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Genetically Modified (GM) Foods/Organisms: Perspectives of Undergraduate Medical and Dental Students of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
Food and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.fph.20120206.14
Abstract: Genetically modified (GM) food/organism is a product of recombinant DNA biotechnological procedures which allow the genetic constitution of an organism to be modified for specific ends such as: nutrient fortification, faster growth, improved organoleptic characteristics, and resistance to pesticides, amongst others. The study assessed the knowledge, attitude and consumption practices of GM foods among 318 undergraduate medical and dental students of the University of Lagos, using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using EPI-INFO version 6.4. Approximately half (53.1%) of the respondents were females and 46.9% were males with mean age of 21.3 ± 2.67 years. Awareness about biotechnology and GM foods/organisms was high (87.3% and 72%, respectively). However, knowledge regarding specific details about GM technology was poor. Less than one-quarter (16.7%) had good knowledge about GM foods while approximately four-fifths (83.6%) of them had negative attitude toward GM products. Gender (p=0.0008) and course of study (p=0.0002) were significantly associated with knowledge levels. Similarly, knowledge was significantly associated (P =0.0066) with the attitude of respondents towards GMFs/GMOs. Attitude also significantly influenced choice between traditional and GM foods if the prices are the same (p=0.003) and choice if price is different but quality is the same (p=0.018). In conclusion, the study revealed that undergraduate medical and dental students of the University of Lagos, although were aware of GM products, however knowledge about specific details concerning GM technology was poor, attitude was largely negative, with a large proportion of respondents expressing concerns of safety and protection of consumers’ rights. This expectedly influenced their preference for traditional (organic) foods over GM foods. A more inclusive approach, comprising of a comprehensive enlightenment of young adults about the GM technology detailing its components, challenges, opportunities and prospects in addressing the global food crisis is recommended.
Genetically by Modified Crops: An Overview  [PDF]
Navin Srivastava,Vijai Kumar Gupta,Rajesh Pati,Rajarshi Kumar Gaur
Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: Genetically modified transgenic crops also referred to as a Genetically Modified (GM) crops are produced by when the genetic material of an organism (either DNA or RNA) is altered by use of recombinant DNA technology and the modification can be replicated and/or transferred to other cells or organisms. The recently understood recombinant DNA technology has potential, via genetic engineering, to incorporate a specific gene which controls a particular trait, without co-transfer of undesirable genes from donor species as occurs in conventional breeding. In recent year, the globally cultivated area of transgenics crops has increased more than 81 million hectares. Most GM crops grown today have been developed to resist certain insect pests. There are GM plants being developed today to produce specific vitamins, resist plant viruses and even produce products for medicinal uses.
Safety Assessment and Countermeasures of Genetically Modified Food
Bin Du,Feng-mei Zhu
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: With the rapid development of science-biotechnology, the safety of genetically modified organisms has become some of the most controversial issues in our society. This study aims to review the safety assessment and countermeasures of Genetically Modified (GM) foods. Firstly, the research status and the main contents of GM foods safety assessment are discussed. What’s more, the countermeasures of GM foods safety assessment are proposed. This study tries to summarize and discuss the safety assessment of GM foods.
Genetically modified trees: State and perspectives  [PDF]
Noni? Marina,Vettori Cristina,Boscaleri Fabio,Milovanovi? Jelena
Genetika , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/gensr1202429n
Abstract: Genetically modified trees are the result of modern plant breeding. Its introduction into the environment for experimental purposes or wider cultivation is defined differently from country to country. Public opinion is divided! Conducted research are part of the activities within the COST Action FP0905 Biosafety of forest transgenic trees”, which aims to collect information and define the scientific attitude on genetically modified trees as a basis for future European Union (EU) policy in this field. The collected information refer to eight countries: four EU member states (Italy, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria) and four countries in the process of pre-accession (Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina). A comparative analysis involved the state of forest resources (area of forest land and forest cover), forestry legislation, legislation relating to genetically modified organisms and the general public attitude on this issue. The collected information provide a good basis for understanding this issue in order to define a clear scientific attitude as a recommendation. [Acknowledgements. The authors wish to acknowledge the support of the COST Action FP0905 Biosafety of forest transgenic trees” for assigned STSM and financial support, also special thanks to the Host institution (Tuscany Region - Directorate General) in Florence for kind cooperation. The performed research was partially conducted within the Project Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for Afforestation of Serbia“ TP 31041]
Awareness of Health Impacts of Genetically Modified Foods in India
Girija. K,Radha. R
Advanced Biotech , 2013,
Abstract: Genetically modified foods (GM foods) are foods derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs have had specific changes introduced into their DNA by genetic engineering techniques. Countries like India that have food security concerns and have small and marginal farmers practicing an integrated type of agriculture have specific problems for which they seek solutions. Crisis for genetically modified foods is an unsolved poblem till date in India as there is no step taken by the government. The GM crops currently on the market are mainly aimed at an increased level of crop protection through the introduction of resistance against plant diseases caused by insects or viruses or through increased tolerance towards herbicides. Insect resistance is achieved by incorporating into the food plant the gene for toxin production from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (BT). Many alarming health risk such as infertility, allergy, metabolic syndrome, cancer etc are been caused by consuming GM foods by the toxin produced by it. There is a great need to create awareness among the public on health effects of GM foods to avoid future health risk. Measure to be taken by the government to eradicate the GM foods from the market.
The level of consumer knowledge of genetically modified food
Arkadiusz Sadowski,Magdalena Piasecka
Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development , 2011,
Abstract: Practically application of genetically modified organisms poses a relatively new issue which causes a lot of controversies because of potential opportunities and risks. They are also subject of discussion, both among experts and general public. Therefore it is necessary to provide reliable information about modified organisms and about favourable and unfavourable consequences (environmental, health, economic and social) of they ap-plication. It is also important to recognise state of knowledge among potential and actual GM consumers. It was a goal of questionnaire research carried out on the group of 80 people. They revealed that in many aspects knowledge about GMO is relatively limited and depended on the level of education. Respondents with higher level of education have usually more information and simultaneously reveal more criticism in relation to their knowledge. There was no relationship between the knowledge of GM food and the place of residence.
Genetically Modified Plants: Public and Scientific Perceptions  [PDF]
Smita Rastogi Verma
ISRN Biotechnology , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/820671
Abstract: The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. 1. Introduction Genetically modified (GM) plants, also called transgenic plants, are designed to acquire useful quality attributes such as insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, abiotic stress tolerance, disease resistance, high nutritional quality, high yield potential, delayed ripening, enhanced ornamental value, male sterility, and production of edible vaccines. Another major goal for raising the GM plants is their application as bioreactors for the production of nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, antigens, monoclonal antibody fragments biopolymers, and so forth [1]. Thus, GM plants can potentially affect many aspects of modern society, including agricultural production and medical treatment. Despite these potential applications, the use of GM plants for human welfare has been restricted owing to various concerns raised by the public and the critics. These concerns are divided into different categories, namely, health, nutritional, environmental, ecological, socioeconomic, and ethical concerns [2–25]. These concerns include those arising due to properties of GM plants themselves, those resulting from the spread of the transgenes to other organisms, and also those resulting from their release into the environment. Such concerns have led to the withdrawal of
Genetically modified crops in Chile
Salazar,Erika; Montenegro,Gloria;
Ciencia e investigación agraria , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-16202009000300003
Abstract: the economical, environmental and social impacts associated with genetically modified (gm) crops are supported by the increased use of gm species by farmers. this increase in the use of gm species has included a global increase in both the number of hectares with gm crops and the number of countries using this technology. however, the use of gm crops has some drawbacks, due to the environmental risks associated with some of the events and social risks related to intellectual property rights issues and the monopoly associated with this technology. an overview of the current status of the use of gm crops in relation to the production, benefits, associated risks, intellectual property rights, legislation and regulatory framework is presented, focusing in the situation of ties crops in chile.
Genetically Modified Foods and Nutrition
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2008,
Abstract: To consume a balanced diet may prevent many illnesses. After the Second World War the Green Revolution was conducted to increase efficiency in agriculture. After its harmful effects on environment were understood genetically modified foods (GMO) were served to combat hunger in the world. Today insufficiency in food product is not the main problem; imbalanced food distribution is the problem. In addition, GMO s might be harmful for health and environment. Moreover economical dependency to industrialized countries will carry on. If the community tends to use up all the sources and the population increases steadily hunger will not be the only scarcity that the human population would face. There will also be shortage in energy and clean water resources. In conclusion combating just with hunger using high technology will only postpone the problems for a short period of time. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(5): 455-460]
An update on genetically modified crops
Schwember,Andrés R;
Ciencia e investigación agraria , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-16202008000300001
Abstract: a. r. schwember. 2008. an update on genetically modified crops. cien. inv. agr. 35(3):231-250. genetically modified (gm) crops were introduced in the mid 1990s and two principal transgenic technologies currently domínate the market, herbicide-tolerant (ht) crops and insect-resistant crops (bacillus thuringiensis (bt) crops). ht crops have simplified weed management practices, reduced crop production costs, and have had positive effects on the environment. however, there are concerns about the potential development of weeds resistant to glyphosate, the main herbicide employed with ht crops. a second major worry associated with the use of ht crops is the potential introgression of genes from gm crops into wild relatives (i.e. gene flow) and its potential impact on natural ecosystems. bt crops have increased yields and reduced the use of insecticides, providing benefits for human health and the environment. however, the potential development of resistance to the bt toxin by insect pests and the indirect damage of bt toxins to non-target species are major concerns related to their use. different strategies to mitígate and elimínate the problems associated with the use of gm crops are discussed in the paper. the next step in plant biotechnology is the reléase of nutrí ti onally-enhanced components in seeds that will benefit humans directly.
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