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The Role of DNA in Forensic Odontology: Part II
C. Stavrianos,A. Eliades,A. Kokkas
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.309.314
Abstract: During the last years, DNA analysis methods are applied to forensic cases. Also, forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, i.e., after fire exposure, aircraft inflammation or mass disasters. Teeth represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The interest in using dental tissues as a DNA-source of individual identification falls within the particular character of resistance of this organ towards physical or chemical exterior aggressions. Because of their resistant nature to environmental assaults such as incineration, immersion, trauma, multilation and decomposition, teeth represent an excellent source of DNA material. When conventional dental identification methods fail, this biological material can provide the necessary link to prove identity. Even root-filled teeth supply sufficient biological material for PCR analysis in order to be compared with known antemortem samples or paternal DNA. DNA can be used for determination of the found remains identity. The identification of individuals is not the only use for dental DNA. The technique has allowed criminal investigators to link victims to crime scenes once the body has been removed and incinerated. Therefore, it is prudent for the forensic odontologist to become familiar with the fundamentals for obtaining and analyzing DNA from the oral and dental tissues. The purpose of the Part II of this report is to review of the application of the DNA technology to forensic odontology cases, the responsibilities of the odontologist and the importance of DNA extracted from oral and dental tissues and saliva.
Scientific and Traditional Knowledge in Odontology  [PDF]
María del Pilar Adriano, Tomás Caudillo Joya, Nicolás Malinowski, Pilar Alejandra Caudillo Adriano
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2014.47050
Abstract: Introduction: We present the results of scientific and traditional knowledge, which were performed on students attending the School of Dental Surgery at the Faculty of Higher Studies Zaragoza UNAM and parents in the Milpa Alta policy delegation of the Federal District with the purpose to articulate such knowledge for planning oral health programs where the protection and promotion of oral health are prioritized. Method: This study was qualitative and quantitative, and 413 students of the career Dentist Faculty of Higher Studies Zaragoza UNAM and 2100 parents of twelve elementary school of the Milpa Alta delegation participated. Results: One of the results was that almost a third (28%) of the students go to the dentist only when they need to, however 40% of parents said they go to consultation only when they start to experience pain. Conclusion: It is important to articulate scientific knowledge with the traditional and famed in Odontology, for the operation alization of health programs attached to particular contexts where all stakeholders are involved to prevent oral problems.
Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology
Zehtiye Fusun Yasar,Gulumser Gultekin Akduman
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2007,
Abstract: The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5): 389-394]
Software Design for Smile Analysis  [PDF]
A. Sodagar,R. Rafatjoo,D. Gholami Borujeni,H. Noroozi
Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: Esthetics and attractiveness of the smile is one of the major demands in contemporary orthodontic treatment. In order to improve a smile design, it is necessary to record “posed smile” as an intentional, non-pressure, static, natural and reproduciblesmile. The record then should be analyzed to determine its characteristics. In this study,we intended to design and introduce a software to analyze the smile rapidly and precisely in order to produce an attractive smile for the patients.Materials and Methods: For this purpose, a practical study was performed to design multimedia software “Smile Analysis” which can receive patients’ photographs and videographs. After giving records to the software, the operator should mark the points and lines which are displayed on the system’s guide and also define the correct scale for each image. Thirty-three variables are measured by the software and displayed on the report page. Reliability of measurements in both image and video was significantly high(=0.7-1).Results: In order to evaluate intra- operator and inter-operator reliability, five cases were selected randomly. Statistical analysis showed that calculations performed in smile analysis software were both valid and highly reliable (for both video and photo).Conclusion: The results obtained from smile analysis could be used in diagnosis,treatment planning and evaluation of the treatment progress.
Principles of smile design  [cached]
Bhuvaneswaran Mohan
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2010,
Abstract: An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile.
When the Silence Speaks: The Smile  [PDF]
Maria do Rosário Dias, Letícia Garcia Naben, Ana Lúcia Monteiro, Ana Ferreira, Valter Pedroso Alves, Ana Delgado
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.611002
Abstract: Background: Understanding the importance, value and self-image that the smile represents in the daily life of the individual remains a subject of high scientific interest. Aim: The present qualitative and exploratory study aims at understanding the importance of the self-perception of the mouth and smile on the mental representation of self-image and the well-being of the individual. Materials and Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 151 children and youngsters of both genders, ages 8 - 24 years, who used an orthodontic appliance and were invited to draw two portraits of their mouth/smile. Results: The results suggest differences in the mental representation of the mouth and the smile, namely in the investment of the drawings before and after the use of the orthodontic appliance, as well as in the expressiveness and manifestation of emotions. Discussion and Conclusions: The results suggest that the main reason that leads participants to the treatment is related to aesthetic and functional issues in which the maximizing of the mental representation of the Orthodontic Smile emerges as a new categorization of the perfect smile.
Smile Theory of Everything
Satish Gajawada
International Journal of Computers & Technology , 2012,
Abstract: I would like to thank everything in this universe which is trying to make this place a better place to live. This report is all about “Smile Theory of Everything (SToE)”. In this theory the same thing is given in different formats.
Computerized analysis of the smile in Orthodontics
Luiz Vicente de Moura LOPES,Simone Regina STASZAK,Alexandre MORO
RSBO , 2006,
Abstract: In most cases the search for orthodontic treatment is related withesthetics cause. Nowadays, a beautiful smile is extremely importantfor the society. Establishing elements for diagnosis and planning,looking at a harmonious and well-balanced smile became an obligation at dentistry offices. The esthetics is evaluated by the outline of the bone tissues and its relation with the soft tissues. A good way to get this evaluation is using photographs. The purpose of this research was to analyze computer standard pictures of the maximum smile, as complement to the orthodontic documentation to help not only in the diagnostic and planning but also in the valuation of obtained results. Standard pictures of the maximum smile were obtained in the natural position of the head. Linear,angular and proportional measures were evaluated through the computerized program (CEFX2001 – CDT). The sample consisted of 28 patients, white, male, age between 19 and 25 years old, with Class I occlusion and no previous orthodontic treatment. The values of the descriptive statistics and error analysis were obtained. The results were compared with the values found in the literature, and the values found at a study using the same computerized program CEFX2001 – CDT, but with female patients. The final results were similar to the values found in the literature and the values found in a study using the same computerized program CEFX2001 – CDT,but with female patients.
STUDENTS’ SPONTANEOUS SMILE IN EFL CLASSROOM  [cached]
Daniela Gomes de Araújo Nóbrega
Signótica , 2012, DOI: 10.5216/sig.v24i2.17248
Abstract: This article discusses the importance of the students’ spontaneous smile in EFL classroom interaction, and its implication to their oral production. Findings proved that the students’ spontaneous smile served as a fundamental interactive nonverbal sign for it not only favors a closer relation among students, but also helps them in the co-construction of oral activities in group works. In sum, the students’ spontaneous smile appeared to be a nonverbal indicative of proximity and of increasing oral interaction among them.
Regular Variation and Smile Asymptotics  [PDF]
Shalom Benaim,Peter Friz
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: We consider risk-neutral returns and show how their tail asymptotics translate directly to asymptotics of the implied volatility smile, thereby sharpening Roger Lee's celebrated moment formula. The theory of regular variation provides the ideal mathematical framework to formulate and prove such results. The practical value of our formulae comes from the vast literature on tail asymptotics and our conditions are often seen to be true by simple inspection of known results.
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