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Managing Heterogeneous WSNs in Smart Cities: Challenges and Requirements  [PDF]
Trang Cao Minh,Boris Bellalta,Simon Oechsner,Ruizhi Liao,Miquel Oliver
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: The dramatic advances in wireless communications and electronics have enabled the development of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). WSNs consist of many affordable and portable sensor nodes for collecting data from the environment. In this article, we address management requirements of WSNs through presenting some key management scenarios in the Smart Cities context, such as intelligent transportation systems, smart grids and smart buildings. The limited resources and heterogeneous characteristics of WSNs pose new challenges in network management, which include the presence of various faults, the difficulty in replacing and repairing a large number of sensor nodes, the existence of an uncertain topology, and the resource allocation. To cope with these challenges, we first discuss advantages and disadvantages of centralized and distributed management approaches and then discuss the benefit of the multilevel management schema. Next, we present in detail the specific features for a WSN management system such as lightweight, self-detection, self-configuration, sharing infrastructure, service monitoring, plug and play, context awareness and interoperability. Finally, we present the required mechanisms for some basic management functions.
WAP GIS: Approaches and Challenges
Tariq Rahim Soomro,Moneef Jazzar,Ghulam Qadir Mirbahar,Syed Mehmood Naqvi
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is the de facto worldwide standard for providing Internet communications and advanced services on digital mobile phones, pagers, personal digital assistants (PDA) and other wireless devices. On the other hand Geographical Information System (GIS) is widely recognized as a powerful and dynamic tool that crosses the boundaries of disciplines and applications areas. The integration of both important technologies makes it WAP GIS. This study will discuss the approaches to implement WAP GIS, along with the challenges faced by this new emerging technology.
Functional verification: approaches and challenges
Molina,A.; Cadenas,O.;
Latin American applied research , 2007,
Abstract: it's a fact that functional verification (fv) is paramount within the hardware's design cycle. with so many new techniques available today to help with fv, which techniques should we really use? the answer is not straightforward and is often confusing and costly. the tools and techniques to be used in a project have to be decided upon early in the design cycle to get the best value for these new verification methods. this paper gives a quick survey in the form of an overview on fv, establishes the difference between verification and validation, describes the bottlenecks that appear in the verification process, examines the challenges in fv and exposes the current fv technologies and trends.
Functional verification: approaches and challenges
A. Molina,O. Cadenas
Latin American applied research , 2007,
Abstract: It's a fact that functional verification (FV) is paramount within the hardware's design cycle. With so many new techniques available today to help with FV, which techniques should we really use? The answer is not straightforward and is often confusing and costly. The tools and techniques to be used in a project have to be decided upon early in the design cycle to get the best value for these new verification methods. This paper gives a quick survey in the form of an overview on FV, establishes the difference between verification and validation, describes the bottlenecks that appear in the verification process, examines the challenges in FV and exposes the current FV technologies and trends.
XML Matchers: approaches and challenges  [PDF]
Santa Agreste,Pasquale De Meo,Emilio Ferrara,Domenico Ursino
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.knosys.2014.04.044
Abstract: Schema Matching, i.e. the process of discovering semantic correspondences between concepts adopted in different data source schemas, has been a key topic in Database and Artificial Intelligence research areas for many years. In the past, it was largely investigated especially for classical database models (e.g., E/R schemas, relational databases, etc.). However, in the latest years, the widespread adoption of XML in the most disparate application fields pushed a growing number of researchers to design XML-specific Schema Matching approaches, called XML Matchers, aiming at finding semantic matchings between concepts defined in DTDs and XSDs. XML Matchers do not just take well-known techniques originally designed for other data models and apply them on DTDs/XSDs, but they exploit specific XML features (e.g., the hierarchical structure of a DTD/XSD) to improve the performance of the Schema Matching process. The design of XML Matchers is currently a well-established research area. The main goal of this paper is to provide a detailed description and classification of XML Matchers. We first describe to what extent the specificities of DTDs/XSDs impact on the Schema Matching task. Then we introduce a template, called XML Matcher Template, that describes the main components of an XML Matcher, their role and behavior. We illustrate how each of these components has been implemented in some popular XML Matchers. We consider our XML Matcher Template as the baseline for objectively comparing approaches that, at first glance, might appear as unrelated. The introduction of this template can be useful in the design of future XML Matchers. Finally, we analyze commercial tools implementing XML Matchers and introduce two challenging issues strictly related to this topic, namely XML source clustering and uncertainty management in XML Matchers.
eQTL Epistasis – Challenges and Computational Approaches  [PDF]
Stefan Wuchty?,Teresa M. Przytycka
Frontiers in Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00051
Abstract: The determination of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) epistasis – a form of functional interaction between genetic loci that affect gene expression – is an important step toward the thorough understanding of gene regulation. Since gene expression has emerged as an “intermediate” molecular phenotype eQTL epistasis might help to explain the relationship between genotype and higher level organismal phenotypes such as diseases. A characteristic feature of eQTL analysis is the big number of tests required to identify associations between gene expression and genetic loci variability. This problem is aggravated, when epistatic effects between eQTLs are analyzed. In this review, we discuss recent algorithmic approaches for the detection of eQTL epistasis and highlight lessons that can be learned from current methods.
Overview of Data Routing Approaches for Wireless Sensor?Networks  [PDF]
Mohammad Hossein Anisi,Abdul Hanan Abdullah,Shukor Abd Razak,Md. Asri Ngadi
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s120403964
Abstract: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in deploying large populations of microsensors that collaborate in a distributed manner to gather and process sensory data and deliver them to a sink node through wireless communications systems. Currently, there is a lot of interest in data routing for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) due to their unique challenges compared to conventional routing in wired networks. In WSNs, each data routing approach follows a specific goal (goals) according to the application. Although the general goal of every data routing approach in WSNs is to extend the network lifetime and every approach should be aware of the energy level of the nodes, data routing approaches may focus on one (or some) specific goal(s) depending on the application. Thus, existing approaches can be categorized according to their routing goals. In this paper, the main goals of data routing approaches in sensor networks are described. Then, the best known and most recent data routing approaches in WSNs are classified and studied according to their specific goals.
Multiobjective Optimization Approaches in Image Segmentation – The Directions and Challenges
Bong Chin-Wei,Mandava Rajeswari
International Journal of Advances in Soft Computing and Its Applications , 2010,
Abstract: A new trend of problem formulation for image segmentation is touse multiobjective optimization approach in its decision makingprocess. Multiobjective formulations are realistic models for manycomplex optimization problems. In many real-life problems,objectives under consideration conflict with each other, andoptimizing a particular solution with respect to a single objective canresult in unacceptable results with respect to the other objectives.The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review ofmultiobjective optimization in image segmentation problem. Themodels are classified according to relevant features, such as thevarious aspects of the optimization approaches used, various possibleproblem formulations, type of datasets modelled and the scope of theapplications. Through our analysis of the current state of theresearch, we diagnose some of the directions and challenges formodelling the image segmentation problem with multiple objectivescriteria. In this review, we consolidate the selected material in theliterature, including more than 80 studies dated 1990 or later.
Approaches, Challenges and Future Direction of Image Retrieval  [PDF]
Hui Hui Wang,Dzulkifli Mohamad,N. A. Ismail
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: This paper attempts to discuss the evolution of the retrieval approaches focusing on development, challenges and future direction of the image retrieval. It highlights both the already addressed and outstanding issues. The explosive growth of image data leads to the need of research and development of Image Retrieval. However, Image retrieval researches are moving from keyword, to low level features and to semantic features. Drive towards semantic features is due to the problem of the keywords which can be very subjective and time consuming while low level features cannot always describe high level concepts in the users' mind. Hence, introducing an interpretation inconsistency between image descriptors and high level semantics that known as the semantic gap. This paper also discusses the semantic gap issues, user query mechanisms as well as common ways used to bridge the gap in image retrieval.
Lipodystrophy in HIV patients: its challenges and management approaches
Singhania R, Kotler DP
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S14562
Abstract: dystrophy in HIV patients: its challenges and management approaches Review (4059) Total Article Views Authors: Singhania R, Kotler DP Published Date December 2011 Volume 2011:3 Pages 135 - 143 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S14562 Rohit Singhania, Donald P Kotler Department of Medicine, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: HIV-associated lipodystrophy is a term used to describe a constellation of body composition (lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy) and metabolic (dyslipidemia and insulin resistance) alterations that accompany highly active antiretroviral therapy. These changes, which resemble metabolic syndrome, have been associated with a variety of adverse outcomes including accelerated cardiovascular disease. The body composition and metabolic changes appear to cluster in HIV infection, although they are distinct alterations and do not necessarily coexist. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated multiple pathogenic influences associated with host, disease, and treatment-related factors. The adverse treatment effects were more prominent in early regimens; continued drug development has led to the application of metabolically safer regimens with equal or greater potency than the regimens being replaced. Disease-related factors include HIV infection as well as inflammation, immune activation, and immune depletion. The body composition changes promote anxiety and depression in patients and may affect treatment adherence. Treatment of dyslipidemia and alterations in glucose metabolism is the same as in non-HIV-infected individuals. Lipoatrophy is managed by strategic choice of antivirals or by antiviral switching, and in some cases by plastic/reconstructive surgery. Lipohypertrophy has been managed mainly by lifestyle modification, ie, a hypocaloric diet and increased exercise. A growth hormone releasing factor, which reduces central fat, has recently become available for clinical use.
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