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Mandible Measurements and Dental Midline Deviation after Alveolar Nerve Transection in Growing Rabbits
Valdivia Gandur,Iván; Tallón Walton,Victoria; Carvalho Lobato,Patricia; Lozano de Luaces,Vicente; Manzanares Céspedes,María Cristina;
International Journal of Morphology , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022011000100008
Abstract: the relationship between sensitive innervation and normal mandibular bone development has been described in the literature. therefore, neural damage is a potential cause of osseous deformities, particularly in growing subjects. the aim of this project is to present the mandible measurements obtained after the transection of the inferior alveolar nerve of growing rabbits. a specific surgical protocol was designed to carry out the unilateral nerve transection by avoiding musculoskeletal injuries. twenty new zealand white rabbits one week post-weaning were used, 12 as an experimental group and 8 as a control group (sham operated). the animals were sacrificed 90 days postoperatory, and the mandibles carefully dissected. dental midline deviation data were obtained under anesthesia, previous to sacrifice. all measurements were obtained with a micron digital caliper. for this study, only anterior-posterior measurements were obtained from five points specifically determined on the rabbit mandible. each measurement was made three times by the same examiner and the average value was considered. regarding the anterior-posterior measurements, the molar and incisive regions of the denervated hemimandible were significantly shorter than the corresponding regions in the non-denervated side. the control group did not show these differences. a dental midline deviation was observed, but not always directed on the operated side. however, the deviation values were greater when oriented to the denervated side. these changes did not cause evident deformity or dysfunction in the masticatory system of the animals. they were fed normally and their weight was considered within normal parameters while growing. despite the biological relationship between sensory inervation and bone morphology, the effect of sensory denervation in early stages of bone growth appears to generate only small alterations on the mandible morphology. however, these alterations do not lead to functional problems in th
Mandible Measurements and Dental Midline Deviation after Alveolar Nerve Transection in Growing Rabbits Medidas Mandibulares y Desviación de la Línea Mediana Dental Luego de la Transecció n del Nervio Alveolar Inferior en Conejos en Crecimiento
Iván Valdivia Gandur,Victoria Tallón Walton,Patricia Carvalho Lobato,Vicente Lozano de Luaces
International Journal of Morphology , 2011,
Abstract: The relationship between sensitive innervation and normal mandibular bone development has been described in the literature. Therefore, neural damage is a potential cause of osseous deformities, particularly in growing subjects. The aim of this project is to present the mandible measurements obtained after the transection of the inferior alveolar nerve of growing rabbits. A specific surgical protocol was designed to carry out the unilateral nerve transection by avoiding musculoskeletal injuries. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits one week post-weaning were used, 12 as an experimental group and 8 as a control group (Sham operated). The animals were sacrificed 90 days postoperatory, and the mandibles carefully dissected. Dental midline deviation data were obtained under anesthesia, previous to sacrifice. All measurements were obtained with a micron digital caliper. For this study, only anterior-posterior measurements were obtained from five points specifically determined on the rabbit mandible. Each measurement was made three times by the same examiner and the average value was considered. Regarding the anterior-posterior measurements, the molar and incisive regions of the denervated hemimandible were significantly shorter than the corresponding regions in the non-denervated side. The control group did not show these differences. A dental midline deviation was observed, but not always directed on the operated side. However, the deviation values were greater when oriented to the denervated side. These changes did not cause evident deformity or dysfunction in the masticatory system of the animals. They were fed normally and their weight was considered within normal parameters while growing. Despite the biological relationship between sensory inervation and bone morphology, the effect of sensory denervation in early stages of bone growth appears to generate only small alterations on the mandible morphology. However, these alterations do not lead to functional problems in the masticatory system. Se ha descrito una importante relación entre la inervación sensitiva y aspectos biológicos mandibulares. Consecuentemente, el da o a la estructura nerviosa es una causa potencial de alteraciones en el desarrollo mandibular, sobre todo en etapas de crecimiento. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar mediciones mandibulares realizadas posterior a una lesión del nervio sensitivo en una etapa temprana de crecimiento. Se dise ó un protocolo quirúrgico para realizar la transección del nervio alveolar inferior sin lesionar estructuras musculoesqueléticas. Veinte conejos Neo ze
Alteration of primary afferent activity following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats
Kazuharu Nakagawa, Mamoru Takeda, Yoshiyuki Tsuboi, Masahiro Kondo, Junichi Kitagawa, Shigeji Matsumoto, Azusa Kobayashi, Barry J Sessle, Masamichi Shinoda, Koichi Iwata
Molecular Pain , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-6-9
Abstract: Fluorogold (FG) injection into the mental region 14 days after IAN transection showed massive labeling of trigeminal ganglion (TG). The escape threshold to mechanical stimulation of the mental skin was significantly lower (i.e. mechanical allodynia) at 11-14 days after IAN transection than before surgery. The background activity, mechanically evoked responses and afterdischarges of IAN Aδ-fibers were significantly higher in IAN-transected rats than naive. The small/medium diameter TG neurons showed an increase in both tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant (TTX-R) and -sensitive (TTX-S) sodium currents (INa) and decrease in total potassium current, transient current (IA) and sustained current (IK) in IAN-transected rats. The amplitude, overshoot amplitude and number of action potentials evoked by the depolarizing pulses after 1 μM TTX administration in TG neurons were significantly higher, whereas the threshold current to elicit spikes was smaller in IAN-transected rats than naive. Resting membrane potential was significantly smaller in IAN-transected rats than that of naive.These data suggest that the increase in both TTX-S INa and TTX-R INa and the decrease in IA and Ik in small/medium TG neurons in IAN-transected rats are involved in the activation of spike generation, resulting in hyperexcitability of Aδ-IAN fibers innervating the mental region after IAN transection.Numerous papers have described how peripheral nerve injury causes a variety of functional deficits in sensory processing [1-7]. Neuropathic pain also may occur after nerve injury [8-11], and whereas the injured tissue does usually repair, the neuropathic pain frequently persists [12-14]. One mechanism that is considered to underlie the abnormal pain after nerve damage involves regenerating nerve fibers. Injured nerves regenerate several weeks after nerve damage [15-17]. Some clinical reports have noted that areas innervated by the regenerated nerves show an altered sensitivity to a variety of stimuli compared
Staining of palatal torus secondary to long term minocycline therapy  [cached]
Buddula Aravind
Journal of the Indian Society of Periodontology , 2009,
Abstract: Minocycline and other tetracycline analogs are well known to cause discoloring of alveolar bone, teeth and other tissues. The present case reports palatine torus discoloring, in a 91-year-old patient, after long term minocycline therapy. The patient was presented with staining of the palatal torus resulting from prior minocycline use for three-and-a-half years. The diagnosis of minocycline staining of palatal torus was done during a routine hygiene examination. The patient was informed that the bluish appearance of the palatal torus was the result of long term minocycline use. The patient was not willing to discontinue the antibiotic and was not concerned about the appearance. The clinician should inform patients on long term minocycline therapy about the possible side effects of staining of the alveolar bone, teeth and other soft tissue.
Minocycline in pyoderma gangrenosum  [cached]
Koshy Thomas,Binitha M
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1992,
Abstract: A case of pyoderma gangrenosum resistant to the usual modes of treatment was successfully treated with minocycline. The drug was well tolerated without any side effects.
Smoking and alcohol as potential risk factors for changes on masticatory mucosae  [PDF]
Markovi? Dubravka,Vu?kovi? Nada,Jefi? Bojana,Strajni? Ljiljana
Stomatolo?ki Glasnik Srbije , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/sgs0402089m
Abstract: It is assumed that before there are clinically verified signs of irritation, risk factors can cause changes on tissue, which was the subject of our research. The aim of this study was to establish how much ciggarete smoking, alcohol drinking and gender exerted influence on pathohistological changes on clinically healthy masticatory mucosae. Our results were based on anamnestic answers and pathohistological examination of biopsies from edentulous alveolar ridge of clinically healthy masticator mucosae. The sample consisted of 40 patients, of bouth gender. Conclusions are that smokers have, 25% more chance of having pathohistologicaly verified hyperceratosis on masticatory mucosae than nonsmokers. There are no significant differences between sex in correlation with pathohistologicaly verified changes on masticatory mucosae which are caused by smoking. Persons who consume alcohol have a greater chance of having pathohistologicaly verified changes on masticatory mucosae. Persons who smoke ciggaretes and consume alcohol drinks are most likely, 50% and more, to have pathohistologicaly verified hyperceratosis on masticatory mucosae.
Minocycline for Schizophrenia: A critical review  [PDF]
Tsuyoshi Miyaoka
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.224056
Abstract: Minocycline, an antibiotic of the tetracycline family, has been shown to display neurorestoractive or neuroprotective properties in various models of neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, it has been shown to delay motor alterations, inflammation and apoptosis in models of Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. Despite controversies about its efficacy, the relative safety and tolerability of minocycline have led to the launching of various clinical trials. Previously, we reported the antipsychotic effects of minocycline in patients with schizophrenia. In a pilot investigation, we administered minocycline as an open-label adjunct to antipsychotic medication to patients with schizophrenia. The results of this trial suggested that minocycline might be a safe and effective adjunct to antipsychotic medications, and that augmentation with minocycline may prove to be a viable strategy for “boosting” antipsychotic efficacy and for treating schizophrenia. Recently, in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials, the addition of minocycline to treatment as usual early in the course of schizophrenia predominantly improves negative symptoms. The present review summarizes the available data supporting the clinical testing of minocycline for patients with schizophrenia. In addition, we extend our discussion to the potential applications of minocycline for combining this treatment with cellular and molecular therapy.
Pancreaticojejunostomy in proximal pancreatic transection: A viable option
Sandeep Bhat,Tariq P Azad,Manmeet Kaur
North American Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Complete pancreatic transection following blunt abdominal trauma is not a common injury. Distal pancreatectomy with or without splenectomy is routinely performed if the transection is to the left of the superior mesenteric vessels. We performed pancreaticojejunostomy on a six-year-old female patient who presented with complete transection at the pancreatic neck following blunt abdominal trauma. The aim was to preserve the pancreatic parenchyma and the spleen and assess the feasibility of the procedure. The patient has been followed for more than one year and is doing well. We conclude that the procedure should be considered in proximal pancreatic transection, particularly in the pediatric age group.
Masticatory function in temporomandibular dysfunction patients: electromyographic evaluation
Berretin-Felix, Giédre;Genaro, Katia Flores;Trindade, Inge Elly Kiemle;Trindade Júnior, Alceu Sergio;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572005000400009
Abstract: temporomandibular dysfunction (tmd) is a complex disturbance that involves the masticatory muscles and/or temporomandibular joint, causing damage to the masticatory function. this study evaluated the electromyographic activity of the masseter muscle during habitual mastication of bread, apple, banana, cashew nut and paraffin film (parafilm m) in 25 adult subjects, of both gender, with tmd. the results were compared to those of a control group, composed of 15 adult subjects, of both sexes, free of signs and/or symptoms of tmd. the myo-tronics inc., k6-i computer software was used for electromyographic processing and analyzed the following parameters: duration of the act, duration of the masticatory cycle and number of cycles. no significant differences were found between subjects in the control group and individuals with tmd as to duration of the masticatory act and of the masticatory cycle, considering all materials used for mastication. the duration of the masticatory act and cycle was longer during mastication of paraffin film in both groups. the number of masticatory cycles was higher for mastication of apple in comparison to mastication of banana, in both groups. it can be concluded that the consistency of foods influences the duration parameters of the act, duration of the cycle and the number of masticatory cycles, and the behavior of the masticatory muscles in individuals with tmd during habitual mastication is similar to that verified in individuals without tmd.
Minocycline reduces reactive gliosis in the rat model of hydrocephalus
Xu Hao,Tan Guowei,Zhang Shaolin,Zhu Hongwei
BMC Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-13-148
Abstract: Background Reactive gliosis had been implicated in injury and recovery patterns associated with hydrocephalus. Our aim is to determine the efficacy of minocycline, an antibiotic known for its anti-inflammatory properties, to reduce reactive gliosis and inhibit the development of hydrocephalus. Results The ventricular dilatation were evaluated by MRI at 1-week post drugs treated, while GFAP and Iba-1were detected by RT-PCR, Immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The expression of GFAP and Iba-1 was significantly higher in hydrocephalic group compared with saline control group (p < 0.05). Minocycline treatment of hydrocephalic animals reduced the expression of GFAP and Iba-1 significantly (p < 0.05). Likewise, the severity of ventricular dilatation is lower in minocycline treated hydrocephalic animals compared with the no minocycline group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Minocycline treatment is effective in reducing the gliosis and delaying the development of hydrocephalus with prospective to be the auxiliary therapeutic method of hydrocephalus.
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