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International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have lot of interest in research due to their wide range of typical application areas such as environmental, military and commercial enterprises. High efficient routing is an important issue for the design of wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols to meet the severe hardware and resource constraints. Sensor network possesses unique challenges to protocol builders, because these tiny wireless devices are often deployed in unattended environment with limited capabilities. Hence these networks are vulnerable to different types of malicious attacks. This paper surveyed the different types of attacks and security related issues in WSN. Moreover an analysis about some of the major domains namely, architecture, attacks, routing factors, routing protocols, filtering schemes.
Energy-Aware and Time-Critical Geo-Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Yingqi Xu,Wang-Chien Lee,Jianliang Xu,Gail Mitchell
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2008, DOI: 10.1080/15501320701260410
Abstract: Volunteer forwarding, as an emerging routing idea for large scale, location-aware wireless sensor networks, has recently received significant attention. However, several critical research issues raised by volunteer forwarding, including communication collisions, communication voids, and time-critical routing, have not been well addressed by the existing work. In this paper, we propose a priority-based stateless geo-routing (PSGR) protocol that addresses these issues. Based on PSGR, sensor nodes are able to locally determine their priority to serve as the next relay node using dynamically estimated network density. This effectively suppresses potential communication collisions without prolonging routing delays. PSGR also overcomes the communication void problem using two alternative stateless schemes, rebroadcast and bypass. Meanwhile, PSGR supports routing of time-critical packets with different deadline requirements at no extra communication cost. Additionally, we analyze the energy consumption and the delivery rate of PSGR as functions of the transmission range. Finally, an extensive performance evaluation has been conducted to compare PSGR with competing protocols, including GeRaf, IGF, GPSR, flooding, and MSPEED. Simulation results show that PSGR exhibits superior performance in terms of energy consumption, routing latency, and delivery rate, and soundly outperforms all of the compared protocols.
Throughput Capacity of Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Xiaoguang Niu,Li Cui
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/148359
Abstract: Recently, the idea of opportunistic routing (OR) has been widely explored to cope with the unreliable transmissions by exploiting the broadcast nature and spatial diversity of the wireless medium in order to improve the performance of wireless sensor networks. However, there are few theoretical analyses on the maximum throughput of OR WSNs. This paper is the first attempt to conduct a theoretical analysis on aggregate throughput capacity of OR in multihop many-to-one WSNs with consideration for lossy link and transmission fairness. By capturing the key characteristics of forwarding candidate set in OR networks, we propose the cumulative delivery transmission model. Then we introduce the concept of concurrent schedulable set to represent the constraints imposed by the transmission conflicts of OR, and formulate the optimal aggregate throughput problem as a maximum concurrent flow linear programming problem. Simulation results demonstrate that the OR design derived from our analysis model often yields noticeably better throughput than traditional unicast routing protocols and the OR design derived from existing analysis model under a range of scenarios. 1. Introduction Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are quickly gaining popularity due to their potentially easy deployment at low cost without relying on the existing infrastructure to a variety of real world challenges. Traditional routing protocols for WSNs follow the concept of routing in wired networks by abstracting the wireless links as wired links. However, these routing protocols ignore that the infrastructureless property and the unstable nature of the wireless medium incur the problem of unreliable communication [1]. To address this problem, opportunistic routing (OR) has been proposed as a new routing paradigm [2]. OR utilizes the high-node density, space diversity, and broadcast advantage of wireless communication to increase the reliability of a single transmission. Instead of relying on one next-hop node to forward a data packet, OR predetermines a set of candidate relays with a priority order and selects the highest-priority relay that indeed receives the packet as the actual forwarder, based on the instantaneous availability. Researchers have proposed several candidate selection and prioritization schemes to improve throughput [3–5] or energy efficiency [6, 7]. The existing works on OR mainly focused on developing various types of opportunistic routing algorithms and evaluating their performance gain through a number of simulations and empirical measurements [2, 6, 8–11]. However, there is a
Lifetime Improvement of Wireless Sensor Networks by Collaborative Beamforming and Cooperative Transmission  [PDF]
Zhu Han,H. Vincent Poor
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Extending network lifetime of battery-operated devices is a key design issue that allows uninterrupted information exchange among distributive nodes in wireless sensor networks. Collaborative beamforming (CB) and cooperative transmission (CT) have recently emerged as new communication techniques that enable and leverage effective resource sharing among collaborative/cooperative nodes. In this paper, we seek to maximize the lifetime of sensor networks by using the new idea that closely located nodes can use CB/CT to reduce the load or even avoid packet forwarding requests to nodes that have critical battery life. First, we study the effectiveness of CB/CT to improve the signal strength at a faraway destination using energy in nearby nodes. Then, a 2D disk case is analyzed to assess the resulting performance improvement. For general networks, if information-generation rates are fixed, the new routing problem is formulated as a linear programming problem; otherwise, the cost for routing is dynamically adjusted according to the amount of energy remaining and the effectiveness of CB/CT. From the analysis and simulation results, it is seen that the proposed schemes can improve the lifetime by about 90% in the 2D disk network and by about 10% in the general networks, compared to existing schemes.
Anonymous secure routing protocol for wireless sensor network

ZHANG Zhi-ming,DENG Jian-gang,ZOU Cheng-wu,YU minc,

计算机应用研究 , 2010,
Abstract: In order to support anonymous secure communications in resource restricted wireless sensor network, this paper proposed an anonymous secure wireless sensor network routing protocol based on bilinear pairings and different operation. Comparing with previous wireless network anonymous communications schemes, this protocol not only can provide identity confidentiality, location privacy and routing anonymity, but also can ensure the backward and forward security, and improve distinctly in computation and bandwidth consumption, this protocol is more suitable for the wireless sensor network.
Cluster-tree Based Networking and Routing Protocol for IPv6 Wireless Sensor Networks

LIU Xiang-Wen,HOU Hui-Feng,ZHANG Xia,YU Hong-Yi,HU Han-Ying,

计算机科学 , 2007,
Abstract: It's a hot issue of how to integrate IPv6 and wireless sensor networks.Aiming at the standard all-IP manner of integrating IPv6 with wireless sensor networks,networking,routing and address auto-configuring schemes of standard all-IP wireless sensor networks are studied.Cluster-tree based networking,routing and address auto-configuring strategies in all-IPv6 wireless sensor networks are proposed.The close integrating of IPv6 with wireless sensor networks is implemented.The performance of the cluster-tree architecture is simulated and analyzed with NS-2.
Secure Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
Soumyashree Sahoo,Pradipta Mishra,R. N. Satpathy
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks is the new concept in the field of networks consists of small, large number of sensing nodes which is having the sensing, computational and transmission power. Due to lack of tamper-resistant infrastructure and the insecure nature of wireless communication channels, these networks are vulnerable to internal and external attacks. Key Management is a major challenge to achieve security in wireless sensor networks. Key management includes the process of key setup, the initial distribution of keys and keys revocation. To provide security and proper routing or communication should be encrypted and authenticated. It is not easy to achieve secure key establishment without public key cryptography. In this thesis, some key management schemes have been purposed which will be valuable for secure routing between different sensor nodes.
Location-Based Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey  [PDF]
Arun Kumar, Hnin Yu Shwe, Kai Juan Wong, Peter H. J. Chong
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2017.91003
Abstract: Recently, location-based routings in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are attracting a lot of interest in the research community, especially because of its scalability. In location-based routing, the network size is scalable without increasing the signalling overhead as routing decisions are inherently localized. Here, each node is aware of its position in the network through some positioning device like GPS and uses this information in the routing mechanism. In this paper, we first discuss the basics of WSNs including the architecture of the network, energy consumption for the components of a typical sensor node, and draw a detailed picture of classification of location-based routing protocols. Then, we present a systematic and comprehensive taxonomy of location-based routing protocols, mostly for sensor networks. All the schemes are subsequently discussed in depth. Finally, we conclude the paper with some insights on potential research directions for location-based routing in WSNs.
Secure Geographic Routing in Ad Hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks  [cached]
García-Otero Mariano,Zahariadis Theodore,álvarez Federico,Leligou HelenC
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2010,
Abstract: Security in sensor networks is one of the most relevant research topics in resource constrained wireless devices and networks. Several attacks can be suffered in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks (WSN), which are highly susceptible to attacks, due to the limited resources of the nodes. In this paper, we propose innovative and lightweight localization techniques that allow for intrusion identification and isolation schemes and provide accurate location information. This information is used by our routing protocol which additionally incorporates a distributed trust model to prevent several routing attacks to the network. We finally evaluate our algorithms for accurate localization and for secure routing which have been implemented and tested in real ad hoc and wireless sensor networks.
An Appraisal of Wireless Sensor Networks: Profiles and Characters  [PDF]
Adedoyin Olayinka Ajayi, Boniface Kayode Alese, Adebayo Olusola Adetunmbi
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2015.88031
Abstract: This paper presents an in-depth evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks. Wireless Sensor Networks have been highlighted as the major component that enables the development of modern infrastructures, such as the Smart Grid. As part of an on-going edification process on the subject matter, this paper brings to fore the many important functions and components of Wireless Sensor Networks, including application areas, functional architectures, physical topological design, communication protocols, routing schemes and Wireless Sensor Network hardware capabilities.
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