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Desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) 'Bengal'
Salom?o, Luiz Carlos Chamhum;Siqueira, Dalmo Lopes de;Pereira, Marcio Eduardo Canto;
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-29452006000100006
Abstract: it was studied the fruit development in 'bengal' litchi (litchi chinensis sonn.). the samples were taken weekly 35 days after anthesis until the beginning of fruit senescence. from the 77th day after anthesis, fruits were decomposed in pericarp, aril and seed. anthesis occurred in the first week of september. the fruit dry matter, length and diameter followed a single-sigmoid pattern. for dry matter accumulation, an initial phase, of slow growth, ended the 63rd day after anthesis and was coincident with a period of intense fruit drop. the next phase occurred from the 63rd to the 98th day and showed a rapid dry matter accumulation. until the 77th day, the main increment in fruit dry matter was due to pericarp and seed growth. eighty eight percent of the maximum length and 65% of the maximum diameter were reached at the end of this phase. from the 84th until the 98th day after anthesis, fruit growth was determined, basically, by aril. fruit dimensions and dry matter were stabilized after the 98th day. the commercial harvest of the fruits, characterized by the reddish color of the pericarp, occurred at the 112th day after anthesis. fruits at the 119th day after anthesis were senescent.
Efeitos da aplica??o de reguladores vegetais e do ácido bórico, em estacas de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)
Leonel, S.;Rodrigues, J.D.;
Scientia Agricola , 1993, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90161993000100006
Abstract: interactions between indolebutyric, naphtalen acetic and boric acids were studied on "callus" development and survival in lychee (litchi chinensis sonn.) cuttings. the cuttings were twenty five cm long with four leaves cut in half and taken in two different periods (january and april) styrofoam trays, with vermiculite as substratum kept under intermittent mist were used as rooting media. cuttings were imersed up to 2.5 cm from the base in water solutions, for one minute. the treatments were: 5,000 and 2,000 ppm of iba; 3,000 and 1,500 ppm of naa; 150 micrograms/ml h3bo3; iba 5,000 and 2,000 ppm plus h3bo3 150 micrograms/ml; naa 3,000 and 1,500 ppm plus boron 150 micrograms/ml and ii2o. "callus" formation and cutting survival were evaluated 120 days after planting. it was concluded that no treatments were effective on root formation, however, "callus" formation was observed. the best period for taking the cuttings was april.
In vitro regeneration of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)
D Puchooa
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: In vitro plantlet regeneration in the main commercial variety of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv Tai So) in Mauritius was achieved from callus cultures derived from young, tender leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Callogenesis was obtained in all media supplemented with auxin, but was most prominent in media supplemented with 2,4 – D ( 1.5 mgL-1) with or without benzylamino purine and kinetin. Nodular compact callus obtained in the 2,4 – D and BAP treatment proliferated and differentiated into shoots .When transferred to MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mgL-1) and IAA (3.0 mgL-1). Regenerated shoots produced prominent roots when transferred to MS medium supplemented with IBA (2.0 mgL-1). Regeneration was predominantly through organogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis was observed when callus growing on MS medium supplemented with 2,4–D (1.5 mgL-1) was transferred to medium devoid of 2,4-D. Key Words: Litchi chinensis, micropropagation, somatic embyogenesis. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(11) 2004: 576-584
Enraizamento de estacas de lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)
Leonel, S.;Rodrigues, J. D.;Rodrigues, S. D.;
Scientia Agricola , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90161995000200022
Abstract: the effects of exogen auxins and boric add were studied on lychee (litchi chinensis sonn.) cuttings. cuttings were standardized to twenty-five cm length, with four leaves, cut in half. the bases of the cuttings were dipped of 2,5 cm in water solutions, resulting in the following treatments: h2o; boron 150 μg/ml; iba 5,000 ppm; iba 2,000 ppm; iba 5,000 ppm plus boron 150 μg/ml; iba 2,000 ppm plus boron 150 μg/ml; naa 3,000 ppm; naa 1,500 ppm; naa 3,000 ppm plus boron 150 μg/ml; naa 1,500 ppm plus boron 150 μg/ml. cutting was performed in september (southern hemisphere) and the cuttings were place in styrofoam trays, using vermiculite as substratum and kept under intermittent mist it was concluded that 5,000 ppm iba for one minute was the best treatment to improve rooting (83,33%), while the control (h2o) showed only 16,67% of rooted cuttings.
Synthetic Seed Preparation, Germination and Plantlet Regeneration of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)  [PDF]
D. K. Das, A. Rahman, Dipti Kumari, Nutan Kumari
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.710133
Abstract: Litchi chinensis sonn.) ranks second after mango amongst the most important fruit crops cultivated worldwide. Litchi is a very valuable crop throughout the world because it is a table fruit and wines are also produced from it. The existing cultivars are highly polyploidy and heterozygous in nature. It is propagated through air layering and marcottage methods and storability is very low. Synthetic seeds can be stored for a long time and its genetic constitution could remain the same. For germplasm maintenance and clonal propagation, synthetic seeds can be used. Somatic embryogenesis has been reported from anther or embryogenic suspension culture in various species of litchi. Regeneration via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos has also been reported in certain species. Developing a methodology for getting somatic embryogenesis with a high frequency from zygotic embryos which is available once in a year, would be particularly useful for genetic improvement of litchi. Cotyledonary stage somatic embryos developed from zygotic embryos were encapsulated in 2% alginate gel. The encapsulated somatic embryos (ESEs) germinated successfully on 0.7% agar medium containing 3% sucrose concentration in NN basal medium (half strength of major and minor salts) with 1 mg·l-1 of gibbrellic acid. Percentage germination and plantlet development for ESEs was higher than that of non encapsulated embryos (NSEs). In comparison to different hormones, gibberellic acid has a significant influence on the germination rate of ESEs after one week of dehydration was seen maximum at 9% sucrose and abscisic acid (1 mg·l-1) in half strength of major and minor salts in Nitsch and Nitsch medium resulting in extended storage up to 90 days without loss in germination potential and capability to regenerate into plantlets. Normally developed plantlets regenerated from ESEs were successfully adapted to soil to obtain a full grown plant.
A simple, rapid and efficient method for the extraction of genomic DNA from lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)
D Puchooa
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: A simple, rapid and efficient method for isolating genomic DNA from lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was developed. This modified CTAB protocol include the use of 2 M NaCl, PVP, 5% mercaptoethanol and 80% ethanol in the extraction as well as reducing the centrifugation times during the separation and precipitation of the DNA. Isolated genomic DNA showed high purity and high quantity following restriction digestion analysis. Key Words: Litchi chinensis; genomic DNA isolation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 3 (4), 2004: 253-255
Ramiro Maldonado Peralta,Antonio Trinidad Santos,Daniel Téliz Ortíz,Vicente A. Velasco Velasco
Revista fitotecnia mexicana , 2012,
Abstract: Se evaluó la respuesta de litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en árboles de la var. 'Brewster' de seis a os plantados al norte de Oaxaca, en el periodo 2009 - 2011. Se usaron seis proporciones (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 y 125 %) de la dosis 50-130-50 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 y K2O como tratamientos; adicionalmente se probaron otros tres tratamientos: dosis 100 % + 3.6 t ha-1 de composta, dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores, y dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores + 720 kg ha-1 de Ca (OH)2. La primera fertilización se aplicó en noviembre de 2009 pero no se encontró respuesta a la fertilización en 2010. En 2010 y 2011 la fertilización se dividió en dos partes. La primera mitad se aplicó el 30 de agosto de 2010, y la otra mitad el 11 de febrero de 2011. Los resultados que aquí se reportan son del periodo 2010 - 2011. Las concentraciones foliares mayores de N, P y K se obtuvieron al inicio de la yema floral con las dosis mas altas de fertilización. La mayor floración y el mayor rendimiento de fruta se lograron con la dosis 100 % de N-P-K + elementos menores que superó (P 0.05) al testigo. El mayor contenido de clorofila foliar se obtuvo con el tratamiento 125 %, en comparación con el testigo. Los mayores valores de peso de materia seca de brotes vegetativos y de área foliar se lograron con el tratamiento 100 % + composta. El contenido de N foliar correlacionó con el rendimiento de brotes y con área foliar (r = 0.72 y r = 0.65, respectivamente). Se concluye que los árboles de litchi fertilizados con NPK, composta y elementos menores, aumentaron su concentración foliar de N, P y K, cantidad de flores, rendimiento de fruta, color verde de las hojas, biomasa de nuevos brotes y área foliar. No se encontró respuesta del litchi a la aplicación de hidróxido de calcio.
Effects of Glutamic Acid and TDZ (Thidiazuron) on the Fruit Coloration and Quality of Litchi chinensis Sonn.

ZENG Ling-d,LIAO Jian-liang,CHEN Hou-bin,

热带亚热带植物学报 , 2012,
Abstract: 为提前或延迟果实的成熟,改善果实品质,以荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)早熟品种‘三月红’和‘水东’为试验材料,在盛花后50 d 用谷氨酸(Glu)和TDZ (Thidiazuron)进行处理,研究Glu 和TDZ 对果皮着色和果实品质的影响。结果表明,Glu 能促进果皮转红,500~1500 mg L-1 范围内随浓度增加果皮红色面积加大,果皮的花青苷含量增加。1500 mg L-1 Glu 处理的‘三月红’、‘水东’果皮花青苷含量分别达到8.62 U g-1、11.53 U g-1,分别比对照高出1.33、1.25 倍。同时,Glu 处理能促进‘三月红’总糖的积累,但对两品种果实大小和质量的影响不大。TDZ 显著迟滞果实着色,果实转红延后,果皮花青苷含量降低。5.0 mg L-1TDZ 处理的‘三月红’、‘水东’果皮花青苷仅为1.23 和3.4 U g-1,显著低于对照。TDZ 处理两品种果实的可溶性固形物、总糖含量均下降,但果实大小和质量均增加。因此,Glu 能促进荔枝果实转色成熟,TDZ 则抑制果实转色。
Influência de fatores fisiológicos de plantas-matrizes e de épocas do ano no pegamento de diferentes métodos de enxertia do umbuzeiro  [cached]
Araújo Francisco Pinheiro de,Castro Neto Manoel Teixeira de
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura , 2002,
Abstract: Com o objetivo de verificar a influência de fatores fisiológicos das plantas-matrizes de umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arruda.), as épocas de realiza o e os métodos de enxertia, sobre o pegamento de enxertos desta espécie, foram conduzidos cinco experimentos sob condi es de viveiro, na Embrapa Semi-árido, em Petrolina-PE. Os experimentos foram instalados nos meses de janeiro, mar o, maio, julho e setembro de 1998. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos e oito repeti es. Os tratamentos foram: garfagem em fenda cheia e à inglesa simples e borbulhia em "T" invertido. Os garfos foram colhidos de acordo com o ciclo fenológico das plantas-matrizes, correspondendo às fases de crescimento vegetativo, reprodutivo e de dormência, quando ent o se realizaram as avalia es dos fatores fisiológicos. Os fatores fisiológicos (fotossíntese, potencial hídrico e condutancia estomática), observados na planta-matriz, nas diferentes fases fenológicas, n o influenciaram o índice de pegamento dos diferentes métodos de enxertia. Os métodos de enxertia por garfagem em fenda cheia e à inglesa simples apresentaram maiores índices médio de pegamento, de 97,1 e 92,4%, respectivamente. O material vegetativo (garfos) colhido nas diferentes fases fenológicas da planta-matriz n o afetou o índice de pegamento do processo da enxertia, o que amplia a oferta de mudas ao longo do ano devido à oferta de material propagativo.
Understory vegetation community structure and diversity in low-value lichee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) plantation in Dongguan of South China

ZHU Jian-Yun,XIE Dan-Dan,YE Yong-Chang,SU Zhi-Yao,

中国生态农业学报 , 2011,
Abstract: Using field survey from an abandoned lichee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) plantation in Dalingshan, Dongguan City, the community structure, diversity and niche characteristics of understory vegetation were analyzed. The field survey recorded 102 understory plant species, which belonged to 50 families and 85 genera. Thirteen ferns species of the vegetation mosaic belonged to 9 families and 9 genera; 65 dicotyledons belonged to 31 families and 52 genera; and 24 monocots belonged to 10 families and 24 genera. Shrubs and tree seedlings dominated the understory vegetation. There was no significant difference in species abundance between the shrub and herbaceous layers. No significant difference was also noted in the indices of species richness, evenness, Shannon-Wiener, and Simpson between the shrub and herbaceous layers. The dominant plant species included 8 shrubs (e.g., Raphiolepis indica), 7 herbs (e.g., Dicranopteris dichotoma) and 5 vines (e.g., Mussaunda pubescens). Niches breadth and niche overlaps were 0.909~1.450 and 0.567~0.955 for the main shrub layer, and 0.945~1.566 and 0.270~0.984 for the main herbaceous layer, respectively. The study revealed rich species of natural recruitment in the understory vegetation of lichee plantation. This was characterized by subtropical floristic elements with a complex structure. In view of the findings, it was suggested that in the transitional stage of Dongguan lichee industry, lichee plantation ceased to operate due to adverse stand conditions. Hence understory vegetation should be maintained or transformed into an ecological forest, which could help sustain the development of Dongguan lichee industry.
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