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Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes  [PDF]
Margaret Rose
Animals , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ani1010069
Abstract: Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800’s that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950’s, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.
The left wing in office: continuity or change in welfare policies?
Midaglia,Carmen; Antía,Florencia;
Revista Uruguaya de Ciencia Política , 2007,
Abstract: the article analyzes the main social welfare policies developed by the left-wing government in uruguay, identifying changes and continuity in social policy in relation to the policies implemented by previous administrations. in this context, the article analyzes the main characteristics of the traditional uruguayan welfare regime, the reforms that were processed following re-democratization, and the direction and content of the social policy reforms proposed by the left-wing administration. the paper argues that the left-wing government has prioritized initiatives designed to enhance the welfare of the most vulnerable sectors and to promote social equity. however, in other strategic policy areas, such as education and social security, significant reforms have not been undertaken.
Welfare Effects of Shifting from Tariff to Ban on Rice Import Policies in Nigeria
U. Obih,C.A. Emenyonu,S.C. Onyemauwa,M.A.C.A. Odii
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Since 1970s, Nigeria’s policy on rice importation which inconsistently alternated between ban and tariff has adversely affected the growth of the domestic rice industry. In 2006, government proposed to shift from current tariff policy to total ban rice importation arguing that it offers more protection capable of stimulating growth of domestic rice industry. This study analyzes the protective and welfare effects of ban and tariff policies on rice importation in Nigeria for the periods of 1987-2005 using the partial equilibrium model. Policy shift does not really matter in terms of having substantial trickle-down effect as marketing middlemen are more likely to benefit from the imposition of trade barriers. However, tariff appeared to be more effective in raising domestic prices than discouraging importation because of the price capping effect of imported rice brands. Although, ban provided higher but insignificant amount of protection than tariff, its inefficiency costs on rice production and consumption were significantly higher. These inefficiency costs coupled with loss in revenue resulted to a higher and significant loss in social welfare.
Overcoming the Welfare State. Local safety policies in the Venetian area  [cached]
Francesca Vianello,Francesco Faiella
Revista Theomai , 2003,
Abstract: This article intends to describe a process of transformation recently affecting the whole Europe. It is the progressive overcoming of welfare State traditionally meant as garantuee for all citizens of the essential services for their own subsistence and wellbeing allocated on the basis of the principles of universality, solidarity and equity. Since it is a process that largely affects all social policies, we have thought it right to choose a definite visual angle from which to observe from closer the evolution and strenghtening of the neoliberist trends. We have choosen the visual angle of security itended as a public good, the substanzial definition of which appears to be profoundly linked to the idea of the State and society to which it refers. Our starting point is the passage from an attitude of concern linked to the topic of public order to a diffuse sense of alarm related to the urban security. This shift has been underlined by several authors. In the public communication, this shift can be seen as a changing point of observation: the general accountability of the central State in managing its citizens security has been, or at least can be, replaced by that of the local communities. Therefore our interest has moved to the local contents that are often characterizing the traditional theme of public safety, especially in relation with the different strategies of prevention and security. It is in fact in the tension between a preventive and a repressive point of view that we can foresee the possibility of a real change, tied to the local dimensions of the new security projects.
Socio-Economic Welfare Policies For The Rehabilitation Of Devadasis In Belgaum District  [PDF]
Deveraj. A,M.F Doddamani
Golden Research Thoughts , 2012, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: Devadasi practice is an ancient practice which offers girls to the deities in Hindu temples. The girls should not marry and hence become prey for social evils such as forced prostitution. Realizing the disadvantages of Devadasi practice, the Government of Karnataka passed legislation the Karnataka Devadasi Act in 1982 to prohibit Devadasi practice. Still due to social beliefs, the practice still prevailed in Karnataka, especially in the temples of Renuka Yellamma Temples of Saundatti and Chandragutti. The Government of Karnataka also formulated rehabilitation and welfare schemes for the overall socio-economic development of Devadasis. The present study is a survey of 400 devadasis in Saundatti taluka of Belgaum district and the information was collected from interview schedule. It is suggested from the study that there is need for more social welfare and rehabilitation schemes for devadasis and there is also need to increase awareness of the Devadasis on the rehabilitation and social welfare schemes, so as to get the benefits from the same.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC WELFARE POLICIES FOR THE REHABILITATION OF DEVADASIS IN BELGAUM DISTRICT
DEVERAJ. A AND M.F DODDAMANI
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Devadasi practice is an ancient practice which offers girls to the deities in Hindu temples. The girls should not marry and hence become prey for social evils such as forced prostitution. Realizing the disadvantages of Devadasi practice, the Government of Karnataka passed legislation the Karnataka Devadasi Act in 1982 to prohibit Devadasi practice. Still due to social beliefs, the practice still prevailed in Karnataka, especially in the temples of Renuka Yellamma Temples of Saundatti and Chandragutti. The Government of Karnataka also formulated rehabilitation and welfare schemes for the overall socio-economic development of Devadasis. The present study is a survey of 400 devadasis in Saundatti taluka of Belgaum district and the information was collected from interview schedule. It is suggested from the study that there is need for more social welfare and rehabilitation schemes for devadasis and there is also need to increase awareness of the Devadasis on the rehabilitation and social welfare schemes, so as to get the benefits from the same.
The Diverse Impacts of the Neo-liberal Social Policies on Children’s Welfare and Social Work with Young People: The Finnish Perspective
Satka, Mirja,Harrikari, Timo,Hoikkala, Susanna,Pekkarinen, Elina
Social Work and Society , 2007,
Abstract: This article discusses the impacts of globalization, neo-liberal social policies and the Finnish economic recession of the 1990s on children's and young people's welfare. It summarises some of the impacts of Finnish social policies on the everyday lives of families with children and highlights some of the features of the recent and current debates surrounding youth delinquency and the societal reactions to young generations. All this contributes to a contradictory and conflicting societal context which challenges experts in the field of child welfare social work experts to operate - as expected - at the right moment, legally and effectively. Instead of being overly-defensive for the ‘good old’ ways of practicing social work with children, the authors invite social work scholars and practitioners to reconceptualise both the concept of children's citizenship and its position both in child welfare theory and practice in the context of children's global rights.
Formulating policies for the welfare of animals during long distance transportation
Andrea Gavinelli,Maria Ferrara,Denis Simonin
Veterinaria Italiana , 2008,
Abstract: Long distance transportation of animals creates much public concern in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere, partly because of its visibility to the general public. The protection of animals during transport is thus a key element of EU policy for farm animal welfare. At the same time, animal transport has been vital to the structure of the food chain in Europe since the beginning of the Common Agricultural Policy. The authors describe the formulation of EU policy on long distance transportation. Initiatives are based on scientific risk assessment and considerations of international guidelines. The two main objectives of EU policy are to reduce long distance transportation as far as possible and to upgrade standards for transported animals. The extent of detail in regulations depends on the ability of the sector concerned to address issues and on continual upgrading of the awareness and knowledge of transport operators on animal welfare which is universally important for progress. The economic impact of legislative measures must be evaluated as part of the policy process, noting that proper animal welfare standards can generate direct and indirect economic advantages. Awareness of these welfare advantages in all sectors is essential for raising the quality of enforcement. Finally, policy goals should be monitored to verify the extent of their fulfilment. Efforts from competent authorities and transport companies in Europe are improving the situation. However, a strong legislative framework is likely to remain the best option for the coming years to ensure that the welfare of transported animals is more than just a minimum.
Welfare systems, ageing and work: an OECD perspective  [cached]
Ignazio Visco
PSL Quarterly Review , 2000,
Abstract: This paper examines the scale of the demographic problem facing OECD economies and the labour market trends among older workers, considering the macroeconomic implications of welfare provision for ageing on living standards and fiscal balances. The nature and the scale of incentives for early retirement are then discussed, concluding that welfare systems in OECD countries will come under increasing pressure as the share of public pension payments on total welfare outlays could rise dramatically over the coming decades. The paper illustrates some of the recent OECD recommendations for responding to the challenges posed by ageing societies in the context of diverse social welfare systems and concludes that policies are urgently needed in a number of countries to pursue two fundamental objectives: increasing the average number of years individuals spend active in the labour force and raising the sources of provision for an adequate retirement income.
Welfare, invecchiamento della popolazione e lavoro: una prospettiva OCSE (Welfare Systems, Ageing and Work: An OECD Perspective)  [cached]
Ignazio Visco
Moneta e Credito , 2000,
Abstract: This paper examines the scale of the demographic problem facing OECD economies and the labour market trends among older workers, considering the macroeconomic implications of welfare provision for ageing on living standards and fiscal balances. The nature and the scale of incentives for early retirement are then discussed, concluding that welfare systems in OECD countries will come under increasing pressure as the share of public pension payments on total welfare outlays could rise dramatically over the coming decades. The paper illustrates some of the recent OECD recommendations for responding to the challenges posed by ageing societies in the context of diverse social welfare systems and concludes that policies are urgently needed in a number of countries to pursue two fundamental objectives: increasing the average number of years individuals spend active in the labour force and raising the sources of provision for an adequate retirement income.
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