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Visions, Scenarios and Action Plans Towards Next Generation Tanzania Power System  [PDF]
Santos Kihwele,Kyeon Hur,Alex Kyaruzi
Energies , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/en5103908
Abstract: This paper presents strategic visions, scenarios and action plans for enhancing Tanzania Power Systems towards next generation Smart Power Grid. It first introduces the present Tanzanian power grid and the challenges ahead in terms of generation capacity, financial aspect, technical and non-technical losses, revenue loss, high tariff, aging infrastructure, environmental impact and the interconnection with the neighboring countries. Then, the current initiatives undertaken by the Tanzania government in response to the present challenges and the expected roles of smart grid in overcoming these challenges in the future with respect to the scenarios presented are discussed. The developed scenarios along with visions and recommended action plans towards the future Tanzanian power system can be exploited at all governmental levels to achieve public policy goals and help develop business opportunities by motivating domestic and international investments in modernizing the nation’s electric power infrastructure. In return, it should help build the green energy economy.
Review of Speculative "Disaster Scenarios" at RHIC  [PDF]
R. L. Jaffe,W. Busza,J. Sandweiss,F. Wilczek
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.72.1125
Abstract: We discuss speculative disaster scenarios inspired by hypothetical new fundamental processes that might occur in high energy relativistic heavy ion collisions. We estimate the parameters relevant to black hole production; we find that they are absurdly small. We show that other accelerator and (especially) cosmic ray environments have already provided far more auspicious opportunities for transition to a new vacuum state, so that existing observations provide stringent bounds. We discuss in most detail the possibility of producing a dangerous strangelet. We argue that four separate requirements are necessary for this to occur: existence of large stable strangelets, metastability of intermediate size strangelets, negative charge for strangelets along the stability line, and production of intermediate size strangelets in the heavy ion environment. We discuss both theoretical and experimental reasons why each of these appears unlikely; in particular, we know of no plausible suggestion for why the third or especially the fourth might be true. Given minimal physical assumptions the continued existence of the Moon, in the form we know it, despite billions of years of cosmic ray exposure, provides powerful empirical evidence against the possibility of dangerous strangelet production.
Cognitive Scout Node for Communication in Disaster Scenarios  [PDF]
Rajesh K. Sharma,Anastasia Lavrenko,Dirk Kolb,Reiner S. Thom?
Journal of Computer Networks and Communications , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/160327
Abstract: The cognitive radio (CR) concept has appeared as a promising technology to cope with the spectrum scarcity caused by increased spectrum demand due to the emergence of new applications. CR can be an appropriate mean to establish self-organization and situation awareness at the radio interface, which is highly desired to manage unexpected situations that may happen in a disaster scenario. The scout node proposed in this paper is an extended concept based on a powerful CR node in a heterogeneous nodes environment which takes a leading role for highly flexible, fast, and robust establishment of cooperative wireless links in a disaster situation. This node should have two components: one is a passive sensor unit that collects and stores the technical knowledge about the electromagnetic environment in a data processing unit so-called “radio environment map” in the form of a dynamically updated database, and other is an active transceiver unit which can automatically be configured either as a secondary node for opportunistic communication or as a cooperative base station or access point for primary network in emergency communications. Scout solution can be viable by taking advantage of the technologies used by existing radio surveillance systems in the context of CR. 1. Introduction Communication has been an indispensable part of everyday life in the present days. Apart from making the general life better, modern communications should also be applicable for relief and support to the victims of exceptional adverse situations which include disaster scenarios like earthquakes, floods, cyclones, forest fires and terrorist attacks. Such scenarios impose new requirements on the communication systems. Some of the tasks of a cognitive radio network for emergency situations may be (1) to support specific service requests (higher traffic, coverage, localization, emergency messages, etc.), (2) to re-establish communications in a short time, and (3) to assist rescue forces communications and provide interoperability among them and also among rescue forces and public network. One of the first tasks in disaster is to organize rescue operations in a quick and efficient manner which as well requires rescue forces to be provided with reliable and stable communication facilities. One of the common problems here is providing interoperability among rescue responders originally using different communication standards [1, 2]. In terms of public communication systems, obvious problems in such scenarios are capacity overload with the resulting service denial and absence of coverage
Accelerator Disaster Scenarios, the Unabomber, and Scientific Risks  [PDF]
Joseph I. Kapusta
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s00016-007-0366-y
Abstract: The possibility that experiments at high-energy accelerators could create new forms of matter that would ultimately destroy the Earth has been considered several times in the past quarter century. One consequence of the earliest of these disaster scenarios was that the authors of a 1993 article in "Physics Today" who reviewed the experiments that had been carried out at the Bevalac at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory were placed on the FBI's Unabomber watch list. Later, concerns that experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory might create mini black holes or nuggets of stable strange quark matter resulted in a flurry of articles in the popular press. I discuss this history, as well as Richard A. Posner's provocative analysis and recommendations on how to deal with such scientific risks. I conclude that better communication between scientists and nonscientists would serve to assuage unreasonable fears and focus attention on truly serious potential threats to humankind.
The Quest for Liberation in South Africa: Contending Visions and Civil Strife, Diaspora and Transition to an Emerging Democracy  [cached]
Ian Liebenberg
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/30-2-172
Abstract: Introduction: Purpose of this contribution To write an inclusive history of liberation and transition to democracy in South Africa is almost impossible. To do so in the course of one paper is even more demanding, if not daunting. Not only does "the liberation struggle" in South Africa in its broadest sense span more than a century. It also saw the coming and going of movements, the merging and evolving of others and a series of principled and/or pragmatic pacts in the process. The author is attempting here to provide a rather descriptive (and as far as possible, chronological) look at and rudimentary outline to the main organisational levels of liberation in South Africa since roughly the 1870' s. I will draw on my own work in the field over the past fifteen years as well as other sources. A wide variety of sources and personal experiences inform this contribution, even if they are not mentioned here. Also needless to say, one's own subjectivities may arise – even if an attempt is made towards intersubjectivity.
Managing Risk in Disaster Scenarios with Autonomous Robots
Daniel P. Stormont,Vicki H. Allan
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2009,
Abstract: Disaster areas are one of the most challenging environments faced by mankind. Uncertainty, hazards, and limited availability of rescuers all impact the ability to save lives. Prepositioned autonomous rescue robots offer promise in assisting the rst responders to a disaster site, but there is a challenge to using robots in hazardous environments: numerous studies have shown that human rescuers lack trust in fully autonomous systems. This paper introduces the aspects of disaster areas that make them so challenging. The use of robots as a risk management tool for human rescuers is introduced. Then some of the factors that limit human trust in robots are addressed – including one of the key factors: reliability. The design of a computer model used to investigate issues of trust and the impact of reliability in a re ghting scenario is discussed and the results are analyzed. Finally, some preliminary conclusions and plans for further work in this area are presented.
Information Fusion-Based Storage and Retrieve Algorithms for WSNs in Disaster Scenarios
Zhe Xiao,Ming Huang,Jihong Shi,Wenwei Niu,Jingjing Yang
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/524543
Abstract: Sensor networks are especially useful in catastrophic or disaster scenarios such as abysmal sea, floods, fires, or earthquakes where human participation may be too dangerous. Storage technologies take a critical position for WSNs in such scenarios since the sensor nodes may themselves fail unpredictably, resulting in the loss of valuable data. This paper focuses on fountain code-based data storage and recovery solutions for WSNs in disaster scenarios. A review on current technologies is given on challenges posed by disaster environments. Two information fusion-based distributed storage (IFDS) algorithms are proposed in the “few global knowledge” and “zero-configuration” paradigm, respectively. Correspondingly, a high-efficient retrieve algorithm is designed for general storage algorithms using Robust Soliton distribution. We observe that the successful decoding probability can be provisioned by properly selecting parameters—the ratio of number of source node and total nodes, and the storage capacity M in each node.
Exclusion of black hole disaster scenarios at the LHC
Koch, Benjamin;Bleicher, Marcus;Stoecker, Horst
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2009.01.003
Abstract: The upcoming high energy experiments at the LHC are one of the most outstanding efforts for a better understanding of nature. It is associated with great hopes in the physics community. But there is also some fear in the public, that the conjectured production of mini black holes might lead to a dangerous chain reaction. In this paper we summarize the most straight forward arguments that are necessary to rule out such doomsday scenarios.
Ontology-based collaborative framework for disaster recovery scenarios  [PDF]
Sakkaravarthi Ramanathan,Aymen Kamoun,Khalil Drira,Christophe Chassot
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This paper aims at designing of adaptive framework for supporting collaborative work of different actors in public safety and disaster recovery missions. In such scenarios, firemen and robots interact to each other to reach a common goal; firemen team is equipped with smart devices and robots team is supplied with communication technologies, and should carry on specific tasks. Here, reliable connection is mandatory to ensure the interaction between actors. But wireless access network and communication resources are vulnerable in the event of a sudden unexpected change in the environment. Also, the continuous change in the mission requirements such as inclusion/exclusion of new actor, changing the actor's priority and the limitations of smart devices need to be monitored. To perform dynamically in such case, the presented framework is based on a generic multi-level modeling approach that ensures adaptation handled by semantic modeling. Automated self-configuration is driven by rule-based reconfiguration policies through ontology.
Liberation of Projections  [PDF]
Benoit Collins,Todd Kemp
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We study the liberation process for projections: $(p,q)\mapsto (p_t,q)= (u_tpu_t^\ast,q)$ where $u_t$ is a free unitary Brownian motion freely independent from $\{p,q\}$. Its action on the operator-valued angle $qp_tq$ between the projections induces a flow on the corresponding spectral measures $\mu_t$; we prove that the Cauchy transform of the measure satisfies a holomorphic PDE. We develop a theory of subordination for the boundary values of this PDE, and use it to show that the spectral measure $\mu_t$ possesses a piecewise analytic density for any $t>0$ and any initial projections of trace $\frac12$. We us this to prove the Unification Conjecture for free entropy and information in this trace $\frac12$ setting.
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