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Leptochloa fusca cultivation for utilization of salt - affected soil and water resources in Cholistan Desert
Ahmad, Farooq;
Sociedade & Natureza , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1982-45132010000100010
Abstract: in the cholistan desert, 0.44 million hectares are salt - affected low lying and clayey in nature locally known as 'dhars', where rainwater as well as saline groundwater could be utilized for growing salt tolerant grasses like leptochloa fusca as forage during summer. l. fusca is a promising candidate grass for economic utilization and better management of sodic, high ph, saline soil and saline water resources of the cholistan desert. l. fusca is known to be a versatile, halophytic, primary colonizer, easily propagatable, perennial, nutritive and palatable forage plant species. the grass has the good biomass producing potential and can grow equally well both under upland and submerged saline soil environment.
Growth Behavior of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca L.) In Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Nasser S. Al-Khalifah
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) is widely distributed in salt affected areas of many countries. Being a forage crop with many advantages other than its excellent growth in saline., sodic and waterlogged areas, it is an easily propagated crop and palatable to animals. Such advantages attract us to investigate its suitability to Saudi Arabia. The response of the grass to the climatic conditions of central region of Saudi Arabia and its response to salinity treatments at in vitro conditions were investigated. The grass has performed excellent growth through out the year producing seed heads, elongating and producing lateral shoots with slow growth during winter and hot summer, yellowing leafs under shaded greenhouse and short stems in small pots. Plants were affected by salinity levels of in vitro treatments as there was high significant difference in their response to different salinity concentrations, this response was increasing with the time.
Significance of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Amendments in Composting of Kallar Grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth]  [PDF]
T. Mahmood,R. Ali,F. Azam,K. A. Malik
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Study was conducted on the role of nitrogen (N), applied either alone or in combination with phosphorus (P), in composting of kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth] with particular emphasis on carbon (C) and N conservation during composting. Nitrogen was added as ammonium sulphate and P as single superphosphate. Addition of N alone, though accelerated the composing rate, it did not conserve C and N during composting. However, application of P along with optimum level of N accelerated the composting rate, stimulated the substrate transformation into humic acid, and decreased the N loss. The results emphasized the need of phosphorus amendment along with nitrogen to conserve C and N during composting of kallar grass.
Assessment of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter (NHX1) transcriptional changes in Leptochloa fusca L. in response to salt and cadmium stresses
Hamed Adabnejad, Hamid Reza Kavousi, Hadi Hamidi, Iraj Tavassolian
Molecular Biology Research Communications , 2015,
Abstract: Sodium/proton exchangers (NHX) are key players in plant responses to salinity and have a central role in establishing ion homeostasis. NHXs can be localized in tonoplast or plasma membranes, where they exchange sodium ions for protons, resulting in the removal of ions from the cytosol into vacuole or extracellular spaces. In the present study, the expression pattern of the gene encoding Na+/H+ antiporter in the vacuolar membrane (NHX1 gene) in Leptochloa fusca (Kallar grass) was measured by a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method under different treatments of NaCl and CdCl2. Results indicated that NaCl positively affected expression levels of LfNHX1, and that the amount of LfNHX1 mRNA increased in conjunction with the rise of salinity pressure, This finding suggests that vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter might play an important role in the salt tolerance ability of kallar grass. The results also showed that cadmium exposure significantly modulated the mRNA expression of the LfNHX1 gene, suggesting that cadmium exposure disturbed Na+ homeostasis across the tonoplast and decreased the salt tolerance ability of kallar grass.
RUNOFF FARMING IN REDUCING RURAL POVERTY IN CHOLISTAN DESERT / Redu o da pobreza rural no deserto do Cholist o através da agricultura baseada em escoamento superficial
Farooq Ahmad
Revista Sociedade & Natureza , 2008,
Abstract: The proposed study strives to provide an overall picture for establishing a relationship of indigenousrainwater harvesting technology and its impact in poverty alleviation. The topographic form and thesoil characteristics of Cholistan is the best catchment area for rainwater harvesting. Different profilespoint out that the area is very poorly drained, capable of generating maximum runoff after absorbingminimum water. Water intake characteristics of fine textured soils show that infiltration rate is low tovery low. Findings show that there is direct relationship between water availability and poverty reduction.Study also sheds light on both strengths and limitations of the indigenous technology on reducing ruralpoverty and recommends using this technology along with modern water harvesting techniques.
Cholistan and Cholistani Breed of Cattle  [PDF]
U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27o42′and 29o45′North and longitudes 69o52′and 75o24′East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km2 region) and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km2 region). The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at maturity, age at first calving, gestation period and calving interval were 1112, 1390, 278 and 422 days, respectively, which are at par with those of Sahiwal and Red Sindhi cattle. However, comprehensive data supported by research need to be analyzed to manipulate the potentials of this breed. Furthermore, gene mapping and Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) will open up new horizons to study performance traits of Cholistani cattle in detail.
Piccole storie armene: Deserto nero e altri viaggi  [cached]
Nicoletta Vallorani
Altre Modernità , 2009,
Abstract: Piccole storie armene: Deserto nero e altri viaggi
Benchmark of Plant Communities of Cholistan Desert  [PDF]
Mohammad Arshad,Ghulam Akbar
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: In Cholistan desert various landform units and associated plant communities were recognized. Out of sixteen, ten communities were identified in smaller Cholistan i.e. Calligonum polygonoides-Haloxylon salicornicum, Tamarix aphylla-Suaeda fruticosa, Haloxylon recurvum, Calligonum polygonoides-Lasiurus scindicus-Cyperus conglomeratus, Prosopis cineraria-Haloxylon salicornicum, Capparis decidua-Aerva persica-Haloxylon salicornicum - Haloxylon recurvum, Capparis decidua-Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Prosopis cineraria-Haloxylon recurvum-Haloxylon salicornicum, Prosopis cineraria-Capparis deciduas-Calligonum polygonoides and Haloxylon recurvum-Haloxylon salicornicum. While six plant communities were identified in greater Cholistan viz; Calligonum polygonoides-Haloxylon salicornicum-Dipterygium glaucum, Calligonum polygonoides-Aerva pseudotomentosa, Haloxlon salicornicum, Calligonum polygonoides-Aerva pseudotomentosa - Panicum turgidum, Calligonum polygonoides and Ochthochloa compressa. Threuophytes were dominant during the rainy season and initially colonized the base sand dunes. Perennial trees, shrubs, grasses and herbs were of the stable plant communities.
CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN  [PDF]
I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2009,
Abstract: The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.
Wild Medicinal Plants of Cholistan Area of Pakistan  [PDF]
M. Saleem Shafi,M. Yasin Ashraf,G. Sarwar
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: This communication reports the findings of survey of medicinal plants found in barren Cholistan area of Pakistan. Information is presented about 71 species belonging to 23 families which are common and widespread in the different wild and barren lands together with information on the use by local inhabitants and professional workers.
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