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Surveillance and the Political Value of Privacy  [cached]
Benjamin J. Goold
Amsterdam Law Forum , 2009,
Abstract: The steady expansion in the use of surveillance technologies by the state and private sector represents a substantial threat to the privacy of ordinary individuals. Yet despite the best efforts of civil libertarians, many members of the public still struggle to understand why privacy is valuable and deserves to be protected as a basic right. In part, this is a result of the inherent complexity of the idea of privacy, but it is also due a tendency on the part of privacy advocates to focus on the individual - as opposed to the social and political dimensions - of privacy. In order to ensure that there is a greater level of public engagement with matters of privacy and sufficient awareness of the dangers of intrusive surveillance, more must be done to ensure that the general public appreciates that privacy is not just essential for individual freedom, but also for the health of society as a whole.
Lecture notes on surface tension  [PDF]
Pierre Lidon
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Lecture notes in french of the lecture on surface tension given in 2015 and 2016 at the preparation to "Agr\'egation de physique" in the Ecole Normale Sup\'erieure de Lyon
Privacy Shielding against Mass Surveillance  [PDF]
Kashyap. V,Boominathan. P
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V8P213
Abstract: Privacy Shielding against Mass Surveillance provides a step by step tactical approach to protecting the privacy of all the users of the internet from mass surveillance programs by the governments and other state agencies. Protection of privacy is of prime importance and Privacy Shielding provides the right means against mass surveillance programs and from malicious users trying to gain access to your systems. Although protection is difficult when massive government agencies like the National Security Agency and The Government Communications Headquarters target internet users for surveillance, it is possible because the target is not you as an individual but the entire mass as a whole. With the right approach and a broad perspective of the term Privacy, it is possible for one to freely access and share information over the internet without being victims of surveillance.
Surveillance and Privacy in the Ubiquitous Network Society  [cached]
Bart Schermer
Amsterdam Law Forum , 2009,
Abstract: Developments in IT will bring us closer to a a€ Ubiquitous Network Societya€ . Ubiquitous networking will become a part of our physical world, linking locations, objects and people. This new technological reality will fundamentally alter our notions of privacy, autonomy and public domain. In this article Bart Schermer describes how developments in IT will enable new surveillance applications; what possible risks these new surveillance applications entail; how the notion of privacy will be influenced by these technologies; and how we can protect ourselves in the future. The author argues that the transformation of the public domain as a result of surveillance will ultimately render the idea of privacy as a a€ physical realitya€ obsolete. Therefore, we need new mechanisms that help ensure privacy and personal autonomy. In these mechanisms notions of trust and transparency should feature more prominently than they do now.
Adaptive Transformation for Robust Privacy Protection in Video Surveillance  [PDF]
Mukesh Saini,Pradeep K. Atrey,Sharad Mehrotra,Mohan Kankanhalli
Advances in Multimedia , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/639649
Abstract: Privacy is a big concern in current video surveillance systems. Due to privacy issues, many strategic places remain unmonitored leading to security threats. The main problem with existing privacy protection methods is that they assume availability of accurate region of interest (RoI) detectors that can detect and hide the privacy sensitive regions such as faces. However, the current detectors are not fully reliable, leading to breaches in privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a privacy protection method that adopts adaptive data transformation involving the use of selective obfuscation and global operations to provide robust privacy even with unreliable detectors. Further, there are many implicit privacy leakage channels that have not been considered by researchers for privacy protection. We block both implicit and explicit channels of privacy leakage. Experimental results show that the proposed method incurs 38% less distortion of the information needed for surveillance in comparison to earlier methods of global transformation; while still providing near-zero privacy loss. 1. Introduction In order to perform privacy-preserving CCTV monitoring, video data should be transformed in such a way that the information leaking the identity is hidden, but the intended surveillance tasks can be accomplished. The traditional approach of data transformation has been to detect the regions of interest (RoI) in the images (e.g., human faces) and selectively obfuscate them. This approach is an unreliable solution as the RoI detectors may sometimes fail. For example, even if a face detector is able to correctly detect the face in 99 (out of 100) frames, the undetected faces in the remaining frame will reveal the identity of the person in the video and result in his/her privacy loss. In other set of works, global operations have been used for data transformation in which the whole video frame is transformed with same intensity, that is, same amount of blurring or quantization [1]. This approach is more appropriate in the context of data publication, where the published surveillance video is used by researchers for testing their algorithms. In contrast to the data publication scenario, CCTV monitoring scenario has different requirements. In the case of CCTV monitoring, a human operator is required to watch the surveillance video feeds; although automated techniques may run in the background as shown in Figure 1. The automatic analysis can be performed using the original data, which is not accessible for viewing, unlike data publication. The original data may be
Compression Independent Reversible Encryption for Privacy in Video Surveillance  [cached]
Paula Carrillo,Hari Kalva,Spyros Magliveras
EURASIP Journal on Information Security , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/429581
Abstract: One of the main concerns of the wide use of video surveillance is the loss of individual privacy. Individuals who are not suspects need not be identified on camera recordings. Mechanisms that protect the identity while ensuring legitimate security needs are necessary. Selectively encrypting regions that reveal identity (e.g., faces or vehicle tags) are necessary to preserve individuals' right to privacy while recognizing the legitimate needs for video surveillance. The video used in surveillance applications usually needs to be transcoded or recoded for distribution and archival. Transcoding a traditionally encrypted video is not possible without decrypting the video first. This paper presents a compression algorithm independent solution that provides privacy in video surveillance applications. The proposed approach uses permutation-based encryption in the pixel domain to hide identity revealing features. The permutation-based encryption tolerates lossy compression and transcoding and allows decryption of the transcoded video at a later time. The use of permutation-based encryption makes the proposed solution independent of the compression algorithms used and robust to transcoding. The cost of providing this privacy is an increase in bitrate that depends on the percentage of blocks encrypted.
Compression Independent Reversible Encryption for Privacy in Video Surveillance  [cached]
Carrillo Paula,Kalva Hari,Magliveras Spyros
EURASIP Journal on Information Security , 2009,
Abstract: One of the main concerns of the wide use of video surveillance is the loss of individual privacy. Individuals who are not suspects need not be identified on camera recordings. Mechanisms that protect the identity while ensuring legitimate security needs are necessary. Selectively encrypting regions that reveal identity (e.g., faces or vehicle tags) are necessary to preserve individuals' right to privacy while recognizing the legitimate needs for video surveillance. The video used in surveillance applications usually needs to be transcoded or recoded for distribution and archival. Transcoding a traditionally encrypted video is not possible without decrypting the video first. This paper presents a compression algorithm independent solution that provides privacy in video surveillance applications. The proposed approach uses permutation-based encryption in the pixel domain to hide identity revealing features. The permutation-based encryption tolerates lossy compression and transcoding and allows decryption of the transcoded video at a later time. The use of permutation-based encryption makes the proposed solution independent of the compression algorithms used and robust to transcoding. The cost of providing this privacy is an increase in bitrate that depends on the percentage of blocks encrypted.
Notes on Information-Theoretic Privacy  [PDF]
Shahab Asoodeh,Fady Alajaji,Tamás Linder
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We investigate the tradeoff between privacy and utility in a situation where both privacy and utility are measured in terms of mutual information. For the binary case, we fully characterize this tradeoff in case of perfect privacy and also give an upper-bound for the case where some privacy leakage is allowed. We then introduce a new quantity which quantifies the amount of private information contained in the observable data and then connect it to the optimal tradeoff between privacy and utility.
Nursing professional facing patient privacy  [cached]
Fidel López Espuela,Maria Eugenia Moreno Monforte,Maria Luisa Pulido Maestre,Marcelina Rodríguez Ramos
NURE Investigación , 2010,
Abstract: Privacy of patients admitted to the hospital is played down in favour of other needs considered more basic by the healthcare system and more related to the disease than to patients themselves. Situations and factors where privacy is damaged are frequent, but it is known that when these are avoided by professionals’ attitude, through strategies and different mechanisms, it becomes one of the most satisfactory elements to patients.Objectives: To identify and analyze situations and factors which affect privacy in hospital environment as well as the adaptation capacity of patients to them.Methodology: Phenomenological, qualitative research. By means of discussion groups with professionals, the following questions where answered: ‘What do professionals understand by privacy? Which situations and factors jeopardize it during the hospital stay? How do they think patients get adapted?Results: The concept of privacy is complex, personal and non-transferable. Situations in which it is jeopardized were divided in 5 main areas. Numerous behaviors regarding adaptation of patients to these were collected.Discussion: Although there is little nursery research referring to privacy and its defense in the professional-patient relationship field, concern about this aspect always shown by nursery staff stands out.As a conclussion, we observe the need to complement this research with the perception patients have about these same questions, establishing the importance they give to privacy.
Mobilizing for Privacy: Civil Society Advocacy against Surveillance in the Netherlands  [cached]
Quirine Eijkman
Journal of Politics and Law , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v5n4p42
Abstract: This article discusses how civil society is mobilizing international human rights to advocate for more privacy and personal data protection. In comparison to other European countries, privacy advocacy has commenced relatively recently in the Netherlands. Since 2009, civil society has expressed its concern about increased state surveillance at the international, national and local level. The article ends by discussing from a political and judicial perspective if human rights mobilization is an effective strategy to ensure compliance with privacy and data protection law in the Netherlands.
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