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Dwudziestowieczna filozofia analityczna. O pewnej próbie ca o ciowego uj cia (TWENTIETH-CENTURY ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY. ON A RECENT ATTEMPT OF ITS GENERAL ACCOUNT)  [PDF]
Tadeusz Szubka
Analiza i Egzystencja , 2007,
Abstract: Although analytic philosophy is a major movement shaping contemporary philosophy, there are not too many historical accounts of that movement which would be comprehensive, unified and sufficiently detailed. An impressive attempt to fill in this lacuna is the two-volume book 'Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century', modestly described by its author Scott Soames (renowned mainly for his work in the philosophy of language) as 'an introductory overview of the analytic tradition in philosophy covering roughly the period between 1900 and 1975'. The first volume discusses the philosophy of G.E. Moore, the most influential views of Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein's 'Tractatus', logical positivism (including emotivism in ethics and reaction against it), as well as the early philosophy of W.V. Quine. The second volume continues the story of analytic philosophy by providing an account of the later philosophy of Wittgenstein, the ordinary language philosophy and its demise, the philosophical naturalism of W.V. Quine, the theory of meaning of Donald Davidson, and finally Saul Kripke's seminal philosophy of language and its wide-ranging implications. The book contains also a short epilogue outlining the direction taken by analytic philosophy in the last quarter of the twentieth century. The two volumes of Soames' account of contemporary analytic tradition are packed with lucid, sophisticated and detailed discussions of various views of major thinkers of that tradition. However, besides these merits the book by Soames has several weaker points. It defines analytic philosophy in a rather loose and unspecific manner, as well as gives an arbitrarily selective and unbalanced account of its recent developments.
Physical theory of the twentieth century and contemporary philosophy  [PDF]
Milos V. Lokajicek
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.2478/v10005-007-0012-0
Abstract: It has been shown that the criticism of Pauli as well as of Susskind and Glogover may be avoided if the standard quantum-mechanical mathematical model has been suitably extended. There is not more any reason for Einstein's citicism, either, if in addition to some new results concerning Bell's inequalities and Belifante's argument are taken into account. The ensemble interpretation of quantum mechanics (or the hidden-variable theory) should be preferred, which is also supported by the already published results of experiments with three polarizers. Greater space in the text has been devoted also to the discussion of epistemological problems and some philosophical consequences.
An Overview of Political Torture in the Twentieth Century
Ruxandra Cesereanu
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2006,
Abstract: The present essay focuses on political torture during the twentieth century. It takes a multidisciplinary approach, because it entails insights from history, politics, ideology, anthropology, psychology and literature. The aim of the present essay is to discuss the relation between "Classical" torture (in the past centuries) and "Modern" torture (in the twentieth century), analyzing the phenomena in a comparative perspective and paying attention to the hidden and unconscious motives behind historical facts. What I am interested in is the mechanism by which, in the twentieth century, torture has been reintroduced particularly for political prisoners - that means torture for ideas and conscience, torture as a technique of power and not merely as a technique of punishment. What torture destroys first is the dignity and privacy of the victim; only then does it destroy the victim's freedom and integrity. For this reason, every torture is an act of rape, even a symbolic one. I mean this in psychological terms, not as a demonstration of feminist vocabulary. Every touching of the victim's body is rape, emphasizing the "virility" of the torturer. First of all, the torturer wants to become a master of his victim's body, and only later, a master of the tortured person's mind. I include imagination in the concept of torture, imagination being one of the tools of the act of torturing. In torture, imagination becomes, in my demonstration, a never-ending weapon.
An Overview of Political Torture in the Twentieth Century  [cached]
Ruxandra Cesereanu
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2006,
Abstract: The present essay focuses on political torture during the twentieth century. It takes a multidisciplinary approach, because it entails insights from history, politics, ideology, anthropology, psychology and literature. The aim of the present essay is to discuss the relation between "Classical" torture (in the past centuries) and "Modern" torture (in the twentieth century), analyzing the phenomena in a comparative perspective and paying attention to the hidden and unconscious motives behind historical facts. What I am interested in is the mechanism by which, in the twentieth century, torture has been reintroduced particularly for political prisoners - that means torture for ideas and conscience, torture as a technique of power and not merely as a technique of punishment. What torture destroys first is the dignity and privacy of the victim; only then does it destroy the victim's freedom and integrity. For this reason, every torture is an act of rape, even a symbolic one. I mean this in psychological terms, not as a demonstration of feminist vocabulary. Every touching of the victim's body is rape, emphasizing the "virility" of the torturer. First of all, the torturer wants to become a master of his victim's body, and only later, a master of the tortured person's mind. I include imagination in the concept of torture, imagination being one of the tools of the act of torturing. In torture, imagination becomes, in my demonstration, a never-ending weapon.
Imagining the Twentieth Century: Retrospective, Myth, and the Colonial Question  [cached]
David B MacDonald
PORTAL : Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies , 2007,
Abstract: Retrospectives on the twentieth century often portray it as the most atrocious century in human history, in terms of totalising ideologies, moral abandonment, technological horror, and mass death. The nineteenth and earlier centuries, by contrast, emerge as progressive and enlightened eras, characterised by morality, rationalism, and the absence of war. Creating a dramatic contrast between old and new centuries ignores the historical reality of colonialism and violence outside Europe’s borders. This article problematises twentieth century retrospectives and their nostalgia for the past, comparing these with recent histories of colonialism and genocide. Rather than see the twentieth century as a decisive break from the past, there are important elements of continuity and evolution which should not be ignored.
Twentieth-century English Bible translations
J.A Naudé
Acta Theologica , 2005,
Abstract: The twentieth century has emerged as a major period of Bible translations and publications. The article explores both the cultural and social circumstances under which the English Bible translations of the twentieth century were produced and aspects relating to the translation process and reception. It offers insights into the underlying objectives and qualities of translations as well as the tradition from which they stem. The primary concern for meaning and readability has influenced the nature of Bible translation of this period, breaking down the socio-cultural distance between modern readers and the original contexts of the Bible.
Topology and the Web of Twentieth Century Science  [PDF]
J. C. Phillips
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Scientific communication is an essential part of modern science: whereas Archimedes worked alone, Newton (1676) acknowledged that "If I have seen a little further, it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants." How is scientific communication reflected in the patterns of citations in scientific papers? How have these patterns changed in the 20th century, as both means of communication and individual transportation changed rapidly, compared to the earlier post-Newton 18th and 19th centuries? Here we discuss a physical model for scientific communications, based on an informetric study of 25 million papers and 600 million citations; the physical model itself relies on analogies with glass relaxation, where virtually identical patterns have been identified in 50 well designed experiments. The model reveals a surprisingly universal internal structure in the development of scientific research, which is essentially constant across the natural sciences, but which changed qualitatively around 1960.
The State of Native America at the End of the Twentieth Century  [cached]
J. Kelly Robison
American Studies Journal , 2007,
Abstract: When stereotypes of modern Native Americans are brought forward, these usually manifest themselves in visions of poor Indians living on reservations, which are on lands no one else wanted. Modern Native Americans are often stereotyped as drunks or succumbing to the pressure of gamblers to open their reservations to casinos. One place to start in order to disprove these stereotypes is the statistical data. What follows is not an interpretive essay in the classic scholarly vein, but an informative one that provides a picture of the state of Native America at the end of the Twentieth Century based on current statistical data.
Absolute spacetime: the twentieth century ether  [PDF]
Carl H. Brans
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1023/A:1026632709502
Abstract: All gauge theories need ``something fixed'' even as ``something changes.'' Underlying the implementation of these ideas all major physical theories make indispensable use of an elaborately designed spacetime model as the ``something fixed,'' i.e., absolute. This model must provide at least the following sequence of structures: point set, topological space, smooth manifold, geometric manifold, base for various bundles. The ``fine structure'' of spacetime inherent in this sequence is of course empirically unobservable directly, certainly when quantum mechanics is taken into account. This issue is at the basis of the difficulties in quantizing general relativity and has been approached in many different ways. Here we review an approach taking into account the non-Boolean properties of quantum logic when forming a spacetime model. Finally, we recall how the fundamental gauge of diffeomorphisms (the issue of general covariance vs coordinate conditions) raised deep conceptual problems for Einstein in his early development of general relativity. This is clearly illustrated in the notorious ``hole'' argument. This scenario, which does not seem to be widely known to practicing relativists, is nevertheless still interesting in terms of its impact for fundamental gauge issues.
The Political History of Twentieth-Century Portugal  [cached]
Manuel Bai?a,Paulo Jorge Fernandes,Filipe Ribeiro de Menezes
E-Journal of Portuguese History , 2003,
Abstract: The political history of twentieth-century Portugal has recently become the focus of intense research by historians of that country. This article attempts both to summarise the political developments of the period and to provide an English-language readership with an introduction to the on-going debate. This debate is driven to a great extent by the attempt to explain the reasons for the longevity of Salazar's New State and by the attempt to place it within a broader European context. As a result, the regime immediately preceding the New State, the First Republic, has been somewhat neglected by Portuguese historians.
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