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Exploring spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Nakarin Chaikaew, Nitin K Tripathi, Marc Souris
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-8-36
Abstract: The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemic outbreak patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand, in terms of their geographical distributions and hotspot identification. The data of patients with diarrhea at village level and the 2001–2006 population censuses were collected to achieve the objective. Spatial analysis, using geographic information systems (GIS) and other methods, was used to uncover the hidden phenomena from the data. In the data analysis section, spatial statistics such as quadrant analysis (QA), nearest neighbour analysis (NNA), and spatial autocorrelation analysis (SAA), were used to identify the spatial patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province. In addition, local indicators of spatial association (LISA) and kernel density (KD) estimation were used to detect diarrhea hotspots using data at village level.The hotspot maps produced by the LISA and KD techniques showed spatial trend patterns of diarrhea diffusion. Villages in the middle and northern regions revealed higher incidences. Also, the spatial patterns of diarrhea during the years 2001 and 2006 were found to represent spatially clustered patterns, both at global and local scales.Spatial analysis methods in GIS revealed the spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province from the year 2001 to 2006. To implement specific and geographically appropriate public health risk-reduction programs, the use of such spatial analysis tools may become an integral component in the epidemiologic description, analysis, and risk assessment of diarrhea.Diarrhea is a major public health problem in Thailand. The Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has been trying to monitor and control this disease for many years. The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemic outbreak patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand, in terms of their geographical distributions and hotspot identification. The methodology and the results could be useful for
Spatial Diffusion of Influenza Outbreak-Related Climate Factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand  [PDF]
Supachai Nakapan,Nitin Kumar Tripathi,Taravudh Tipdecho,Marc Souris
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9113824
Abstract: Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.
Micro-components survey of residential indoor water consumption in Chiang Mai
Y. Otaki, M. Otaki, P. Pengchai, Y. Ohta,T. Aramaki
Drinking Water Engineering and Science (DWES) & Discussions (DWESD) , 2008, DOI: 10.5194/dwes-1-17-2008
Abstract: The direct measurement of the micro-components of water consumption (i.e., consumption by each residential activity, such as toilet-, laundry-, bath-, and kitchen-use), both in the dry season and in the rainy season, was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand. It was expected that rainfall differences between the dry and rainy season would influence awareness for water resources so that water consumption in the dry season would be smaller than that in the rainy season. In addition, it was examined whether the differences in water resources such as public waterworks or non-public waterworks (i.e., community waterworks, mountainous water and groundwater), affected the amount of water use. A small-sized accumulative water meter was developed for measurement. This survey provides important information for water demand estimations and water supply planning in middle-developed countries where water consumption is expected to increase in future.
Micro-components survey of residential indoor water consumption in Chiang Mai  [PDF]
Y. Otaki,M. Otaki,P. Pengchai,Y. Ohta
Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: The direct measurement of the micro-components of water consumption (i.e., consumption by each residential activity, such as toilet, laundry, bath, and kitchen) both in the dry season and in the rainy season was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand. It was expected that rainfall differences between the dry and rainy season could influence awareness for water resources so that water consumption in the dry season may be smaller than that in the rainy season. It was also examined that whether the differences in water resources such as public waterworks or non-public waterworks like community waterworks, mountainous water and groundwater, affect the water use amount. A small-sized accumulative water meter was developed for measurement. This survey can provide the important information for water demand estimation and water supply planning in middle-developed countries where their water consumption should be expected to increase from here on.
Risk Factors of Malnutrition among Karen Children in Chiang Mai, Thailand  [PDF]
Sukon Prasitwattanaseree, Chatpat Kongpun, Sakorn Pornprasert, Preeyanoot Intapat, Suttipong Kawilapat, Patrinee Traisathit
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2016.65062
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors of malnutrition and its association with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) among Karen hill tribe children. We conducted a study on blood samples from children from Baan Yang Poa School, Chiang Mai, Thailand aged between 9 and 15 years old. Of 193 children, 31 (16.1%) had malnutrition and 12 (6.2%) had IDA. Children who had at least five family members were found to have a significantly higher risk of malnutrition (P = 0.005), a reflection of the importance of socioeconomic factors in the problem of malnutrition. We also found that malnutrition was not associated with IDA although the assessment of the association of malnutrition and other types of anaemia is still of interest.
Application of Capture and Recapture Method for Estimating the Population Size of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Chiang Mai, Thailand  [PDF]
Phrutthinun Surit, Ning Zheng, He Yi, Xiaojing Yu, Watcharee Srithong, Saisiri Mirasena, Wutthichai Jariya
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2016.64022
Abstract: Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are highly vulnerable to HIV infection, but this population can be particularly difficult to reach in Thailand. This study aimed to estimate the number of MSM in Chiang Mai Thailand, in order to plan HIV control and prevention. Methods: The total of 348 potential MSM were identified at eight contact locations, including two public parks, two bars, two massage parlors and two pubs in Chiang Mai. Trained 16 research enumerators and 16 enumerators were trained to extend a recruitment of brooches to MSM. The MSMs were captured one week apart. A record was kept of when, where and by whom the invitation was extended and received, and of refusals. The total estimate of MSM was derived from capture-recapture calculation. Results: The total MSM in Chiang Mai Thailand estimated by capture and recapture method was 733 (95%CI = 480 - 948) or the estimate was 7.3% (95%CI = 7.1% - 14.1%). Conclusions: Capture and recapture method can be used to enumerate and provide accurate and reliable estimates of the MSM population in any area, provided that certain conditions are controlled. MSM who are engaged in personal community represent a sizeable population who urgently need to be targeted by HIV and STDs prevention strategies.
A new species of Simulium (Nevermannia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Chiang Mai, Thailand  [cached]
Hiroyuki Takaoka,Wichai Srisuka
ZooKeys , 2011, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.89.761
Abstract: Simulium (Nevermannia) maeaiense sp. n. is described on the basis of female, male, pupal and larval specimens collected from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. This species is assigned to the feuerborni species-group of the subgenus Simulium (Nevermannia), and is distinctive among this species-group inthe female cibarium furnished with numerous dark minute conical processes on the lower part, the female genital fork with a strongly sclerotized horizontal bar on each arm, and six long pupal gill filaments arising nearly at the same level from the common basal stalk and lying in a horizontal plane. These characteristics separate this new species from all the known species of the feuerborni species-group. Identification keys to seven species (six known plus one new) of the feuerborni species-group reported from Thailand are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
Testing the Framework Species Method for Forest Restoration in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand  [cached]
Prasit WANGPAKAPATTANAWONG,Stephen ELLIOTT
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.2004/vol5iss1pp1-15
Abstract: The framework species method of reforestation, developed by FORRU (Forest Restoration Research Unit) has been used successfully to restore evergreen forest on degraded former agricultural sites in Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. This paper reports 3 year results of an attempt to duplicate the FORRU reforestation techniques at Ban Toong Yah, Mae Chaem district, at a similar elevation as FORRU’s original plots at Ban Mae Sa Mai, Mae Rim district. Twenty species of framework tree seedlings were planted in June 2002. The 2 year results indicate that the seedlings achieved lower survival rates than at the FORRU’s original site. Height growth, root collar diameter, and crown width were also lower. Some seedlings died because they were trampled by cows, which also ate some of the seedlings. However, several sapling species, such as Ficus fistulosa and Phyllanthus emblica, were able to produce new shoots from their axillary buds, after having been browsed by cows. In 2004, 5 well-performed species: Castanopsis tribuloides, Ficus fistulosa, Hovenia dulcis, Ostodes paniculata and Prunus cerasoides, were selected along with 12 never-planted species to be planted in June. The results indicate that the seedlings achieved lower survival rates than at the FORRU’s original site. The seedlings achieved an average survival rate of about 50 % after the first growing season. The exposed, windy environment of the planting site might also account for lower than expected growth and survival rates. The FORRU’s recommended methods of site preparation using herbicide and weed suppression using cardboard mulch may be employed to improve seedling survival and growth on this site.
Carbon Monoxide Emission and Concentration Models for Chiang Mai Urban Area
Surachai SATHITKUNARAT,Prungchan WONGWISES,Rudklao PAN-ARAM,ZHANG Meigen,
Surachai SATHITKUNARAT
,Prungchan WONGWISES,Rudklao PAN-ARAM,ZHANG Meigen

大气科学进展 , 2006,
Abstract: An emission inventory containing emissions from traffic and other sources was complied. Based on the analysis, Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions from traffic play a very important role in CO levels in Chiang Mai area. Analysis showed that CO emissions from traffic during rush hours contributed approximately 90% of total CO emissions. Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was applied to simulate wind fields and temperatures in the Chiang Mai area, and eight cases were selected to study annual variations in wind fields and temperatures. Model results can reflect major features of wind fields and diurnal variations in temperatures. For evaluating the model performance, model results were compared with observed wind speed, wind direction and temperature, which were monitored at a meteorological tower. Comparison showed that model results are in good agreement with observations, and the model captured many of the observed features. HYbrid Particle And Concentration Transport model (HYPACT) was used to simulate CO concentration in the Chiang Mai area. Model results generally agree well with observed CO concentrations at the air quality monitoring stations, and can explain observed CO diurnal variations.
Ecological and Genetic Relationship of Chironomus circumdatus (Diptera, Chironomidae) From Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand  [cached]
W. Roongruangwongse,C. Suwannapoom,N. Kamrin,S. Chomdej
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study provides means for more accurate identification of Chironomus circumdatus species for environmental and ecological management by Population of C. circumdatus (86 individuals) and water samples were collected from three different sites of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Specimens of Einfeldia sp. were used as an initial out group. The genetic relationship of C. circumdatus specimens from these sources was determined by using DNA sequence analysis of partial mtDNA gene’s Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI). Analysis of genetic distance on the basis of sequence difference for COI mitochondrial gene showed very little genetic difference and the data from phylogenetic analysis revealed a very large genetic difference among all populations of this species for the COI gene sequences. In addition, NJ tree was related to with physicochemical parameters of the water samples.
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