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Using Surface Electromyography to Compare Healthy Male and Female Laryngeal Muscles Activity  [PDF]
Saeed Talebian,Azadeh Shadmehr,Mohammad Akbari,Seyyedeh Maryam khoddami
Audiology , 2011,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Laryngeal muscles contribute in sound production play a key role in specific language. Needle electromyography is the specific complementary method for muscle activity evaluation which is awfully painful and needs serenity of patient. The purpose of this study was to use Surface electromyography as a probable new approach for evaluation of laryngeal muscles activity.Methods: 34 healthy women and 34 healthy men aged 20-30 years old were enrolled in this study. Each individual was seated in an armchair. Recording electrodes were placed bilaterally (right and left) in the low anterior neck at approximately one centimeter from midline on thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles. Silent activity and fricative voice (/z/ , / /) and voiceless (/s/ , / /) activities were recorded for ten seconds followed by 10 seconds of rest, for 5 repetition. All data were processed and frequency and non linear measurements were assessed. And were compared in time and frequency domain.Results: Muscle activity in fricative voice in both groups was greater than rest condition (p<0.05). Moreover, muscle activity median frequency was significantly more in men than women (p<0.001).Conclusion: Activity evaluation of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles using surface electromyography is difficult in women. That may be due to anatomical features such as length and width of neck in women.
Psychogenic Movement Disorders
Chakravarty Ambar,Gosh Bhaskar
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 2004,
Abstract: Psychogenic movement Disorders (PMD) may result from somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression anxiety disorders and less frequently, histrionic personality disorders. First recognized by Henry Head in early twentieth century, PMD s commonly encountered and clues to their differentiation from organic disease. A generally accepted management protocol has been outlined.
Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation  [PDF]
Edward A. Shipton
Neurology Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/309431
Abstract: Movement disorders are neurological conditions affecting speed, fluency, quality, and ease of movement. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to treat advanced Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. Possible target sites for DBS include the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus, the globus pallidus internus, and the subthalamic nucleus. High-frequency DBS leads to a kind of functional deafferentation of the stimulated structure and to the modulation of cortical activity. This has a profound effect on the efficiency of movement. Indications for the use of DBS include the need to improve function, reduce medication dependency, and avoid ablative neurosurgery. Appropriate patient selection is critical for success. The implantation technique is briefly described. Programming stimulation parameters are performed via telemetry. The adverse effects of DBS are discussed. The future should see the development of “closed-loop” systems. Its use has promoted interdisciplinary team work and provided an improved understanding of the complex neurocircuitry associated with these disorders. DBS is a highly effective, safe, and reversible surgical treatment for advanced Parkinson’s disease, tremor, and dystonia. It is a useful therapeutic option in carefully selected patients that significantly improves motor symptoms, functional status, and quality of life. 1. Introduction Movement disorders are neurological conditions that affect the speed, fluency, quality, and ease of movement. There may be either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and automatic movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity [1]. Movement disorders can have a profound effect on health and quality of life. Movement is produced and coordinated by several interacting brain structures, such as the motor cortex, the cerebellum, and the basal ganglia (BG) [2]. The motor system is part of the central nervous system that is involved with voluntary and involuntary movements. It consists of the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems. The extrapyramidal system is part of the motor system that causes involuntary reflexes and movement, and modulation of movement (i.e., coordination). The BG comprises a group of interconnected deep brain nuclei, namely, the caudate and putamen, the globus pallidus internus (GP), the substantia nigra (SN), and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) [2]. These nuclei (via their connections with the thalamus and the cortex) influence the involuntary components of movement and muscle tone. Disruption of such complex circuitry within the BG causes movement
Bereitschaftspotential in tic disorders : a preliminary observation.
Duggal H,Nizamie S
Neurology India , 2002,
Abstract: Sensory phenomena in tic disorders such as Tourette′s syndrome are known but are substantiated by only a handful of studies. In this preliminary report, we studied premonitory urge, a type of sensory phenomenon in three patients of tic disorders. Bereitschaftspotential, a movement-related cognitive potential indicative of motor preparation, was assessed in these patients. As bereitschaftspotential was observed in all our cases prior to occurrence of tics, it is speculated that tics are not entirely involuntary but are quasi-volitional in nature. Bereitschaftspotential may thus represent a neurophysiological marker of premonitory urge in tic disorders. Implications of exploring the voluntary nature of tics are discussed.
Preliminary Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis on Voice Handicap Index of Laryngeal Inflammation in Greek Patients  [PDF]
Dionysios Tafiadis, Meropi E. Helidoni, Spyridon K. Chronopoulos, Evangelia I. Kosma, Vasiliki Liagkou, Louiza Voniati, Nafsika Ziavra, George A. Velegrakis
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2018.73014
Abstract: Objective(s): Laryngeal inflammations lead to voice disorders. Medical conditions such as chronic laryngitis, gastroesophageal reflux, laryngopharyngeal reflux, Reinke edema and/or vocal folds hemorrhage, result in diverse symptoms including chronic cough, throat cleaning and dysphonia (e.g. hoarseness). In turn, the dysphonic symptoms can be evaluated via subjective and objective procedures. The objective procedures usually include self-perceived questionnaires like the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Studies reported that VHI can distinguish objectively dysphonic and non-dysphonic populations using the cut-off points of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves. The purpose of this study was to calculate the cut-off points for individuals exhibiting voice symptoms which had been developed from laryngeal inflammatory diseases in Greece. Methods: One hundred and twelve participants (90 non-dysphonic and 22 dysphonic) filled in the Hellenic Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Greek translated version of Voice Evaluation Template (VEF) were administrated. All subjects were evaluated by an Otolaryngologist and a Speech-Language Pathologist. Results: The group with voice disorders exhibited higher VHI scores (in total and in its 3 subdomains) compared to non-dysphonic subgroup. Statistical significant differences were found for all VHI’s total cut-off point of 19.50 (sensitivity: 0.882, 1-specificity: 0.011) and for its three subdomains [functional 6.50 (sensitivity = 0.636, and 1-specificity = 0.022); physical 9.50 (sensitivity = 0.636, and 1-specificity = 0.000); emotional 6.50 (sensitivity = 0.455, and 1-specificity = 0.133)]. Conclusion: The preliminary results showed that VHI could discriminate individuals having voice disorders from laryngeal inflammations. The Voice Handicap Index can be used as a primary health care tool and a self-monitoring procedure in acute and sub-acute phases of the laryngeal inflammation.
Movement disorders caused by brain tumours.
Bhatoe H
Neurology India , 1999,
Abstract: Movement disorders are uncommon presenting features of brain tumours. Early recognition of such lesions is important to arrest further deficit. We treated seven patients with movement disorders secondary to brain tumours over a period of seven years. Only two of these were intrinsic thalamic tumours (astrocytomas) while the rest were extrinsic tumours. The intrinsic tumours were accompanied by hemichorea. Among the extrinsic tumours, there was one pituitary macroadenoma with hemiballismus and four meningiomas with parkinsonism. Symptoms were unilateral in all patients except one with anterior third falcine meningioma who had bilateral rest tremors. There was relief in movement disorders observed after surgery. Imaging by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is mandatory in the evaluation of movement disorders, especially if the presentation is atypical, unilateral and/or accompanied by long tract signs.
Movement disorders induced by peripheral trauma
Nóbrega, José Cláudio Marinho da;Campos, Cynthia Resende;Limongi, Jo?o Carlos Papaterra;Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen;Lin, Tchia Yeng;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2002000100004
Abstract: movement disorders induced by central nervous system trauma are well recognized. however, over the last few years, attention has been drawn to the role of peripherally induced movement disorders. we describe three patients presenting respectively dystonia, tremor and choreoathetosis associated with tremor and dystonia of the body parts previously exposed to traumatic injuries. pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not entirely known, but functional changes in afferent neuronal input to the spinal cord and secondary affection of higher brain stem and subcortical centers are probably involved.
Movement disorders induced by peripheral trauma  [cached]
Nóbrega José Cláudio Marinho da,Campos Cynthia Resende,Limongi Jo?o Carlos Papaterra,Teixeira Manoel Jacobsen
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2002,
Abstract: Movement disorders induced by central nervous system trauma are well recognized. However, over the last few years, attention has been drawn to the role of peripherally induced movement disorders. We describe three patients presenting respectively dystonia, tremor and choreoathetosis associated with tremor and dystonia of the body parts previously exposed to traumatic injuries. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not entirely known, but functional changes in afferent neuronal input to the spinal cord and secondary affection of higher brain stem and subcortical centers are probably involved.
Laryngeal vocal and endoscopic alterations after thyroidectomy under local anesthesia and hypnosedation
Souza, Lincoln Santos;Crespo, Agrício Nubiato;Medeiros, Jovany Luís Alves de;
Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1808-86942009000400008
Abstract: vocal alterations after thyroidectomy are generally related to laryngeal nerve injury or laryngotracheal mobility disorders caused by postoperative fibrosis or strap muscle lesion. aim: this study aims to evaluate the frequency of vocal and rima glottidis disorders after thyroidectomy. materials and method: this is a prospective study based on 35 patients submitted to thyroidectomy under local anesthesia and hypnosedation. all patients underwent voice auditory perception evaluation, voice acoustic tests and videolaryngostroboscopy preoperatively, and at one week and at 30 days postoperatively. bilateral cricothyroid muscle electromyography was performed on the thirtieth day after surgery to confirm the presence of injury in the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. results: 14.3% of the patients presented posterior glottis deviation before surgery and normal electromyography findings. transient and permanent vocal alteration occurred in 25.7% and 14.2% of the patients respectively. conclusion: voice disorders evaluated after voice auditory perceptive evaluation and voice acoustic tests were more intense in the group with superior laryngeal nerve external branch injury than in the injury-free dysphonic patient group. oblique glottis can be present in normal patients; however its onset after thyroidectomy is indicative of superior laryngeal nerve external branch lesion.
Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders  [PDF]
Gilberto Pizzolato,Tomasz Mandat
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2012.00002
Abstract: Stereotactic technique and the introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS) can be considered two milestones in the field of surgical neuromodulation. At present the role of DBS in the treatment of clinically and epidemiologically relevant movement disorders is widely accepted and DBS procedures are performed in many clinical centers worldwide. Here we review the current state of the art of DBS treatment for the most common movement disorders: Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. In this review, we give a brief description of the candidate patient selection criteria, the different anatomical targets for each of these condition, and the expected outcomes as well as possible side effects.
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