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Growth, Nutrient Uptake Efficiency and Yield of Upland Rice as Influenced by Two Compost Types in Tropical Rainforest-Derived Savannah Transition Zone  [PDF]
Oyeyemi Adigun Dada, Adeniyi Olumuyiwa Togun, James Alabi Adediran, Francis E. Nwilene
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.55040
Abstract:

Cultivating traditional upland rice cultivars on nutrient depleted soil causes poor and low yield. Little attention is paid to performance of inter-specific NERICA cultivars grown on nutrient deficient soil augmented with different types of compost. Therefore, field trials were conducted during 2010 and 2011 planting seasons in Ibadan to evaluate growth, dry matter, nutrient uptake efficiency and grain yield of upland rice grown on nutrient deficient soil augmented with different types of compost. There were nine treatments comprising of three upland rice cultivars: NERICA I, NERICA II and Ofada, two compost types applied at the rate of 8 t·ha-1: poultry dropping + maize stover (PDMC) and cattle dung + maize stover (CDMC) and control. The treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design and replicated three times. CDMC enhanced growth, nutrient use efficiency, dry matter and grain yield of upland rice cultivars. Performance of Ofada was better than NERICA cultivars. N (24.55 g), P (12.45 g) and K (35.41 g) uptake concentration and grain yield (5.45 t/ha) were highest in Ofada plots augmented with CDMC. Residual effect of compost on growth, yield and nutrient uptake efficiency of upland rice on nutrient deficient soil was marginal.

Effect of Enriched Municipal Solid Waste Compost Application on Growth, Plant Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Rice  [PDF]
R. Kavitha,P. Subramanian
Journal of Agronomy , 2007,
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India, to study the effect of Enriched Municipal Solid Waste Compost (EMSWC) application on growth, plant nutrient uptake and yield of rice in RBD during the year of 2004. The growth attributes viz., plant height, leaf area index, number of tillers and dry matter production differed significantly due to different treatments. These attributes increased significantly owing to the application of enriched compost, which has enhanced nutrient level, which leads to the continuous availability of nutrients in available form to the plants. The highest grain yield and straw yield were observed in the treatment combination of 25% of enriched compost and 75% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer (T5) with value of 5.22 and 8.65 t ha-1, respectively. Application of 5 t ha-1 enriched MSWC in combination with 25% N through inorganic fertilizer recorded grain yield of 4.33 t ha-1. The lowest grain yield (3.78 t ha-1) was recorded in treatment where the compost was applied alone.
Root Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Medicinal Rice Njavara under Different Establishment Techniques and Nutrient Sources  [PDF]
S. Rani, P. Sukumari
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.48189
Abstract:

Field experiments with medicinal rice Njavara were conducted at Cropping Systems Research Centre, Karamana, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala during summer of 2007 and 2008. The experimental design was split plot with three replications. The treatments consisted of four establishment techniques viz., System of Rice Intensification SRI (M1), Integrated Crop Establishment Method (ICM) (M2), Package of practices (PoP) (M3) of Kerala Agricultural University and Conventional Management Practices (CMP) (M4) in main plot. Three nutrient sources viz., (1) organic, 2) integrated use of organic and inorganic, 3) chemical fertilizers only) were used under different establishment techniques. Root dry matter production was determined at weekly intervals and plant nutrients uptake was determined by calculating from the product of dry matter, straw dry weight, grain yield and percentage of nutrients. Results revealed that at early stages (4

Comparative Study of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizers on Yield and Nutrient Uptake by Rice  [PDF]
M. Uddin,M. M. Rahman,M. A. Hoque,S. Begum
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: The field experiment was conducted in a silt loam soil to compare the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on the yield and nutrient uptake by rice and post-harvest soil properties. Seven treatments were T0 (control), T1 (Urea + Triple superphosphate + Muriate of potash), T2 (Urea + Diammonium phosphate + Muriate of potash), T3 (Urea + Triple superphosphate + Ash), T4 (Urea + Single superphosphate + Muriate of potash), T5 (Urea + Single superphosphate + Ash) and T6 (Urea + Diammonium phosphate + Ash). Application of fertilizers significantly increased the grain and straw yields of rice. Panicle length, effective tillers hill-1 and filled grains panicle-1 were also increased significantly due to application of fertilizers but the increase of 1000-grain weight was insignificant. Grain yield was highest with T3 (Urea + Triple superphosphate + Ash) treatment (5.46 t ha-1) which was followed by T1 (Urea + Triple superphosphate + Muriate of potash) treatment (5.30 t ha-1), while the lowest was in control. The grain yields were increased by 47.0 to 68.0% over control due to application of fertilizers. The results on straw yield reflected similar trend as in grain yield. Application of fertilizers caused a significant increase during NPKS uptake by rice. The application of fertilizers had a negligible influence on pH, CEC, organic matter, total N, available P, exchangeable K, and available S content of the post-harvest soils compared to their initial status.
Kinetic parameters of silicon uptake by rice cultivars
Martins, Priscila Oliveira;Crusciol, Carlos Alexandre Costa;Pilon, Cristiane;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832012000100016
Abstract: silicon is considered an important chemical element for rice, because it can improve tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. however, in many situations no positive effect of silicon was observed, probably due to genetic factors. the objective of this research was to monitor si uptake kinetics and identify responses of rice cultivars in terms of si uptake capacity and use. the experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the s?o paulo state university (unesp), brazil. the experiment was arranged in a completely randomized, factorial design with three replications. that consisted of two rice cultivars and two si levels. kinetic parameters (vmax, km, and cmin), root morphology variables, dry matter yield, si accumulation and levels in shoots and roots, uptake efficiency, utilization efficiency, and root/shoot ratio were evaluated. higher si concentrations in the nutrient solution did not increase rice dry matter. the development of the low-affinity silicon uptake system of the rice cultivar 'caiapó' was better than of 'maravilha'.
Dry Matter Accumulation and Nutrient Uptake by Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Poplar (Populus deltoides) Based Agroforestry System  [PDF]
N. K. Sharma,Raman Jeet Singh,Kuldeep Kumar
ISRN Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/359673
Abstract: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) being grown with association of boundary plantations of poplar (Populus deltoides M.) has to face competition for water and nutrients uptake. Field experiment was carried to study the dry matter accumulation pattern and nutrients uptake by wheat grown in association with boundary plantations of three- and four-year-old poplar plants under irrigated condition. Dry matter accumulation of wheat declined considerably due to presence of poplar tree line during all the growth stages as compared to pure crop. Maximum reduction in dry matter accumulation in wheat was observed near the tree line (0–3?m) under both three- as well as four-year-old plantation (21.1 and 17.8 per cent under three- and four-year-old trees, resp.) which tapered off beyond that, but synergetic effect caused by existence of trees increased dry matter significantly between 3–6?m distance and 6–9?m distance under both three- as well as four-year-old plantation. Similarly, minimum concentration of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) as well as their uptake in wheat plants was observed near the tree line (0–3?m) and increased subsequently with increase in distance from tree line. 1. Introduction Plantation of poplar (Populus deltoides M.) tree on the boundary of the agricultural fields is becoming popular among the farmers in Northern India. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important winter crops being grown in association with the plantation and one of the important agroforestry systems of the area [1, 2]. Since, agroforestry system involves mixture of species, they should share for resource utilization. Uptake of nutrients depends on the number, surface area, distribution, and effectiveness of the root system of individual species in the mixture. Being a perennial, tree root systems have the chance to explore larger area, both laterally and vertically and exploit zones of rich localized supply of nutrient with a result that the growth of the smaller understory species may be inhibited by competition for nutrients. It has been indicated that roots of fast-growing trees may extend laterally by at least 2?m each year [3]. Poplar is a fast-growing tree and has ability to provide substantial production [4, 5]. Toky and Bisht [6] noted that 60–80 per cent of the roots of 6-year-old poplar were present in the upper soil layer (0–45?cm). However, maximum fine roots were concentrated in 15–30?cm soil depth. Thus, the bulk of roots were quite close to surface, and therefore, root competition with agricultural crops is likely. Fast-growing and
Characteristics of nutrient return and uptake in rice-duck mutualism ecosystem of double rice cropping season
“稻鸭共生”养分归还特征及水稻植株对氮、磷的吸收

张帆
中国生态农业学报 , 2012,
Abstract: aising ducks in paddy fields is a traditional agricultural model in China. Field experiments were conducted in rice-duck mutualism ecosystems in the double rice cropping region of Hunan Province during May to October of 2010. A conventional rice field was used as the control. The characteristics of nutrient return and uptake by rice in the rice-duck mutualism ecosystem were analyzed. The main objectives of the study were to provide theoretical and practical bases for further development and utilization of this classical agricultural technique. Results showed that feeding duck in paddy fields respectively increased C, N and P by 229.87 kg·hm-2, 18.22 kg·hm-2 and 17.75 kg·hm-2 of duck feces during double rice cropping season. During double rice cropping season, the return of C, N and P to soil in the rice-duck mutualism ecosystem was in the order of C > N > P. The measured values of C, N and P were 1 491.21 kg·hm-2, 66.02 kg·hm-2 soils under the rice-duck mutualism ecosystem increased by 20.43% (P > 0.05), 55.81% (P < 0.05) and 379% (P < 0.05), respectively. While C and N returns were largely from rice root system, P return was mostly from duck feces. In contrast with conventional rice system, rice-duck symbiosis system increased soil total N by 5.73%, significantly increased soil total P by 6.25%. The rice-duck symbiosis increased root and straw total N and P and seed total P during double cropping rice season. It also increased straw N and P uptake, root P uptake and decreased yield and seed N and P uptake during double cropping rice season. Rice P uptake and content were better than N under rice-duck mutualism ecosystem.
Effect of increased nighttime temperature on dry matter production and nutrient absorption in double cropping rice
夜温升高对双季水稻物质生产与养分吸收的影响

WEI Jin-Lian,PAN Xiao-Hua,
魏金连
,潘晓华

中国生态农业学报 , 2010,
Abstract: n experiment was conducted under different glasshouse conditions to determine the effect of nighttime temperature increase (NTI) on dry matter production and nutrient absorption in double cropping rice. No significant effect of NTI on dry matter production in early rice is noted. However, NTI significantly increases dry matter production in late rice. In early rice, NTI enhances dry matter accumulation before panicle differentiation, but decreases it after that. In the case of late rice, dry matter accumulation is enhanced by NTI, except during panicle differentiation to heading. Flag leaf senescence in early rice is accelerated by NTI, but no similar effect is noted in late rice. There is less obvious impact of NTI on total nitrogen accumulation than on P and K accumulation. In early rice, NTI only benefits crop nutrient absorption before panicle differentiation, but after that NTI inhibits nutrient absorption. However, the opposite tendency is observed before and after heading in late rice. The study therefore suggests that the effect of NTI on dry matter production and nutrient absorption is different between early and late rice, and among growth stages.
Effect of Real Time N Management on Biomass Production, Nutrient Uptake and Soil Nutrient Status of Direct Seeded Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Gunasekhar Nachimuthu,V. Velu,P. Malarvizhi,S. Ramasamy
American Journal of Plant Physiology , 2007,
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, in deep clay soil (Vertic ustochrept) to study the effect of real time N management using Leaf Color Chart (LCC) on biomass production, nutrient uptake and soil available nutrient status in short duration rice (Var. CO 47) under direct wet (drum) seeded condition. The study was conducted in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The treatments included maintaining three LCC critical values (cv.) viz., LCC 3, 4 and 5 with different rates of N application (20, 25, 30 and 35 kg N ha-1 each time, besides absolute control (Zero-N), Blanket N (120 kg N ha-1in four equal splits from 21 Days After Sowing (DAS) and Manage N practices (120 kg N ha-1 in four unequal splits). The results of the experiment suggest that rate of biomass production and NPK uptake were highest during panicle initiation to first flowering stages for the tested variety CO 47 and LCC based N management have effectively saved the N fertilizer. The lack of difference in soil available nutrient between LCC based treatments and conventional blanket N treatment suggest that LCC based N management could be best option for farmers to save fertilizer N besides maintaining soil fertility. The results suggest further scope to standardise the LCC based N management for different intensively cultivated cultivars at specific location and season.
Dry matter production and nutrient accumulation after successive crops of lettuce, tomato, rice, and andropogongrass in a substrate with zeolite
Bernardi, Alberto C. de Campos;Monte, Marisa Bezerra de Mello;Paiva, Paulo Renato Perdig?o;Werneck, Carlos Guarino;Haim, Patrick Gesualdi;Barros, Fernando de Souza;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832010000200017
Abstract: zeolites are hydrated crystalline aluminosilicate minerals of natural occurrence, structured in rigid third dimension net that can be used as slow release plant-nutrient source. the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant growth substrate under zeolite application, enriched with n, p and k, on dry matter yield and on nutrient contents in consecutive crops of lettuce, tomato, rice, and andropogon grass. the experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with 3 kg pots with an inert substrate, evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications. treatments consisted of four types of enrichment of concentrated natural zeolite: concentrated zeolite (z) only, zeolite + kno3 (znk), zeolite + k2hpo4 (zpk) and zeolite + h3po4 + apatite (zp), and a control grown in substrate fertilized with a zeolite-free nutrient solution. four levels of enriched zeolite were tested: 20, 40, 80, and 160 g/pot. four successive crops were grown on the same substrate in each pot: lettuce, tomato, rice, and andropogon grass. results indicated that n, p and k enriched zeolite was an adequate slow-release nutrient source for plants. the total dry matter production of above-ground biomass of four successive crops followed a descending order: zp > zpk > znk > z.
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