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Depression and religiosity in older age
M Pokorski, A Warzecha
European Journal of Medical Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2047-783x-16-9-401
Abstract: The prevalence of depression in old age is still a controversial issue and epidemiological studies estimate it, depending on the methodology and the population investigated, from about a dozen percentage points [1], through 40% [2], and to as much as about 70% [3] in persons over 65 years of age. There is, however, a consistent lay impression that, if depression already is present, advancingg old age may worsen its intensity. Depression is a multifactorial condition and encompasses such factors as the overall health status [4], the level of anxiety, or the ability to cope with stressful situations [5-7]. These factors assume distinct characteristics in old age as persons often demonstrate a greater sensitivity or dependence on the external influences. There is a high degree of overlap between these factors, symptoms, and concerns in depressive individuals; the details of which are not fully understood.A feature of older age often is increased religious activity consisting of one's internal subjective religious beliefs and their external expressions (individual and social behaviors, the practice of religious rites, etc.). A surge in religiosity in old age may be brought about by more mature understanding of the good in one's life or the inescapability of life twilight. The effect of religiosity on psychological health is, however, a contentious issue. Some authors report overall positive effects [8], others negate such an effect [9], while still others relate the effect to a specific disease, e.g., depression, and again the results are contradictory [10,11]. Contentiousness of the issue may likely stem from a variety of rather poorly comparable factors, related to age, health, and life conditions of subjects studied.The objectives of the present study were to investigate the relationships among depression, worry-anxiety, general health, and coping with stress and to assess the effect on them of religious activity in older age. Our working hypothesis was that religiou
Reducing depression in older home care clients: design of a prospective study of a nurse-led interprofessional mental health promotion intervention
Maureen F Markle-Reid, Carrie McAiney, Dorothy Forbes, Lehana Thabane, Maggie Gibson, Jeffrey S Hoch, Gina Browne, Thomas Peirce, Barbara Busing
BMC Geriatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-11-50
Abstract: This one-group pre-test post-test study aims to recruit a total of 250 long-stay (> 60 days) home care clients, 70 years or older, with depressive symptoms who are receiving personal support services through a home care program in Ontario, Canada. The nurse-led intervention is a multi-faceted 6-month program led by a Registered Nurse that involves regular home visits, monthly case conferences, and evidence-based assessment and management of depression using an interprofessional approach. The primary outcome is the change in severity of depressive symptoms from baseline to 6 months using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies in Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes include changes in the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety, health-related quality of life, cognitive function, and the rate and appropriateness of depression treatment from baseline to 12 months. Changes in the costs of use of health services will be assessed from a societal perspective. Descriptive and qualitative data will be collected to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and identify barriers and facilitators to implementation.Data collection began in May 2010 and is expected to be completed by July 2012. A collaborative nurse-led strategy may provide a feasible, acceptable and effective means for improving the health of older home care clients by improving the prevention, recognition, and management of depression in this vulnerable population. The challenges involved in designing a practical, transferable and sustainable nurse-led intervention in home care are also discussed.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01407926Depression affects 26% - 44% of older adults using home care services - at least twice that among older persons in general [1-3]. They also suffer from a fourfold increase in more severe forms of depression than the general population [4]. Yet, this population is one of the most undertreated populations for mental health [1,4-6]. In one study only 22% of depresse
Gait Parameter Adjustments for Walking on a Treadmill at Preferred, Slower, and Faster Speeds in Older Adults with Down Syndrome  [PDF]
Beth A. Smith,Masayoshi Kubo,Beverly D. Ulrich
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/782671
Abstract: The combined effects of ligamentous laxity, hypotonia, and decrements associated with aging lead to stability-enhancing foot placement adaptations during routine overground walking at a younger age in adults with Down syndrome (DS) compared to their peers with typical development (TD). Our purpose here was to examine real-time adaptations in older adults with DS by testing their responses to walking on a treadmill at their preferred speed and at speeds slower and faster than preferred. We found that older adults with DS were able to adapt their gait to slower and faster than preferred treadmill speeds; however, they maintained their stability-enhancing foot placements at all speeds compared to their peers with TD. All adults adapted their gait patterns similarly in response to faster and slower than preferred treadmill-walking speeds. They increased stride frequency and stride length, maintained step width, and decreased percent stance as treadmill speed increased. Older adults with DS, however, adjusted their stride frequencies significantly less than their peers with TD. Our results show that older adults with DS have the capacity to adapt their gait parameters in response to different walking speeds while also supporting the need for intervention to increase gait stability. 1. Introduction Persons with Down syndrome (DS) have lower tone and higher ligamentous laxity than their peers with typical development (TD), requiring them to find somewhat different solutions to control gait over their lifespan. For preadolescents with DS, merely increasing step width as compared to their peers with TD seems adequate to provide stability for walking overground at their self-selected speed [1, 2]. However, in response to the effects of aging, and at an earlier age than observed in the population with TD, adults with DS make additional changes to maintain gait stability while walking overground at their self-selected speed. Adults with DS aged 35–62 years walked slower, with shorter, wider strides and increased stance and double support periods than their age-matched peers with TD [3]. There are a number of factors known to affect gait patterns in older adults with TD that may contribute to the observed gait patterns in adults with DS, including neurophysiological changes associated with aging [4, 5], sedentary lifestyle [6], osteoarthritis [7], obesity [8], and Alzheimer’s type dementia [9–14]. While preadolescents with DS only need to make minimal adaptations (adjusting only step width) to their gait pattern to achieve stability while walking overground at their
Effectiveness of coordination exercise in improving cognitive function in older adults: a prospective study
Kwok TCY, Lam KC, Wong PS, Chau WW, Yuen KSL, Ting KT, Chung EWK, Li JCY, Ho FKY.
Clinical Interventions in Aging , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S19883
Abstract: tiveness of coordination exercise in improving cognitive function in older adults: a prospective study Original Research (6592) Total Article Views Authors: Kwok TCY, Lam KC, Wong PS, Chau WW, Yuen KSL, Ting KT, Chung EWK, Li JCY, Ho FKY. Published Date September 2011 Volume 2011:6 Pages 261 - 267 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S19883 Timothy CY Kwok1,2, KC Lam2, PS Wong2, WW Chau2, Kenneth SL Yuen2,3, KT Ting2, Elite WK Chung2, Jessie CY Li2, Florence KY Ho2,4 1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, The University of Hong Kong, 4Jockey Club CADENZA Hub, Hong Kong SAR Background: Studies on the effect of a low intensity coordination exercise on the elderly with limited mobility are sparse. This prospective study attempted to compare the effectiveness of a customized coordination exercise and a strength exercise in improving the cognitive functioning and physical mobility on the elderly. Methods: Participants from two centers for the elderly were allocated to practice either an 8-week coordination training (CT) program or an 8-week towel exercise (TE) program. The Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination and Chinese Dementia Rating Scale (CDRS) were used to measure cognitive functioning of participants, and Timed Up-and-Go test for physical mobility. These assessments were administered before and after the program. Results: Paired t-tests showed that the CDRS scores of the CT group improved significantly from 114.8 at pre-test to 119.3 after training (P = 0.045). The CDRS scores of the TE group also improved from 114.9 at pre-test to 116.9 after training. Conclusion: Findings from this prospective study demonstrated that low-intensity level mind-body exercise could be beneficial to the cognitive functioning of older adults.
Age management in Slovenian enterprises: the viewpoint of older employees
Jana ?nidar?i?
Zbornik Radova Ekonomskog Fakulteta u Rijeci : ?asopis za Ekonomsku Teoriju i Praksu , 2010,
Abstract: The main aim of this research is to highlight age management within Slovenian enterprises from the viewpoint of older employees by finding out what influences older employees to decide “should I stay or should I go”. The empirical research methodology is based on mixed strategy of approaching organizations (employees), which means that the quantitative (factor analysis, cluster analysis, correlation, regression, descriptive statistics and frequency distributions) and qualitative parts (in-depth interviews analysis) of research were conducted simultaneously. The results of the research indicate that there are in fact two groups of older employees, which can be referred to as “susceptible” and “insusceptible” in terms of how the employer can affect their decisions. “The unsusceptible” have already decided to retire as soon as possible and they cannot be influenced by any employer measure. On the other hand, “the susceptible” employees are sensitive to employers’ measures aimed at prolonging their working lives. Besides, a regression analysis confirmed a statistically significant correlation between the inclination towards extending one’s employment period and the susceptibility to the employer measures. It can thus be concluded that, through age management measures, an employer has an impact on an extended employment period of older employees. However, employers should be interested primarily in those employees who are inclined towards extending their working lives.
Are pre-MS stars older than we thought?  [PDF]
Tim Naylor,N. J. Mayne
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921310011476
Abstract: We present a consistent age ordering for young clusters and groups determined using the contraction of stars through their pre-main-sequence phase. We compare these with ages derived from the evolution of the upper main-sequence stars, and find the upper MS ages are older by a factor 1.5 to 2. We show that increasing the binary fraction and number of equal-mass binaries amongst the O-stars compared to the rest of the MS cannot remove this discrepancy.
Understanding the older entrepreneur: Comparing Third Age and Prime Age entrepreneurs in Finland
Kautonen, T.
International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management , 2008,
Abstract: This paper responds to the need for more data on the topical issue of older entrepreneurship by comparing Third Age (50+ years) and Prime Age (20-49 years) entrepreneurs in Finland. The data comprises responses from 839 small firms which were established 2000-2006. The fact that 16% of these firms were founded by individuals aged 50 or over indicates that older entrepreneurship is not a marginal issue, even though the start-up rate in the Third Age population was found to be slightly less than half of that in the Prime Age cohort. Further, the findings point to the need for more empirical, especially qualitative, research on issues related to the social and cultural perceptions of old age and gender as well as different a€ pulla€ motivations leading to entrepreneurship at an older age, which were found to clearly dominate over a€ pusha€ motives in this context.
Effectiveness of coordination exercise in improving cognitive function in older adults: a prospective study  [cached]
Kwok TCY,Lam KC,Wong PS,Chau WW
Clinical Interventions in Aging , 2011,
Abstract: Timothy CY Kwok1,2, KC Lam2, PS Wong2, WW Chau2, Kenneth SL Yuen2,3, KT Ting2, Elite WK Chung2, Jessie CY Li2, Florence KY Ho2,41Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, The University of Hong Kong, 4Jockey Club CADENZA Hub, Hong Kong SARBackground: Studies on the effect of a low intensity coordination exercise on the elderly with limited mobility are sparse. This prospective study attempted to compare the effectiveness of a customized coordination exercise and a strength exercise in improving the cognitive functioning and physical mobility on the elderly.Methods: Participants from two centers for the elderly were allocated to practice either an 8-week coordination training (CT) program or an 8-week towel exercise (TE) program. The Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination and Chinese Dementia Rating Scale (CDRS) were used to measure cognitive functioning of participants, and Timed Up-and-Go test for physical mobility. These assessments were administered before and after the program.Results: Paired t-tests showed that the CDRS scores of the CT group improved significantly from 114.8 at pre-test to 119.3 after training (P = 0.045). The CDRS scores of the TE group also improved from 114.9 at pre-test to 116.9 after training.Conclusion: Findings from this prospective study demonstrated that low-intensity level mind-body exercise could be beneficial to the cognitive functioning of older adults.Keywords: coordination exercise, cognitive function, elderly, Chinese
Acute Pancreatitis in Patients 70 Years of Age or Older
Gabriel Sandblom, Tommy Bergman and Ib Rasmussen
Clinical Medicine Insights: Geriatrics , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: To explore the incidence and severity of pancreatitis and to assess the outcome of all measures taken to treat gallstones in following recovery from pancreatitis in patients 70 years of age or older in a community-based setting. Methods: All patients with pancreatitis as diagnosis in Uppsala, Sweden, 2003–2005, were identified retrospectively. Data relevant for assessing etiology and follow-up treatment were extracted from the patients’ histories. The electronic patient administrative system was crosschecked to determine mortality within 30 days after admission. Result: Altogether 148 admissions for 119 patients, including 48 men, were registered. On 29 occasions, admission was for relapse after a previous episode. Mortality within 30 days was 4/148 (2.7%). Twenty-two patients with gallstone induced acute pancreatitis underwent cholecystectomy and 27 patients underwent ERC with endoscopic sphincterotomy during follow-up. In a life table analysis, the probability of remaining relapse-free in the absence of cholecystectomy or endo- scopic sphincterotomy was estimated to 95% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91%–98%) two weeks after discharge and 92% (CI 88%–97%) eight weeks after discharge. Conclusion: Although pancreatitis in most cases is not a serious condition, it may become life threatening for elderly people. In patients with gallstone induced pancreatitis, accurate timing of cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy in the follow-up period is crucial in order to preclude re-admissions for relapses.
Acute Pancreatitis in Patients 70 Years of Age or Older
Gabriel Sandblom,Tommy Bergman,Ib Rasmussen
Clinical Medicine : Geriatrics , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: To explore the incidence and severity of pancreatitis and to assess the outcome of all measures taken to treat gallstones in following recovery from pancreatitis in patients 70 years of age or older in a community-based setting.Methods: All patients with pancreatitis as diagnosis in Uppsala, Sweden, 2003–2005, were identified retrospectively. Data relevant for assessing etiology and follow-up treatment were extracted from the patients’ histories. The electronic patient administrative system was crosschecked to determine mortality within 30 days after admission.Result: Altogether 148 admissions for 119 patients, including 48 men, were registered. On 29 occasions, admission was for relapse after a previous episode. Mortality within 30 days was 4/148 (2.7%). Twenty-two patients with gallstone induced acute pancreatitis underwent cholecystectomy and 27 patients underwent ERC with endoscopic sphincterotomy during follow-up. In a life table analysis, the probability of remaining relapse-free in the absence of cholecystectomy or endo- scopic sphincterotomy was estimated to 95% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91%–98%) two weeks after discharge and 92% (CI 88%–97%) eight weeks after discharge.Conclusion: Although pancreatitis in most cases is not a serious condition, it may become life threatening for elderly people. In patients with gallstone induced pancreatitis, accurate timing of cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy in the follow-up period is crucial in order to preclude re-admissions for relapses.
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