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Exploring Peer Learning: Student to Student, Lecturer to Lecturer  [cached]
Peter Petocz,Michael Duke,Ayse Bilgin,Anna Reid
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n14p91
Abstract: This article explores how lecturers in statistics have adopted a model for a student peer learning project initially established in a music school. The exploration shows how disciplinary differences generate different peer learning approaches between students and how a team of lecturers has adapted a project from one discipline and institution to another. In essence, it explores the nature of peer learning from the perspective of student peers, including the extra insight that is available from the view of lecturer peers. The model is important as it focuses on peer learning that resides in informal spaces rather than within a formalised curriculum.
Peer relationships and academic achievement  [PDF]
Krnjaji? Stevan B.
Zbornik Instituta za Pedago?ka Istra?ivanja , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/zipi0204213k
Abstract: After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a) social competence, (b) social acceptance/rejection, (c) child's friendships and (d) prosocial behavior on academic achievement.
Academic Achievement in College: the Predictive Value of Subjective Evaluations of Intelligence and Academic Self-concept  [PDF]
Tatiana V. Kornilova
Psychology in Russia : State of Art , 2009,
Abstract: The study examined the relationship between self-, peer- and test-estimated intelligence, academic self-concept and academic achievement. Subjective evaluations of intelligence and academic self-concept had incremental predictive value over conventional intelligence when predicting achievement accounting for more than 40% of its variance. The obtained pattern of results is presented via SEM-model which accounts for 75% variance in the latent factor of academic achievement. Author suggests the importance of further studying complex sets of achievement predictors from ability, personality and mediating domains.
The Relationship between Quality of Teaching and Student Evaluations: The Case of an Academic Course in Endocrinology  [PDF]
Gad Degani
Voice of the Publisher (VP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/vp.2016.23003
Abstract: The purpose of the research was to examine the relationship between student attendance of lessons, success on exams, and student evaluations of teaching regarding courses taught by a lecturer in the field of endocrinology. The methodology consisted of recording attendance of lectures, examining exam results, and reviewing the results of the student evaluations of teaching. The results indicated significant differences in course attendance by department of study. In the animal sciences, only 57% of the students attended the lectures; in the nutrition department and the master’s degree program, the attendance rate was 87%. No significant difference was found between the grades of the animal science students who attended lectures and those of the students in the nutrition department and master’s-degree program (due to the similar and high attendance rates, they were considered as one group). The grades of the animal science students who did not attend lectures were significantly lower than those of the other groups (p < 0.05). No significant difference was indicated between the college-wide mean score on the student evaluations of teaching and those in two of the study programs examined (nutrition and master’s degree). However, the student evaluations of the Introduction to Endocrinology course taught in the animal sciences were significantly lower than the college-wide mean, and compared with the two other endocrinology courses, in the nutrition department and the master’s degree program. The research results support findings of previous studies that student evaluations of teaching actually examine student satisfaction and interest in the course, which are correlated with the student’s academic level and investment in studies. The findings also corroborate the results of previous research conducted at Tel Aviv University, which shows that evaluation surveys administered to students do not indicate the actual quality of a lecturer’s teaching.
Peer acceptance/rejection and academic achievement  [PDF]
Spasenovi? Vera Z.
Zbornik Instituta za Pedago?ka Istra?ivanja , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/zipi0335267s
Abstract: Considerations of the nature and role of peer relations in child development indicate that peer interaction is an important factor in developing social and cognitive competences. Peer relations not only influence current but also subsequent academic, behavioral and emotional development. Accepted students more often display better academic achievement, whereas the status of rejection is coupled with academic difficulties and lower academic achievement. Peer rejection is a relatively stable characteristic that can be used to predict difficulties in the years to come, such as repeat of a grade, early drop out, unjustified absences, adaptability problems etc. It is considered that correlation between academic achievement and peer group status is mediated by student social behavior at school. The quality of peer relations and academic achievement are mutually influential i.e. peer acceptance serves as a social resource that facilitates academic achievement, but academic achievement has effects on student acceptance. To help students who display difficulties in social relations, various intervention programs have been well thought of so as to contribute to interpersonal efficiency promotion. Concerning interdependence of social behavior, peer status and academic achievement, it is reasonable to expect that positive changes in behavior, frequently leading to the change of rejection status, will produce, directly or indirectly, positive effects on academic achievement too.
The Role of Emotional Engagement in Lecturer-Student Interaction and the Impact on Academic Outcomes of Student Achievement and Learning  [cached]
Vathsala Sagayadevan,Senthu Jeyaraj
The Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning , 2012,
Abstract: Engagement has been studied as a multidimensional construct consisting of three subtypes: behavioral, cognitive, and emotional (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). Among these, behavioral engagement has received the most and emotional engagement, the least attention (Fredricks et al., 2004). The current study thus aimed to examine the relationship between lecturer-student interaction, emotional engagement (specifically affective reactions expressed within the classroom), and academic outcomes (such as, student achievement and learning) in a sample of 140 undergraduate psychology students (M = 24, F = 116). Participants were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions (i.e., good vs. poor lecturer-student interaction) and completed the Lecturer-Student Interaction (LSI) questionnaire, Class-related Emotions Questionnaire (CEQ), Perception of Learning (POL) Questionnaire, and two measures of academic achievement. Individuals who shared a good interaction with their lecturer reported higher levels of emotional engagement compared to those who shared poor interactions with their lecturers. In addition, while emotional engagement failed to mediate the pathway between lecturer-student interaction and academic achievement, it was found to partially mediate lecturer-student interaction and student learning. The present findings highlight the significance of emotional engagement in enhancing learning outcomes in students.
Efficacy of College Lecturer and Student Peer Collaborative Assessment of In-Service Mathematics Student Teachers' Teaching Practice Instruction  [PDF]
Lovemore J. Nyaumwe,David K. Mtetwa
Mathematics Educator , 2006,
Abstract: This study investigated the effectiveness of collaboration between college lecturers and student peers in assessing the instructional practice of in-service student teachers (ISTs). The study was inspired by criticisms that college lecturers’ assessments were not producing valid critiques of ISTs’ mathematical and pedagogical competencies to implement strategies they learned in their coursework. Case studies of two pairs of ISTs, one pair at a state high school and the other at a private high school, provided data for this study. During their coursework, ISTs learned new pedagogical skills and upgraded their content knowledge. Findings indicate that lecturer and peer assessment of the same lesson taught by an IST resulted in different but complementary critiques. The lecturer’s critique highlighted both strengths and weaknesses of a lesson while the peer’s critique refrained from pointing out weaknesses of a lesson. An important implication for the findings, in Zimbabwe, is that the deployment of ISTs in pairs for teaching practice may be beneficial to their professional development.
Sharing a Reward Based on Peer Evaluations  [PDF]
Arthur Carvalho,Kate Larson
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We study a problem where a group of agents has to decide how some fixed value should be shared among them. We are interested in settings where the share that each agent receives is based on how that agent is evaluated by other members of the group, where highly regarded agents receive a greater share compared to agents that are not well regarded. We introduce two mechanisms for determining agents' shares: the peer-evaluation mechanism, where each agent gives a direct evaluation for every other member of the group, and the peer-prediction mechanism, where each agent is asked to report how they believe group members will evaluate a particular agent. The sharing is based on the provided information. While both mechanisms are individually rational, the first mechanism is strategy-proof and budget-balanced, but it can be collusion-prone. Further, the second mechanism is collusion-resistant and incentive-compatible.
Distributed Reasoning in a Peer-to-Peer Setting: Application to the Semantic Web  [PDF]
P. Adjiman,P. Chatalic,F. Goasdoue,M. C. Rousset,L. Simon
Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1613/jair.1785
Abstract: In a peer-to-peer inference system, each peer can reason locally but can also solicit some of its acquaintances, which are peers sharing part of its vocabulary. In this paper, we consider peer-to-peer inference systems in which the local theory of each peer is a set of propositional clauses defined upon a local vocabulary. An important characteristic of peer-to-peer inference systems is that the global theory (the union of all peer theories) is not known (as opposed to partition-based reasoning systems). The main contribution of this paper is to provide the first consequence finding algorithm in a peer-to-peer setting: DeCA. It is anytime and computes consequences gradually from the solicited peer to peers that are more and more distant. We exhibit a sufficient condition on the acquaintance graph of the peer-to-peer inference system for guaranteeing the completeness of this algorithm. Another important contribution is to apply this general distributed reasoning setting to the setting of the Semantic Web through the Somewhere semantic peer-to-peer data management system. The last contribution of this paper is to provide an experimental analysis of the scalability of the peer-to-peer infrastructure that we propose, on large networks of 1000 peers.
Relationship Between Peer Influence, Pupils Interest in Schooling and Academic Achievement
Adika L.O,Toyobo Oluwole Majekodunmi
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: This study examined the relationship between peer influence, pupils interest in schooling and academic achievement. A total of 500 pupils were purposefully selected from 10 purposefully selected secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria. Two instrument namely: Interest in schooling scale with r = 0.79 developed by Mitchell and modified by Umoinyang to suit the Nigeria environment and a modified ten items peer effect rating questionnaire developed by Tella with r = 0.72 was used to gathered data on the study. Two research questions were developed to guide the study and data collected to answer the research questions were analysed using Pearson Product Moment correlation. The results indicate that both peer influence and pupils interest correlate significantly with academic achievement. Based on these findings recommendation on how pupils academic achievement can further be strengthened were highlighted to the Nigeria parents.
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