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Application of Acidified Converter Sludge as Iron Fertilizer for Calcareous Soils  [cached]
A. Abbaspour,M. Kalbasi,H. Shariatmadari
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2004,
Abstract: The possibility of using a steel plant by-product (converter sludge) as an iron fertilizer was investigated. This compound consists of 64% Fe oxides. Considerable amounts of elements such as Ca, Si, Mn, P, and K are also present in the sludge. To study the converter sludge, an incubation experiment was carried out on three calcareous soils. Treatments were 0, 4, and 8 percent of converter sludge mixed with soils plus mixtures of 4% converter sludge with elemental sulfur, thiobacillus inoculum and sulfuric acid. Soil samples (400 g) were kept at field capacity and room temperature in capped, aerated plastic containers for two months. Sub-samples were taken at 1, 10, 30, and 60 days of incubation and analyzed for Fe, Mn, Zn, P, and K contents as well as EC and pH. Results showed that converter sludge increased significantly extractable Fe proportional to the rate of sludge used. Sulfuric acid application increased Fe availability significantly, but the availability of this nutrient generally decreased with the incubation time. Application of the sludge also increased the pH slightly at the beginning of incubation. Elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid application increased Fe and Mn availability significantly. Application of the sludge without and with elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid slightly increased availability of P. The results of this study revealed that converter sludge might be used as an iron fertilizer. However, further investigation in greenhouse and field experiments is needed.
Effect of Organic Matter on Phosphorus Availability in Calcareous Soils  [cached]
A. Halajnia,G. H. Haghnia,A. Fotovat,R. Khorasani
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2007,
Abstract: Study of phosphorus reactions over time and the role of organic matter in the calcareous soils are important for the development of P fertilizer and manure management practices. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of applied manure on P availability and its chemical forms in the soil, over time. Eight samples were collected from semi-arid calcareous soils of Mashhad plain. The samples were treated with two levels of inorganic P (0 and 300 mg P kg-1 soil as KH2PO4) and two levels of organic matter (0 and 1% cattle manure). The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement. The treated soil samples were incubated for 2, 5, 10, 30, 60, 90 and 150 days, then analyzed for available P (Olsen-P). The result showed that only 17% of added phosphorus was available in P treatment at the end of experiment. In manure treated soils, this figure reached 34% for the same period of time. Application of manure along with P increased the recovery of applied P and CBD-P (Citrate-Bicarbonate-Dithionite). This may be due to the formation of P-organic complexes with Fe oxides. Application of manure in soil increased NaCl-NaOH-P considerably compared with P and P+OM treatments. It can be concluded that P originating from manure compared with inorganic-P may be more available for plants over the time.
Brigita Popovi?,Miranda ?eput,Zdenko Lon?ari?,Milena Andri?i?
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of this article was to compare soil P extraction by sodium bicarbonatesolution (Olsen P) and by ammonium lactate (AL P) in calcareous soils in Croatiaand to create a model for predicting AL P values using the correlation of these soiltests and common soil analysis data in Croatia. Soil samples were collected, nearOpuzen city, in the valley of the River Neretva, in 2005. The results of these studiesconfirmed significant correlation between soil P extracted by Olsen (NaHCO3) andby ammonium lactate (AL P) solution in calcareous soils from the Neretva rivervalley. The developed model is useful for providing fertilizer recommendationsbased on AL P soil-test results from Croatian soils using existing ammonium lactateextractableP calibration expecially for the calcareous soils in Croatia in the valleyof the Neretva River
Mobile nickel content in calcareous black soils of Rajac
?or?evi? Aleksandar R.
Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/jas0201029d
Abstract: A description of mobile Ni contents in various subtypes of calcareous black soils from the area of the mountain massif of Rajac, is given in the present paper. A hundred soil samples were analysed in all, originating from four subtypes of calcareous black soil (organogenic, organo-mineral, brownized and loessivized black soils). The extraction of mobile Ni was carried out with 1.0 N HCl and its content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The obtained results indicate that mobile Ni content in the investigated soils varies within a wide range, from 5.0 to 251.3 mg/kg that it is very seldom (only in 3% of the investigated samples) within the range from 5 to 7 mg/kg, that in over 90% of the 100 investigated samples it is higher than 10 mg/kg, and in almost 3/5 of the samples it is higher than 20 mg/kg. Calcareous black soils of Rajac massif have much higher mobile Ni content than previously investigated black soils from calcareous massif of Rtanj, which is, by all means, only partly due to their more severe dealkalization and acidification. In addition, here is undoubtedly apparent the influence of the geological substrate, i.e. of serpentine rocks that border the calcareous massif of Rajac.
Evaluation of Three Sequential Extraction Methods for Fractionation of Zinc in Calcareous and Acidic Soils
Mahboub Saffari,Jafar Yasrebi,Najafali Karimian,Xiao-Quan Shan
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Zinc (Zn) is essential micronutrient for crop growth. Deficiency of zinc has been frequently detected sin soils in Iran. Generally, available form of Zn can be rapidly converted to unavailable form in calcareous soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate three methods for fractionation of Zn in nine surface (0-30 cm) calcareous and acidic soils of Fars, Kerman and Gilan provinces, Iran. The results showed that a major proportion of Zn was present in the residual and carbonate-bound fractions. Zn distribution pattern obtained by Sposito method follow the order residual>>carbonate-bound>organic-bound>exchangeable>adsorbed fractions. For Singh’s method, the order was residual>>carbonate-bound>Fe crystalline oxides-bound>Fe amorphous oxides-bound>organic-bound>Mn oxides-bound>exchangeable. For Ma and Uren method the order was residual>>carbonate-bound>Fe-Al oxides-bound>Mn oxides-bound>organic-bound>adsorbed>water soluble. Correlation analysis between soil properties and the Zn fractions showed that Zn fraction distribution pattern depends on soil pH, CCE, OM, CEC and texture.
Nitrogen Mineralization Potential in a Calcareous Soil Treated with Two Organic Fertilizer  [cached]
Y. Lotfi,F. Nourbakhsh,M. Afyuni
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2008,
Abstract: Organic fertilization has been practiced in Iran due to the shortage of soil organic matter. In recent years, attention has been payed to the organic fertilizers because their commercial production has recently started and demands for their application have increased. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of organic fertilizer type, rates and times of application on the N mineralization potential (NMP) in a calcareous soil (fine loamy, mixed, thermic, Typic Haplargid) in Isfahan region. The soil samples were collected from a previousely established field experiment. The experiment design was split plot with three replications. Each main plot was split into subplots receiving 1, 2 and 3 annual consecutive applications of cow manure and sewage sludge at the rates of 0, 25 and 100 Mg ha-1. The soil samples were taken from 0-15 cm depth, 6 months after the third application of the organic fertilizers. Nitrogen mineralization potential was measured by a long-term leaching-incubation procedure. Results indicated that NMP was similarly affected by cow manure and sewage sludge. Nitrogen mineralization potential in the treatments which received 100 Mg ha-1 organic fertilizers, was 4 and 1.7 times greater than that of control and 25 Mg ha-1 treatments, respectively. A significant increase was also observed in NMP in the treatments which received different times of application. The NMP in the three-year applied treatments was 5, 2.5 and 2.1 times greater than that of control, two- and one-year applied soils. Significant correlations were observed between NMP and corn yield (r=0.531**) and corn N uptake (r=0.568***). The product of NMP and N mineralization rate constant was also significantly correlated with corn yield (r=0.710***) and corn N uptake (r=0.734***). Different patterns were observed between the responses of total N and NMP in the treated soils.
Comparison of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizer application on yield and concentration of some nutrients in spinach (Spinosa olerace L.) in three textural classes of a calcareous soil  [cached]
H. R Boostani,A. Ronaghi
Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture , 2011,
Abstract: Addition of sewage sludge (SS) in soil causes increasing soil organic matter, which in turn improves soil physical properties, and could supply part of the nutrients required by plants. For comparison of SS application and chemical fertilizer treatment (CFT) on yield and concentration of some macro and micro nutrients in spinach, a greenhouse factorial experiment, arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD), was conducted with three replications. The first factor included SS levels (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 gr kg-1) and the second factor was soil textural classes (clay loam, sandy loam and sandy). A CFT was also used to compare its affect with that of SS levels. Results showed that addition of all levels of SS caused significant increase in the weight of spinach shoots in three soil textures. Application of all SS levels caused significant increase of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) concentration in spinach shoots. With SS application, none of the nutrients’ concentration in spinach reached the toxic level. The amounts of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were not detectable in shoots. However, in frequent application of SS, especially at high levels, it is necessary to measure and detect these elements in plants. Effect of fertilizer in increasing yield and concentration of nutrients was less than the 40 and 80 gr kg-1 SS treatments. Considering the Fe and Zn deficiency in calcareous soils, application of SS can be effective for combating this deficiency. Prior to any recommendation of SS application, the results of this research need to be verified under field conditions.
Identification of Nutrient Deficiencies at Calcareous Soils for Maize
Dedi Nursyamsi
Jurnal Tanah Tropika , 2010,
Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted to identify nutrient deficiencies at calcareous soils for maize (Zea mays, L.) in green house of Indonesian Soil Research Institute using top soil (0-20 cm) samples taken from Bogor (Typic Hapludalfs) and Blora (Typic Haplustalfs). The experiment used Randomized Completely Block Design, minus one test with 12 treatments and three replications, as well as maize of P21 variety as plant indicator. The results showed that use of N, P, K, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn fertilizers increased soil macro nutrients, i.e.: soil total-N, Olsen-P, HCl-P, and HCl-K, as well as soil micro nutrients, i.e.: soil DTPA-Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn at both tested soils. Use of maize straw compost increased soil organic-C, total-N, HCl-K, and exchangeable Ca at Typic Hapludalfs and increased only soil organic-C and total-N at Typic Haplustalfs. Use of animal manure compost increased soil organic-C, exchangeable Ca and Mg, and CEC. Use of N, P, K, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn fertilizers increased each plant nutrients uptake at the soils. Use of both organic matters increased plant N, P, K, and Fe uptake at Typic Hapludalfs as well as increased only plant N, P, and K uptake at Typic Haplustalfs. Identification result showed that maize growth suffered from N, P, and K deficiencies at Typic Hapludalfs as well as N and P deficiencies at Typic Haplustalfs. Beside the nutrients, soil organic matter was also found out as limiting factor for maize growth in the soils.
Comparison of chemical fertilizer and sewage sludge application on some nutrients’ bioavailability in three textural classes of a calcareous soil after harvesting spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)  [cached]
H.R Boostani,A. Ronaghi
Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture , 2012,
Abstract: Sewage sludge (SS) as a source of macro- and micro nutrients has been utilized in many countries for crop and vegetable production. To compare the influence of SS with chemical fertilizer on macro- and micro nutrients bioavailability in three textural classes of a calcareous soil after harvesting spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), a factorial experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with two factors and three replications under glasshouse conditions. The first factor was SS levels (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg per kg soil) and the second factor was soil textural classes (sandy, sandy loam, and clay loam). A chemical fertilizer treatment was used for comparison with the applied SS treatments. Results indicated that total nitrogen (N) and available phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in SS amended soils compared to fertilizer treatment. Effect of increasing soil potassium (K) due to addition of SS was less than P and N, which is probably due to low content of K in SS. Soil DTPA extractable iron, zinc, copper, and manganese were significantly increased in SS treatments in all soil textures and were higher than fertilizer treatment. Based on nutrients’ bioavailability in soil after harvesting spinach, especially at high rates of SS, addition of most nutrients is not necessary for the next crop. Concentration of DTPA extractable cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was not detectable in all treatments. Therefore, because of low contents of Cd and Pb in the utilized SS, reaching to a toxic level of these elements in soil is unexpected. However, if high levels of SS are applied frequently, soil test is recommended for monitoring heavy metals concentration in amended soils. Prior to any SS recommendation, the results of this research need to be verified under field conditions.
Characterization of Zn Adsorption in Some Calcareous Paddy Soils from Fars Province  [cached]
M. Maftoun,H. Haghighat Nia,N. Karimian
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2000,
Abstract: As apparent Zn recovery in mineral soils (saturated and unsaturated) is nill, the precise assessment of processes responsible for Zn retention in these soils is of great importance. A laboratory study was conducted to characterize Zn adsorption in eight lowland calcareous soils. The fit of sorption data was evaluated by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. In this study, 2-g soil samples were equilibrated for 24 hours with 40 mL 0.0lM CaCl2 solution containing 5 to 500 mg Zn L-1. The amount of Zn adsorbed was calculated based on the difference between the initial and equilibrium Zn concentrations. Zinc adsorption data were fitted to a linear form of Freundlich equation. However; the Langmuir isotherm was divided into two distinct linear portions, representing two different types of adsorption sites. The Langmuir K1 was higher and adsorption maxima (b1) was lower in part I (corresponding to lower Zn concentration) than in part II (corresponding to higher Zn concentration). Thus, it seems that in parts I and II, sites are more important for their high adsorption energy and adsorption capacity, respectively. Langmuir adsorption maxima (b2) was positively correlated with clay content, CCE and P concentration and negatively correlated with CEC.
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