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Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); As a Major Pest of Apple  [PDF]
Muhammad Faheem Malik,Arshad Ghani Khan,Abdul Karim Jafer,Liaquat Ali
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: The article provides a bibliographic review of investigation about Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); control, through the entire world. It contains different aspects; biology, morphology and different control strategies of the moth in apple, Pyrus malus Linn. (Rosaceae: Pomoidea) orchards. It is revealed that the moth is getting resistance to the pesticides thus other control measures like microbial insecticides, Bacillus thuringiensis, granulosis virus, biological agent, pheromone, mating disruptant, and selected/alternative use of pesticides are recommended.
Determination of Installation Heights For Codling Moth`s Synthetic Pheromone Traps in Apple Canopy  [PDF]
Muhammad Faheem Malik,Liaquat Ali,Sohail Anwar
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: Pheromone traps of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L., Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were installed at different heights (2, 4, 6 and 8 m from the ground) in apple (Pyrus malus Linn., Rosaceae: Pomoidea) canopy in a private farmer orchard, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. Maximum capture was through the traps, hanged at 4 m from the ground. The study reveals that pheromone traps could use for the control of codling moth if installed at suggested height.
Seasonal Change of Cold Hardiness in the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Abbas Khani,Saeid Moharramipour
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: To elucidate the relationship between diapause and cold hardiness, seasonal variations of supercooling point and low temperature survival of overwintering and non-diapausing larvae of codling moth were studied in two regions of Iran, Damavand and Karaj. In both regions supercooling point decreased gradually over the autumn. Supercooling point of field collected larvae in Damavand reduced from a mean value of -16.9°C in early September to -19.9°C in mid-October 2004. At the same time, supercooling point of overwintering larvae decreased from -19 to -21°C in Karaj. Supercooling point decreased gradually until mid-winter (January) in both regions and afterward increased gradually over the spring. Mean supercooling point for non-diapausing larvae was -13.4°C, which was significantly higher than that of overwintering larvae. A high coincidence was observed between decrease of supercooling point and increase of low temperature survival rate in the overwintering larvae. Survival rate at -20°C/24 h was lower than 20% in early autumn; that increased to upper than 50% during winter. Codling moth was shown to be a freeze susceptible and at the same time, a chill tolerant insect.
Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) – Major Pest in Apple Production: an Overview of its Biology, Resistance, Genetic Structure and Control Strategies  [PDF]
Ivana Paja?,Ivan Peji?,Bo?ena Bari?
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2011,
Abstract: The codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM) (Linnaeus) is a key pest in pome fruit production with a preference for apple. The pest is very adaptable to different climatic conditions and is known for developing resistance to several chemical groups of insecticides. Because of these reasons, the populations of codling moth are differentiated in many ecotypes of various biological and physiological development requirements. The article provides a bibliographic review of investigation about: morphology, biology, dispersal, damages, resistance to insecticides, population genetic structure and genetic control of this pest.
Utilización de Microsatélites para la Determinación de la Polilla de la Manzana Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en Chile Central Utilization of Microsatellites to Determine Genetic Variability of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Central Chile
Juan L Espinoza,Eduardo Fuentes-Contreras,Wilson Barros,Claudio Ramírez
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: La polilla de la manzana (Cydia pomonella L.) es la plaga más importante de los frutales pomáceos en el mundo. A pesar de su gran importancia económica, poco se sabe acerca de su estructura genética y patrones de movimiento a escala local y regional, aspectos importantes para establecer una estrategia de control de esta plaga. Mediante la utilización de microsatélites se realizó un análisis de la variabilidad genética de seis poblaciones de la polilla de la manzana en las dos principales regiones productoras de manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh.) en Chile Central. A pesar de las distancias geográficas entre algunas poblaciones (aprox. 180 km), se encontraron bajos coeficientes de diferenciación genética entre poblaciones (F ST = 0,0-0,00097 y G ST = 0,005-0,127), sin presencia de aislamiento por distancia, y con altos niveles de flujo génico (Nm ≈ 250). Se encontraron altas frecuencias de alelos nulos (Na = 0,292) para todos los loci, a través de las poblaciones analizadas, lo que explicaría el significativo déficit de heterocigotos encontrado. Aproximadamente un 98% de la variabilidad genética encontrada corresponde a una variación intraindividual, atribuyéndose prácticamente nada a los demás niveles jerárquicos. La alta diversidad génica y los altos niveles de flujo génico parecen indicar que las poblaciones estudiadas de la polilla de la manzana en ambas regiones estudiadas están distribuidas formando casi un continuo Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is the main pest of pip fruits worldwide. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the genetic structure and patterns of movement at local and regional scale, important aspects for establishing a control strategy for this pest. An analysis of genetic variability on six populations of C. pomonella using microsatellite was performed in the two major apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) growing regions of Central Chile. In spite of geographic distances between some populations (aprox. 180 km), there was little genetic differentiation among populations (F ST = 0.0-0.0097 and G ST = 0.005-0.127), without isolation by distance, and high levels of gene flow (Nm ≈ 250). High frequencies of null alleles were found over all loci across populations (Na = 0.292) which seem to explain the significant heterozygote deficiencies found. Approximatelly 98% of the variance was found within individuals and very little at the other hierarchical levels. The high levels of genetic diversity and gene flow detected seem to indicate that the codling moth populations studied in both regions have an almost continuous distrib
A predicted sex pheromone receptor of codling moth Cydia pomonella detects the plant volatile pear ester  [PDF]
Jonas M. Bengtsson,Alberto M. Cattaneo,William B. Walker,Marie Bengtsson,Gianfranco Anfora,Rickard Ignell,Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly,Peter Witzgall
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2014.00033
Abstract: Plant volatiles mediate host discrimination and host finding in phytophagous insects. Understanding how insects recognize these signals is a current challenge in chemical ecology research. Pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, is a powerful, bisexual attractant of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) and strongly synergizes the male response to female-produced sex pheromone. We show here that the codling moth odorant receptor (OR) CpomOR3 is dedicated to detecting this plant volatile. Heterologous expression of CpomOR3 in Drosophila T1 trichoid and ab3A basiconic sensilla, followed by a screening with codling moth pheromone compounds and known plant volatile attractants, confirms that CpomOR3 binds to pear ester. Although CpomOR3 does not respond to any of the pheromone components tested, a phylogenetic analysis of lepidopteran chemosensory receptor genes reveals a close relationship of CpomOR3 with pheromone receptors (PRs) in moths. This corroborates the interaction of ecological and social chemosensory cues during premating communication. The finding that a plant volatile compound, pear ester, is a specific ligand for a PR-like lepidopteran receptor adds to our understanding of insect-plant interactions and emphasizes the interaction of natural and sexual selection during the phylogenetic divergence of insect herbivores.
Overwintering Strategy and Mechanisms of Cold Tolerance in the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)  [PDF]
Jan Rozsypal, Vladimír Ko?tál, Helena Zahradní?ková, Petr ?imek
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061745
Abstract: Background The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. Principal Findings We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately ?15.3°C during summer to ?26.3°C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to ?15°C, even in partially frozen state. Conclusion Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer).
Occurrence and Prevalence of Insect Pathogens in Populations of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.: A Long-Term Diagnostic Survey  [PDF]
Gisbert Zimmermann,Alois M. Huger,Regina G. Kleespies
Insects , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/insects4030425
Abstract: About 20,550 larvae, pupae and adults of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., were diagnosed for pathogens during long-term investigations (1955–2012) at the Institute for Biological Control in Darmstadt, Germany. The prevailing entomopathogens diagnosed in these studies were insect pathogenic fungi, especially Beauveria bassiana and Isaria farinosa, the microsporidium, Nosema carpocapsae, the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV), as well as mostly undetermined bacteria. While the CpGV was observed exclusively in larvae and pupae from laboratory colonies or from field experiments with this virus, entomopathogenic fungi were most frequently diagnosed in last instars in autumn and in diapausing larvae and pupae in spring. B. bassiana was identified as the major fungal pathogen, causing larval prevalences of 0.9% to 100% (mean, about 32%). During prognostic long-term studies in larvae and adults of C. pomonella, N. carpocapsae was diagnosed in codling moth populations from various locations in Germany. The mean prevalence generally ranged between 20% and 50%. Experiments revealed that the fecundity and fertility of microsporidia-infected female adults were significantly reduced compared to healthy ones. The results underpin the importance of naturally occurring microbial antagonists and represent a base for further ecological studies on developing new or additional biological and integrated control strategies.
Application of Mating Disruption Approach to Control Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella L.) Damage to Apple Crops in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan  [PDF]
M. Ashraf,M. Asif,M. Adrees,Wajahat Hanif
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Various techniques are applied to control the pest damage to (pome) crops in different countries of the world. Among the integrated pest management programmes (IPCP), mating disruption (MD) approach has its own advantages over pesticide techniques being less hazardous to environment. An exhaustive systematic field trial surveys were conducted to explore the seasonal activities of Codling Moth (CM) Cydia pomonella under natural conditions and the (MD) method was applied to Control Maling Disruption (CM) damage to apple (pome) crops in area of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, (Pakistan). Mating Disruption (MD) technique offers several advantages over pesticide sprays methods and, MD reduces CM damage. The present study describes the assessment of time of pest infestation, peak flight temporal and spatial variation of CM (Cydia pomonella) in two different experimented habitats by the use of pheromone trap approach. For experimental data, two distinct flight periods of CM were recorded, suggesting two generations per year. The pest population density was observed to be the highest in the first weeks of May and July. It was concluded that by application of the MD technique a better growth of pome crops can be obtained. Hence, for sustainable and comprehensive fruit farming, a more widespread use of pheromones technique (Mating Disruption- MD) may be useful step to enhance the agricultural yield of apple (pome) crops
Putative Chemosensory Receptors of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella, Identified by Antennal Transcriptome Analysis  [PDF]
Jonas M. Bengtsson, Federica Trona, Nicolas Montagné, Gianfranco Anfora, Rickard Ignell, Peter Witzgall, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031620
Abstract: The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is an important fruit pest worldwide. As nocturnal animals, adults depend to a large extent on olfactory cues for detection of food and mates, and, for females, oviposition sites. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim was to identify chemosensory receptors in the codling moth as a means to uncover new targets for behavioral interference. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we identified a total of 43 candidate ORs, one gustatory receptor and 15 IRs in the antennal transcriptome. Through Blast and sequence similarity analyses we annotated the insect obligatory co-receptor ORco, five genes clustering in a conserved clade containing sex pheromone receptors, one homolog of the Bombyx mori female-enriched receptor BmorOR30 (but no homologs of the other B. mori female-enriched receptors) and one gene clustering in the sugar receptor family. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a, and one homolog of an IR involved in phenylethyl amine detection in Drosophila. Our results open for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of C. pomonella, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals for control of this pest insect.
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