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Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda
J Baalwa, BB Byarugaba, EK Kabagambe, AM Otim
African Health Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2 and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m2. Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Results: Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (P<0.05) with obesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. Conclusion: We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.
Polygenic Risk Predicts Obesity in Both White and Black Young Adults  [PDF]
Benjamin W. Domingue, Daniel W. Belsky, Kathleen Mullan Harris, Andrew Smolen, Matthew B. McQueen, Jason D. Boardman
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101596
Abstract: Objective To test transethnic replication of a genetic risk score for obesity in white and black young adults using a national sample with longitudinal data. Design and Methods A prospective longitudinal study using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Sibling Pairs (n = 1,303). Obesity phenotypes were measured from anthropometric assessments when study members were aged 18–26 and again when they were 24–32. Genetic risk scores were computed based on published genome-wide association study discoveries for obesity. Analyses tested genetic associations with body-mass index (BMI), waist-height ratio, obesity, and change in BMI over time. Results White and black young adults with higher genetic risk scores had higher BMI and waist-height ratio and were more likely to be obese compared to lower genetic risk age-peers. Sibling analyses revealed that the genetic risk score was predictive of BMI net of risk factors shared by siblings. In white young adults only, higher genetic risk predicted increased risk of becoming obese during the study period. In black young adults, genetic risk scores constructed using loci identified in European and African American samples had similar predictive power. Conclusion Cumulative information across the human genome can be used to characterize individual level risk for obesity. Measured genetic risk accounts for only a small amount of total variation in BMI among white and black young adults. Future research is needed to identify modifiable environmental exposures that amplify or mitigate genetic risk for elevated BMI.
Trends in Body Mass Index among Icelandic Adolescents and Young Adults from 1992 to 2007  [PDF]
Sigríeur T. Eiesdóttir,álfgeir L. Kristjánsson,Inga D. Sigfúsdóttir,Carol E. Garber,John P. Allegrante
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7052191
Abstract: Trends in body mass index (BMI) among 51,889 14- to 20-year-old Icelandic adolescents and young adults were examined using data from cross-sectional population surveys conducted from 1992 to 2007. Prevalence of overweight increased for both genders in all age groups, except for 14- and 20-year-old girls. Obesity prevalence increased among boys in all age groups, except for 16-year-olds, and among 15- and 20-year-old girls. The largest increase in obesity rates among both genders was found in the oldest age group. Moreover, not only has the prevalence of obesity increased, but also the extent of obesity has grown more severe among 15- and 17-year-olds boys and among girls in the oldest age group.
Serum adiponectin is positively associated with lung function in young adults, independent of obesity: The CARDIA study
Bharat Thyagarajan, David R Jacobs, Lewis J Smith, Ravi Kalhan, Myron D Gross, Akshay Sood
Respiratory Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-176
Abstract: We hypothesized that lower serum adiponectin concentrations are associated with lower lung function in humans, independent of obesity. We explored mediation of this association by insulin resistance and systemic inflammation.Spirometry testing was conducted at years 10 and 20 follow-up evaluation visits in 2,056 eligible young adult participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Body mass index, serum adiponectin, serum C-reactive protein (a marker of systemic inflammation), and insulin resistance were assessed at year 15.After controlling for body mass index, years 10 and 20 forced vital capacity (FVC) were 81 ml and 82 ml lower respectively (p = 0.004 and 0.01 respectively) in the lowest vs. highest adiponectin quartiles. Similarly, years 10 and 20 forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were 50 ml and 38 ml lower (p = 0.01 and 0.09, respectively) in the lowest vs. highest adiponectin quartiles. These associations were no longer significant after adjustment for insulin resistance and C-reactive protein. Serum adiponectin was not associated with FEV1/FVC or peak FEV1.Independent of obesity, lower serum adiponectin concentrations are associated with lower lung function. The attenuation of this association after adjustment for insulin resistance and systemic inflammation suggests that these covariates are on a causal pathway linking adiponectin and lung function.Adipose tissue produces adipokines, proteins that regulate inflammation and metabolism in an autocrine, paracrine, and systemic manner [1]. Adiponectin is an adipokine associated with systemic anti-inflammatory effects and insulin sensitization effects [1]. Serum adiponectin concentrations are reduced in obesity [2,3]. Adiponectin and all of the known receptors for adiponectin (AdipoR1, AdipoR2, T-cadherin and calreticulin) are expressed on multiple cell types in the lung [4-7]. Adiponectin is also transported from blood into the alveolar lining fluid via the T-cadh
Normal Weight Obesity Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance in Young Adults from a Middle-Income Country  [PDF]
Francilene B. Madeira, Ant?nio A. Silva, Helma F. Veloso, Marcelo Z. Goldani, Gilberto Kac, Viviane C. Cardoso, Heloisa Bettiol, Marco A. Barbieri
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060673
Abstract: Objective This population-based birth cohort study examined whether normal weight obesity is associated with metabolic disorders in young adults in a middle-income country undergoing rapid nutrition transition. Design and Methods The sample involved 1,222 males and females from the 1978/79 Ribeir?o Preto birth cohort, Brazil, aged 23–25 years. NWO was defined as body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) and the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds above the sex-specific 90th percentiles of the study sample. It was also defined as normal BMI and % BF (body fat) >23% in men and >30% in women. Insulin resistance (IR), insulin sensitivity and secretion were based on the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) model. Results In logistic models, after adjusting for age, sex and skin colour, NWO was significantly associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) according to the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) definition (Odds Ratio OR = 6.83; 95% Confidence Interval CI 2.84–16.47). NWO was also associated with HOMA2-IR (OR = 3.81; 95%CI 1.57–9.28), low insulin sensitivity (OR = 3.89; 95%CI 2.39–6.33), and high insulin secretion (OR = 2.17; 95%CI 1.24–3.80). Significant associations between NWO and some components of the MS were also detected: high waist circumference (OR = 8.46; 95%CI 5.09–14.04), low High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.11–2.47) and high triglyceride levels (OR = 1.93; 95%CI 1.02–3.64). Most estimates changed little after further adjustment for early and adult life variables. Conclusions NWO was associated with MS and IR, suggesting that clinical assessment of excess body fat in normal-BMI individuals should begin early in life even in middle-income countries.
Do intrauterine growth restriction and overweight at primary school age increase the risk of elevated body mass index in young adults?
Bettiol, H.;Sabbag Filho, D.;Haeffner, L.S.B.;Barbieri, M.A.;Silva, A.A.M.;Portela, A.;Silveira, P.;Goldani, M.Z.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2007000900011
Abstract: obesity is one of the rising public health problems characterized as a risk factor for many chronic diseases in adulthood. early life events such as intrauterine growth restriction, as well as life style, are associated with an increased prevalence of this disease. the present study was performed to determine if intrauterine growth restriction interacts with overweight at primary school age to affect body mass index (bmi) in young adults. from june 1, 1978 to may 31, 1979, 6827 singleton liveborns from ribeir?o preto, s?o paulo state, brazil, corresponding to 98% of all births at the 8 maternity hospitals, were examined and their mothers were interviewed. samples from the initial cohort were examined again at primary school age (8 to 11 years of age) and at the time of military service (18 years of age). there were 519 male individuals with complete measurements taken in the three surveys. intrauterine growth-restricted individuals had a bmi 0.68 kg/m2 lower than that of individuals who were not restricted (95%ci = -1.34 to -0.03) and overweight at primary school age showed a positive and strong effect on bmi at 18 years of age (coefficient 5.03, 95%ci = 4.27 to 5.79). however, the increase in bmi was much higher - 6.90 kg/m2 - when the conscript had been born with intrauterine growth restriction and presented overweight at primary school age (95%ci = 4.55 to 9.26). these findings indicate that the effect of intrauterine growth restrictionon bmi at 18 years of age is modified by later weight gain during school age.
Incidences of obesity and extreme obesity among US adults: findings from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
Liping Pan, David S Freedman, Cathleen Gillespie, Sohyun Park, Bettylou Sherry
Population Health Metrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7954-9-56
Abstract: We used a weighted sample of 401,587 US adults from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Incidence calculations were based on respondent's height and current and previous weights. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between incidence and selected socio-demographic characteristics and behavioral factors.The overall crude incidences of obesity and extreme obesity in 2009 were 4% and 0.7% per year, respectively. In our multivariable analyses that controlled for baseline body mass index, the incidences of obesity and extreme obesity decreased significantly with increasing levels of education. Incidences were significantly higher among young adults, women, and adults who did not participate in any leisure-time physical activity. Incidence was lowest among non-Hispanic whites.The high incidence of obesity underscores the importance of implementing effective policy and environmental strategies in the general population. Given the significant variations in incidence within the subgroups, public health officials should prioritize younger adults, women, minorities, and adults with lower education as the targets for these efforts.The prevalence of obesity among adults has more than doubled in the past three decades, and obesity continues to be a public health concern [1,2]. One of the objectives of Healthy People 2020 is to reduce the proportion of adults who are obese [3]. It is well established that obesity is related to reduced quality of life, increased risk for premature death, and increased risk for many chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, Type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer [4,5]. Obesity is also associated with increased health care costs. It has been estimated that obesity was associated with almost 10% of annual medical spending and that obesity-related medical costs reached $147 billion in 2008 [6].Numerous studies have examined the prevalence of obesity and extreme obesity, with finding
FTO genotype is associated with body mass index and waist circumference in Mexican young adults  [PDF]
Margarita Teran-Garcia, Itzel Vazquez-Vidal, Flavia C. D. Andrade, Michelle Mosley, Eduardo Medina-Cerda, Celia Aradillas-Garcia
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2013.31005

Individual variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with obesity and BMI in diverse populations, but there are no reports in young Mexicans. We explored the association of a common FTO single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs805704) with obesity-related phenotypes in Mexican young adults. The FTO-SNP was genotyped using the fluorescent polarization method in college-age, apparently healthy subjects from the “UP AMIGOS” cohort (n = 251, 18 - 25 yrs). Homozygotes for the A allele (15%, n = 38) were heavier (1.6 kg/m2 and6.2 kg) and had a larger waist circumference (WC,4.8 cm) than G allele carriers. The FTO genotype was associated with BMI, weight and WC independently of age and sex and explained 2.7 to 3.1% of the variance in obesity-related phenotypes. The FTO genotype was also associated with fasting glucose (P = 0.0283). No other associations were found in the additive model. Despite our small sample size, we found that the FTO-rs805704 genotype influences obesity-related phenotypes young Mexicans. Previously observed FTO associations with fasting glucose were replicated. Previously reported associations with other metabolic traits likely represent the long-term consequences of obesity.

OBAYA (obesity and adverse health outcomes in young adults): feasibility of a population-based multiethnic cohort study using electronic medical records  [cached]
Koebnick Corinna,Smith Ning,Huang Karl,Martinez Mayra P
Population Health Metrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7954-10-15
Abstract: Background Although obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, we have only limited knowledge of the magnitude of these associations in young adults. A multiethnic cohort of young adults was established to close current knowledge gaps; cohort demographics, cohort retention, and the potential influence of migration bias were investigated. Methods For this population-based cross-sectional study, demographics, and measured weight and height were extracted from electronic medical records of 1,929,470 patients aged 20 to 39 years enrolled in two integrated health plans in California from 2007 to 2009. Results The cohort included about 84.4% of Kaiser Permanente California members in this age group who had a medical encounter during the study period and represented about 18.2% of the underlying population in the same age group in California. The age distribution of the cohort was relatively comparable to the underlying population in California Census 2010 population, but the proportion of women and ethnic/racial minorities was slightly higher. The three-year retention rate was 68.4%. Conclusion These data suggest the feasibility of our study for medium-term follow-up based on sufficient membership retention rates. While nationwide 6% of young adults are extremely obese, we know little to adequately quantify the health burden attributable to obesity, especially extreme obesity, in this age group. This cohort of young adults provides a unique opportunity to investigate associations of obesity-related factors and risk of cancer in a large multiethnic population.
Trends of obesity and abdominal obesity in Tehranian adults: a cohort study
Farhad Hosseinpanah, Maryam Barzin, Parvin Eskandary, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-426
Abstract: Height and weight of 4402 adults, aged 20 years and over, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), were measured in 1999-2001(phase I) and again in 2002-2005(phase II) and 2006-2008 (phase III). Criteria used for obesity and abdominal obesity defined body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 and waist circumference ≥ 94/80 cm for men/women respectively. Subjects were divided into10-year groups and the prevalence of obesity was compared across sex and age groups.The prevalence of obesity was 15.8, 18.6 and 21% in men and 31.5, 37.7 and 38.6% in women in phases I, II and III respectively (p < 0.001). The prevalence of abdominal obesity in men was 36.5, 57.2 and 63.3% and in women was 76.7, 83.8 and 83.6% in the three periods mentioned (p < 0.001). Men aged between 20-29 years had highest increase rates of obesity and abdominal obesity in phase III in comparison with phase I (with a respective rates of 2.2- and 3.3-fold). In both sexes, an increased trend was observed between phases I and II, whereas between phases II and III, this trend was observed in men, but not in women.This study demonstrates alarming rises in the prevalences of both obesity and abdominal obesity in both sexes especially in young men, calling for urgent action to educate people in lifestyle modifications.Obesity, general and abdominal, poses one of the greatest public health challenges for the 21st century with particularly alarming trends in several parts of the world [1]. Unhealthy diets and physical inactivity are the main contributors to overweight and obesity, which are among the leading risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases. The most significant consequences for health of overweight and obesity include hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, coronary heart diseases, ischemic stroke, type 2 diabetes, certain kinds of cancer [2]. In 2005, the estimated total numbers of overweight and obese adults worldwide, were 937 million and 396 million respectively [1], numbers that have doubl
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