 un-resolved targets are listed. We resolved for the first time 48 new pairs, 21 of which are new sub-systems in close visual multiple stars. Typical internal measurement precision is 0.3 mas in both coordinates, typical companion detection capability is $\Delta m \sim 4.2$ at 0\farcs15 separation. These data were obtained with a new electron-multiplication CCD camera; data processing is described in detail, including estimation of magnitude difference, observational errors, detection limits, and analysis of artifacts. We comment on some newly discovered pairs and objects of special interest.
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