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Analysis of Broadband IP Router Architecture
宽带IP路由器的体系结构分析

XU Ke,XIONG Yong-qiang,WU Jian-ping,
徐恪
,熊勇强,吴建平

软件学报 , 2000,
Abstract: With the increasing development of broadband technology,the speed of packets forwarding needs to be over gigabits per second for the backbone routers.Traditional routers have some insuperable barriers and can not solve the problem based on shared-bus and central processing unit.It is a great challenge for the future router architecture.In this article,the authors survey the recent advances in the research of broadband IP router,and analyze the architecture design of the fourth generation backbone router in detail.Finally,some challenging open problems are identified.
Planning and Development of Indonesia’s Domestic Communication Satellite System Palapa
Ibrahim, Marwah Daud
Online Journal of Space Communication , 2005,
Abstract: This article describes the early history of the Indonesia’s Domestic Communication Satellite System Palapa, including the reasons proposed by the government for such an expensive policy and the process of the satellite purchase. Indonesia is the first developing countries that had its own satellite system, which was launched in August 16, 1976. The article discusses two most important reasons for having the satellite system: (1). The satellite as the mean for the unification of the country, and (2) the satellite for the supporting infrastructure for the national development. Some technical aspects of Palapa satellite are also discussed in this article.
Hybrid Terrestrial-Satellite DVB/IP Infrastructure in Overlay Constellations for Triple-Play Services Access in Rural Areas  [PDF]
E. Pallis,D. Negru,A. Bourdena
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/913421
Abstract: This paper discusses the convergence of digital broadcasting and Internet technologies, by elaborating on the design, implementation, and performance evaluation of a hybrid terrestrial/satellite networking infrastructure, enabling triple-play services access in rural areas. At local/district level, the paper proposes the exploitation of DVB-T platforms in regenerative configurations for creating terrestrial DVB/IP backhaul between the core backbone (in urban areas) and a number of intermediate communication nodes distributed within the DVB-T broadcasting footprint (in rural areas). In this way, triple play services that are available at the core backbone, are transferred via the regenerative DVB-T/IP backhaul to the entire district and can be accessed by rural users via the corresponding intermediate node. On the other hand, at regional/national level, the paper proposes the exploitation of a satellite interactive digital video broadcasting platform (DVB S2/RCS) as an overlay network that interconnects the regenerative DVB-T/IP platforms, as well as individual users, and services providers, to each other. Performance of the proposed hybrid terrestrial/satellite networking environment is validated through experimental tests that were conducted under real transmission/reception conditions (for the terrestrial segment) and via simulation experiments (for the satellite segment) at a prototype network infrastructure. 1. Introduction Triple-play services provision depends not only on the access network that is usually considered as the last mile network, but also on the connection from the local “point of presence” (e.g., local exchange building) to the core high-capacity backbone network. This connection, which is known as “backhaul”, or the “middle mile” network, constitutes a significant issue for accessing triple-play services especially in dispersed, rural, and less developed areas, that is, those that are far away from the high-capacity core network. The backhaul connection to the nearest available main network node for triple-play services provision can be currently addressed by a variety of proprietary technologies, such as fibre optical, satellite, and microwave radio links [1, 2], the cost of which is proportionally increased to the remoteness, while decreasing as the number of customers is escalated. As a result, and especially in the case of highly remote/rural communities, and/or low population areas, these technological solutions prove to be unprofitable for the services/network provider, and therefore deployment of backhaul for triple-play
Analysis and Simulation of Delay and Buffer Requirements of satellite-ATM Networks for TCP/IP Traffic  [PDF]
Rohit Goyal,Sastri Kota,Raj Jain,Sonia Fahmy,Bobby Vandalore,Jerry Kallaus
Computer Science , 1998,
Abstract: In this paper we present a model to study the end-to-end delay performance of a satellite-ATM netowrk. We describe a satellite-ATM network architecture. The architecture presents a trade-off between the on-board switching/processing features and the complexity of the satellite communication systems. The end-to-end delay of a connection passing through a satellite constellation consists of the transmission delay, the uplink and downlink ground terminal-satellite propagation delay, the inter-satellite link delays, the on-board switching, processing and buffering delays. In a broadband satellite network, the propagation and the buffering delays have the most impact on the overall delay. We present an analysis of the propagation and buffering delay components for GEO and LEO systems. We model LEO constellations as satellites evenly spaced in circular orbits around the earth. A simple routing algorithm for LEO systems calculates locally optimal paths for the end-to-end connection. This is used to calculate the end-to-end propagation delays for LEO networks. We present a simulation model to calculate the buffering delay for TCP/IP traffic over ATM ABR and UBR service categories. We apply this model to calculate total end-to-end delays for TCP/IP over satellite-ATM networks.
A Pareto Model for the Traffic of IP Backbone Node
基于Pareto分布的IP骨干节点输入通信量模型

RAO Yun-Hua,CAO Yang,YANG Yan,WU Rui,
饶云华
,曹阳,杨艳,吴锐

计算机科学 , 2006,
Abstract: The behavior of input traffic has a great influence on the design and performance of IP backbone node. In this paper,a mixed network traffic model is proposed based on Pareto and exponential distribution from the point of view of IP backbone router arrival traffic. In this model,packet arrival-interval obeys Pareto distribution and packet size obeys exponential distribution. This model overcomes the shortcoming of traditional network traffic model, which does not consider the packet size explicitly. It accurately describes the network traffic on the packet level, and is useful for the structure design and performance analysis of router. Simulation confirms the effective of this model.
It is time to use the Ku-band in Indonesia
Prima Setiyanto Widodo
Online Journal of Space Communication , 2005,
Abstract: Satellite Communications Systems are infrastructures that can be used for broadband multimedia applications. In the communication satellite field, the C-band (4-6 GHz) frequencies have been used since the beginning and are now saturated. The Ku-band (11-18 GHz) has been used also for communication satellite systems, because with this frequency a bigger bandwidth can be applied. The Ku-band has other advantages, such as avoidance of interference with terrestrial microwave systems that often use the C-band frequency. However, for Indonesia, the use of the Ku-band needs a thorough examination because frequencies above 10 GHz are vulnerable to rain, especially heavy rain that often occurs in Indonesia. This article examines the possibility of using the Ku-band for satellite communication systems in Indonesia.
VPLS: alternativa de interconexión a través del backbone IP/MPLS de ETECSA
Osmel Barreto Prieto
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Informáticas , 2013,
Abstract: La Empresa de Telecomunicaciones de Cuba (ETECSA) maneja en condiciones de exclusividad la infraestructura de telecomunicaciones del país, por lo que el resto de los proveedores necesitan utilizar dicha infraestructura como soporte para la interconexión de los nodos que componen sus redes. Teniendo en cuenta el desarrollo de las tecnologías de las telecomunicaciones, ETECSA ha apostado por la implementación de un backbone IP/MPLS (Internet Protocol over MultiProtocol Label Switching: Protocolo de Internet sobre Conmutación Multiprotocolo basada en Etiquetas) en su red, el cual se espera absorba todos los servicios actualmente soportados por el backbone ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)/Frame Relay. Sin embargo, en estos momentos, la red IP/MPLS solamente oferta servicios VPN (Virtual Private Network: Red Privada Virtual) a nivel de red (nivel tres del modelo OSI), cuestión que, para los otros proveedores, resulta inadmisible. El presente artículo describe una propuesta de implementación de una entidad VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service: Servicio de LAN Privada Virtual) como alternativa para la migración de los servicios de VPN de nivel dos que actualmente se soportan sobre el backbone ATM/Frame Relay, hacia el backbone IP/MPLS, variante que garantiza la independencia por parte de los proveedores que son clientes de ETECSA en la operación y enrutamiento de su red.
Braving the Challenge of Satellite Technologies: National Breakthroughs and Indonesia’s Role in International Forums
Arnold Ph. Djiwatampu
Online Journal of Space Communication , 2005,
Abstract: At the time INTELSAT made available for the first time reliable international satellite communication in the 1960's, Indonesia made a wise decision to join the Consortium of Satellite-Using Nations, notwithstanding the economic hardships it posed to participate. Later in the 1970's, the launch of Indonesia's Palapa domestic satellite was a breakthrough technology for addressing isolated areas, and triggering business activities. Indonesia had crucial decisions to make during ITU's WARC-ORB 1985 and 1987 regulatory deliberations in the interest of the global community and its own national interest. In cooperation with other Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) operators, Indonesia obtained an endorsement at WRC-95 for improving the fragmented MSS bands, and helped achieve an additional allocation at WRC-2003. Indonesia took part in the ITU sponsored deliberations on GMPCS (Satellite Mobile Communication), and assisted emerging non-geostationary satellite systems, such LEOs and MEOs, at WRC forums in getting their spectrum allocation. In 2004, Indonesia is experiencing its initial stage of DTH (Direct-to-home) satellite broadcasts using Broadcast Satellite Services (BSS). More widespread use of terresterial means in Indonesia’s telecommunications scene will cause a shift in the application of satellite technologies.
LTE Adaptation for Mobile Broadband Satellite Networks  [cached]
Bastia Francesco,Bersani Cecilia,Candreva EnzoAlberto,Cioni Stefano
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2009,
Abstract: One of the key factors for the successful deployment of mobile satellite systems in 4G networks is the maximization of the technology commonalities with the terrestrial systems. An effective way of achieving this objective consists in considering the terrestrial radio interface as the baseline for the satellite radio interface. Since the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard will be one of the main players in the 4G scenario, along with other emerging technologies, such as mobile WiMAX; this paper analyzes the possible applicability of the 3GPP LTE interface to satellite transmission, presenting several enabling techniques for this adaptation. In particular, we propose the introduction of an inter-TTI interleaving technique that exploits the existing H-ARQ facilities provided by the LTE physical layer, the use of PAPR reduction techniques to increase the resilience of the OFDM waveform to non linear distortion, and the design of the sequences for Random Access, taking into account the requirements deriving from the large round trip times. The outcomes of this analysis show that, with the required proposed enablers, it is possible to reuse the existing terrestrial air interface to transmit over the satellite link.
Satellite ATM Network Architectural Considerations and TCP/IP Performance  [PDF]
Sastri Kota,Rohit Goyal,Raj Jain
Computer Science , 1998,
Abstract: In this paper, we have provided a summary of the design options in Satellite-ATM technology. A satellite ATM network consists of a space segment of satellites connected by inter-satellite crosslinks, and a ground segment of the various ATM networks. A satellite-ATM interface module connects the satellite network to the ATM networks and performs various call and control functions. A network control center performs various network management and resource allocation functions. Several issues such as the ATM service model, media access protocols, and traffic management issues must be considered when designing a satellite ATM network to effectively transport Internet traffic. We have presented the buffer requirements for TCP/IP traffic over ATM-UBR for satellite latencies. Our results are based on TCP with selective acknowledgments and a per-VC buffer management policy at the switches. A buffer size of about 0.5 * RTT to 1 * RTT is sufficient to provide over 98% throughput to infinite TCP traffic for long latency networks and a large number of sources. This buffer requirement is independent of the number of sources. The fairness is high for a large numbers of sources because of the per-VC buffer management performed at the switches and the nature of TCP traffic.
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