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China–Burma Geopolitical Relations in the Cold War
Hongwei FAN
Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs , 2012,
Abstract: This paper explores the historical role of geography in the Sino–Burmese relationship in the context of the Cold War, both before and after the Chinese–American détente and rapprochement in the 1970s. It describes Burma’s fear and distrust of China throughout the Cold War, during which it maintained a policy of neutrality and non-alignment. Burma’s geographic location, sandwiched between its giant neighbours India and China, led it to adopt a realist paradigm and pursue an independent foreign policy. Charac-terizing China’s threat to Burmese national security as “grave” during its period of revolutionary export, the article notes that Burma was cowed into deference and that it deliberately avoided antagonizing China. It also looks at the history of China’s attempts to break out of U.S. encirclement after the Korean War and its successful establishment of Burma as an important buffer state. After the U.S.–China rapprochement in 1972, however, Bur-ma’s geographical significance for Beijing declined. In this context, Burma’s closed-door policy of isolation further lessened its strategic importance for China. Since 1988, however, Burma’s strategic importance to China has been on the rise once again, as it plays a greater role as China’s land bridge to the Indian Ocean and in its energy security and expansion of trade and exports.
Patriotic war of 1812 historiography in pre-revolutionary and soviet periods
Dmitry A. Makarov,Anvar M. Mamadaliev
European Researcher , 2011,
Abstract: The article is concerned with Patriotic War of 1812 historiography in pre-revolutionary and Soviet periods. Special attention is attached to classification and periodization.
Shaping of the Yunnan-Burma Frontier by Secret Societies since the End of the 17th Century Comment les sociétés secrètes ont fa onné la frontière birmano-yunnanaise  [cached]
Ma Jianxiong
Moussons : Recherche en Sciences Humaines sur l’Asie du Sud-Est , 2011,
Abstract: After the 1680s, Big Vehicle Religion gradually developed on the Yunnan-Burma frontier. It was banned by the Qing government and became a sect of Chinese secret societies. The founders of this religion combined various Buddhist and Taoist elements together and claimed this to be the route to their salvation. They also trained many students to be monks. After the Sino-Burma wars these monks established a Five Buddha Districts system among the Lahu and some Wa villages in western Mekong River, until the system was destroyed by the Qing government in the 1880s. The monks became leaders of the Luohei/Lahu through millenarianism and many Han immigrants also became involved in the movements to become the Lahu or the Wa. The monks performed critical roles as social activists in Lahu cultural reconstruction. As a shaping power, their human agency was deeply integrated into secret societies and they formulated regional political centers as well as a network mechanism for the floating indigenous populations. Secret societies clearly shaped a historical framework for local politics and economic flux in the Yunnan-Burma frontier and became a cross-border mechanism for contemporary life after the border between Yunnan, Burma and Thailand was decided. However, it used to be a networking dynamic linked with silver and copper minefields, Sino-Burma wars, and anti-Qing millenarianism. Local people could also use this frontier space for their negotiations with different states before the coming of European colonialism. Après les années 1680, le bouddhisme du grand véhicule se développa sur la frontière birmano-yunnanaise. Le gouvernement des Qing l’interdit mais il devint une secte diffusée par des sociétés secrètes. Les fondateurs de cette religion combinèrent des éléments bouddhistes et tao stes et prétendirent que c’était la voie du salut. Ils formèrent également des élèves pour en faire des moines. Après les guerres sino-birmanes, ces moines établirent un système de cinq districts du Bouddha parmi les Lahu et certains villages Wa de l’ouest du Mékong, jusqu’à ce que ce système soit détruit par le gouvernement des Qing dans les années 1880. Ces moines devinrent des leaders des Luohei/lahu dans des mouvements millénaristes et de nombreux immigrants Han participèrent à ces mouvements pour devenir des Lahu ou des Wa. Ces moines tinrent des r les critiques comme activistes sociaux dans la reconstruction culturelle lahu. En tant que pouvoir actif, leur action humaine fut profondément liée à des sociétés secrètes et ils instituèrent des centres politiques régionaux ainsi qu
Effects of highway construction on soil quality in the Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region in Yunnan Province
ShuQing Zhao,BaoShan Cui,LiNa Gao,Jie Liu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-007-7021-5
Abstract: The impact of highway construction upon surrounding ecosystems in the Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region of Southwestern China was detected based on field survey and experimental analysis. We conducted a study on Dali (from Dali City to Lijiang City) provincial road, Dabao (from Dali City to Baoshan City) highway and Baolong (from Baoshan City to Longling County) highway in the Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region to detect the effect of highway construction on surrounding soil quality using the method of space-for-time substitution, and predicted remediation of surrounding soil quality. The results showed that: (1) The effect of highway construction on both natural and cultivated soil quality is significant, and the effect is more significant in the period of highway construction than the period of highway in use. (2) The effects of highway construction is more apparent on downslope than upslope, and effect range was 200 m on downslope, while 150 m on upslope. (3) Soil remediation is mainly related to effect extent of highway construction, highway service time, vegetation restoration, soil organic matter and soil total nitrogen, among which, highway construction is the most important factor. (4) When vegetation coverage can be restored to 30% of the original condition, soil quality can be remedied to 44% of the original condition after 10 years, indicating that soil fertility remediation is rather difficult once it is destroyed.
Mosquitoes of Western Yunnan Province, China: Seasonal Abundance, Diversity, and Arbovirus Associations  [PDF]
Hai-Lin Zhang, Yu-Zhen Zhang, Wei-Hong Yang, Yun Feng, Roger S. Nasci, Jie Yang, Yong-Hua Liu, Chao-Liang Dong, Shi Li, Bao-Sen Zhang, Zheng-Liu Yin, Pi-Yu Wang, Shi-Hong Fu, Ming-Hua Li, Fen Liu, Juan Zhang, Jie Sun, Can-Wei Li, Xiao-Yan Gao, Hong Liu, Huan-Yu Wang, Lyle R. Petersen, Guo-Dong Liang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077017
Abstract: Objective The western borderland between Yunnan Province, China, and Myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. Numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. This project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations. Methods Mosquitoes were collected in Mangshi and Ruili cities of Dehong Prefecture near the border of China and Burma in Yunnan Province, the Peoples Republic of China in 2010. We monitored mosquito species abundance for a 12-month period using ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide baited CDC light and gravid traps; and tested the captured mosquitoes for the presence of virus to evaluate mosquito-virus associations in rural/agricultural settings in the area. Results A total of 43 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected, including 15 Culex species, 15 Anopheles spp., four Aedes spp., three Armigeres spp., one Mimomyia spp., two Uranotaenia spp. and three Mansonia spp.. Species richness and diversity varied between Mangshi and Ruili. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles peditaeniatus were the most abundant species in both sampling sites. Ultraviolet light traps collected more specimens than CDC light traps baited with dry ice, though both collected the same variety of mosquito species. The CDC gravid trap was the most effective trap for capture of Culex quinquefasciatus, a species underrepresented in light trap collections. A total of 26 virus strains were isolated, which included 13 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, four strains of Getah virus, one strain of Oya virus, one strain from the orbivirus genus, and seven strains of Culex pipien pallens densovirus. Conclusions The present study illustrates the value of monitoring mosquito populations and mosquito-transmitted viruses year-round in areas where the climate supports year-round adult mosquito activity.
Dilemmas of Burma in transition  [cached]
Kim Jolliffe
Forced Migration Review , 2011,
Abstract: Until a government of Burma is able to accept the role of non-state armed groups as providers for civilian populations and affords them legitimacy within a legal framework, sustained conflict and mass displacement remain inevitable....
Used of hill tracks and anti-social activities in Northeast India–A Indo-Burma border perspective
Review of Research , 2012,
Abstract: Hill passes on Northeast India had immense importance for its strategic and cartographic location. These hill tracks connect Northeast India with east, southeast and west. With Burma and China the contact were maintained through several hill tracks lying between India-Burma borders at Himalayan Ranges. These hill passes were used by groups of people for their movement on either sides from early past and it bears both, social and anti-social elements to this region. It had a great importance from the point of cultural intercourse, immigration, frontier war etc. The region had the experiences of World War and the inhabitants had the experience of guerrilla war fare, taught from the Allied power. At present Kachin is most important training ground for the outfit groups of the Northeastern region. They had taken training in lieu of money. Kachins are traded arms, earlier which were left by the Allied powers in dense areas of Burma after the end of war and at present bought from neighbouring nations. The Kachin area is an important site for drug also, and smuggled it. Thus this paper high lightings these antisocial issues which are in-filtered to the region through hill tracks.
Species composition, plant cover and diversity of recently reforested wild lands near Dabao Highway in Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region of Yunnan Province, China
SK Dong, BS Cui, ZF Yang, SL Liu, J Liu, J Wang, ZK Ding, LN Gao, SQ Zhao
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Deforestation, over-cultivation and rural growth have severely damaged native vegetation of woodlands along roadsides in the Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region of Yunnan Province. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different reforestation practices, which consisted of natural restoration or planting with tree seedlings that varied in species composition, coverage and diversity, on damaged roadside woodlands. Three randomly selected 10 m x 10 m plots in each reforestation practice were investigated. The results showed that the species composition, plant cover and species diversity of the planted communities varied with reforestation strategies and time since planting. A higher number of species, proportion of native species and woody plants, canopy cover and species diversity were found in naturally restored plots and in 3 - 4 year old plots that were planted with native plants. In the early stages of reforestation, herbs dominated the plant community in most plots, and woody plants became more important with time after reforestation. Preliminary results suggest that plant height can be used an auxiliary indicator of plant cover to assess ecosystem function status of the restoration project. Also, evenness may be easier to restore than species richness. Natural restoration or reforestation with native dominant plants is a good management strategy for vegetation restoration or improvement.
Genetic diversity of Tricholoma matsutake in Yunnan Province
Tao Sha,HanBo Zhang,HuaSun Ding,ZongJu Li,LiZhong Cheng,ZhiWei Zhao,YaPing Zhang
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-007-0194-0
Abstract: To investigate the genetic diversity of Tricholoma matsutake, we studied ITS and IGS1 sequences and PCR polymorphism of a retrotransposon in 56 fruit bodies collected from 13 counties of 9 regions in Yunnan Province. We found one and three haplotypes based on ITS and IGS1 sequences, respectively. Moreover, there was no significant difference in PCR polymorphism of the retrotransposon among different populations. Compared with Jilin Province (China) and Japanese populations, although Yunnan was highly homogenous to Japanese populations, low genetic diversity of T. matsutake in Yunnan did not support the view that this species originated from Yunnan.
Genetic diversity of Tricholoma matsutake in Yunnan Province

科学通报(英文版) , 2007,
Abstract: To investigate the genetic diversity of Tricholoma matsutake,we studied ITS and IGS1 sequences and PCR polymorphism of a retrotransposon in 56 fruit bodies collected from 13 counties of 9 regions in Yunnan Province. We found one and three haplotypes based on ITS and IGS1 sequences,respectively. Moreover,there was no significant difference in PCR polymorphism of the retrotransposon among different populations. Compared with Jilin Province(China) and Japanese populations,although Yun-nan was highly homogenous to Japanese populations,low genetic diversity of T. matsutake in Yunnan did not support the view that this species originated from Yunnan.
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