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A return to the manifest justice principle: a critical examination of the  [PDF]
ES Nwauche
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2004,
Abstract: The impartiality of judges often expressed in the Latin maxim nemo iudex in propria causa interpreted to mean that no man should be a judge in his own cause together with the right of fair hearing make up the right to natural justice. This principle is recognized by a number of provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. Section 165 (4) provides that the organs of state shall through legislative and other measures assist and protect the courts to ensure their independence, impartiality, dignity, accessibility and effectiveness. Furthermore, section 34 of the same Constitution provides that everyone has the right to have any dispute resolved by the application of law by a court or, where appropriate another independent and impartial tribunal or forum. Article 6(1) of the European Convention of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 1950 as incorporated in the Human Rights Act 1988, applicable in England since 2000 provides that: "In the determination of his civil rights and obligations … everyone is entitled to a fair hearing … by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law." The independence of courts and impartiality of judges are closely related in that they operate to sustain public confidence in the administration of justice. This article advocates a return to the use of the manifest justice principle enshrined as the proper context for the application of the tests of "reasonable apprehension of bias" adopted by South African courts and "real possibility of bias" adopted by English courts in the consideration of allegation of apparent bias. This paper argues that the tests are different and that while the English test is a move of English courts from the real danger/likelihood test in consonance with an overwhelming global jurisprudence the South African test is a move away from this global jurisprudence and arguably back to the real danger/likelihood test. This paper also argues that the reasonable apprehension test as applied by the minority in SACCAWU v Irvin & Johnson Ltd (Seafoods Division Fish Processing) is a more acceptable interpretation of the reasonable apprehension test than the test laid down in President of the Republic of South Africa v South Africa Rugby Football Union (2) and its interpretation by the majority in SACCAWU v Irvin & Johnson Ltd (Seafoods Division Fish Processing). More importantly there is an examination of cases where the tests have been applied which hopefully shows that there are considerable problems and inconsistency in their application and argue that the manifest justice pr
The Return  [cached]
Sermin ?akmak
Fe Dergi : Feminist Ele?tiri , 2009,
Abstract: A photo-analysis of the return of female immigrant workers.
Enhancing return-to-work in cancer patients, development of an intervention and design of a randomised controlled trial
Sietske J Tamminga, Angela GEM de Boer, Jos HAM Verbeek, Taina Taskila, Monique HW Frings-Dresen
BMC Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-345
Abstract: The work-directed intervention has been developed based on a systematic literature review of work-directed interventions for cancer patients, factors reported by cancer survivors as helping or hindering their return-to-work, focus group and interview data for cancer patients, health care professionals, and supervisors, and vocational rehabilitation literature. The work-directed intervention consists of: 1) 4 meetings with a nurse at the treating hospital department to start early vocational rehabilitation, 2) 1 meeting with the participant, occupational physician, and supervisor to make a return-to-work plan, and 3) letters from the treating physician to the occupational physician to enhance communication.The treating physician or nurse recruits patients before the start of initial treatment. Patients are eligible when they have a primary diagnosis of cancer, will be treated with curative intent, are employed at the time of diagnosis, are on sick leave, and are between 18 and 60 years old. After the patients have given informed consent and have filled out a baseline questionnaire, they are randomised to either the control group or to the intervention group and receive either care as usual or the work-directed intervention, respectively. Primary outcomes are return-to-work and quality of life. The feasibility of the intervention and direct and indirect costs will be determined. Outcomes will be assessed by a questionnaire at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after baseline.This study will provide information about the effectiveness of a work-directed intervention for cancer patients. The intention is to implement the intervention in normal care if it has been shown effective.NTR1658Since the survival rates of cancer have increased considerably in recent years, the long-term side effects of cancer and cancer-related treatments may impact survivors' capabilities to regain normal lives. This implies that some forms of cancer are becoming chronic diseases entailin
Modeling the Intraday Return Volatility Process in the Australian Equity Market: An Examination of the Role of Information Arrival in S&P/ASX 50 Stocks  [cached]
Andrew C. Worthington,Helen Higgs
International Business Research , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v1n2p87
Abstract: This paper examines the intraday return volatility process in Australian company stocks. The data set employed consists of five-minute returns, trading volumes and bid-ask spreads over the period 31 December 2002 to 4 March 2003 for the fifty national and multinational stocks comprising the S&P/ASX 50 index. The GARCH and asymmetric GARCH namely Threshold ARCH (TARCH) processes are used to model the time-varying variance in the intraday return series and the inclusion of news arrival as proxied by the contemporaneous and lagged volume of trade and bid-ask spread together with day-of-week effects are used as exogenous explanatory variables. The results indicate strong persistence in volatility for the fifty stocks even with the day-of-week effects and contemporaneous and lagged volume of trade and bid-ask spread included as explanatory variables in the models. Overall, while there is much variation among the stocks included in terms of the role of the irregular arrival of new information in generating GARCH effects and the degree of persistence, all of the volatility processes are mean reverting.
Conhecimento de mulheres sobre o exame de Papanicolaou
Valente, Carolina Amancio;Andrade, Viviane;Soares, Maurícia Brochado Oliveira;Silva, Sueli Riul da;
Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0080-62342009000600008
Abstract: epidemiologic, quantitative, descriptive, transversal study. carried out on nighttime public school, female students to assess their knowledge level regarding the papanicolaou exam. out of the 1035 women who were queried, 476 were over 18 and signed a release form to be part of the study. the questionnaire consisted of objective questions capable of identifying the women's a awareness regarding the exam, as well as the social epidemiologic profile of the target group. a health educational activity simulated the exam to inform the women. after the simulation, the questionnaire was repeated and it has been concluded that while 51,3% of all the women answered all questions correctly on the first instance, 75,63% of then got it right on the second time. the activity helped the women understand, to an extent, the importance of this particular exam, but this understand do not is linear.
PAPANICOLAOU: FROTIS SIN COMPONENTE ENDOCERVICAL  [cached]
Luisa Sánchez L,Andrea Rojas S,María Riquelme D,Orlando Quezada P
Revista Chilena de Obstetricia y Ginecología , 2008,
Abstract: Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de la toma del Papanicolaou (PAP) informados como frotis menos que óptimos (I-G7) en 2002 (sin componente endocervical), y conocer el seguimiento de las mujeres en el resultado del PAP siguiente 2003 - 2005. Método: Estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo y de seguimiento de cohorte. Se incluyó el resultado de 42.281 frotis de citología cervical, que correspondieron al universo de los PAP recolectados en 2002 en los consultorios de Atención Primaria de Salud del área Metropolitana Sur de Santiago. Posteriormente, fueron seleccionados todos los PAP I-G7 de una cohorte de mujeres entre 25 a 50 a os y sin antecedentes de lesiones o procedimientos cervicales. Resultados: El estudio evidenció que la toma de muestra de PAP en los consultorios, a excepción de 2 establecimientos, está dentro de los índices de calidad preconizados por el Ministerio de Salud. En el seguimiento de la cohorte de mujeres con PAP I-G7, se pesquisó la existencia de lesión cervical en un 3,38% de las mujeres que se repitieron el examen. Conclusión: Los PAP informados como frotis sin componente endocervical constituyen una categoría de riesgo, ya que el seguimiento de esas mujeres que se repitieron el examen de PAP en un período de hasta 3 a os se detectaron lesiones cervicales de alto grado. Objective: To evaluate the quality of sampling cervical cytological through the Papanicolaou (PAP) reported as less than optimal smears (I-G7), i.e. without endocervical component in theyear2002. To know the follow up of a women cohort, in the next PAP smears between 2003 to 2005. Method: Descriptive study, quantitative and follow up of a cohort. It included the results from 42.281 smears cervical cytological according to the national classification, which corresponded to the universe of PAP collected in the 2002 at clinics Primary Health Care in the South Metropolitan Area of Santiago. All PAP with outcome I-G7 from a cohort of women between 25 to 50 years and without history of injury or cervical procedures were selected. In addition, it was identified the clinics provenance. Results: The study showed that the sample of PAP in the clinics, with the exception of 2 establishments, it is within the quality indices expected by the Ministry of Health. In the follow-up of the cohort of women with PAP I-G7 was detected the existence of a cervical lesion 3.38% of the women who were repeated this smear. Conclusion: PAP smears reported as without component endocervical constitute a category of risk, since the follow up the women who were repeated this PAP smear over a period of up to
PAPANICOLAOU: FROTIS SIN COMPONENTE ENDOCERVICAL
Sánchez L,Luisa; Rojas S,Andrea; Riquelme D,María; Quezada P,Orlando; López A,Fanny;
Revista chilena de obstetricia y ginecología , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75262008000300006
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the quality of sampling cervical cytological through the papanicolaou (pap) reported as less than optimal smears (i-g7), i.e. without endocervical component in theyear2002. to know the follow up of a women cohort, in the next pap smears between 2003 to 2005. method: descriptive study, quantitative and follow up of a cohort. it included the results from 42.281 smears cervical cytological according to the national classification, which corresponded to the universe of pap collected in the 2002 at clinics primary health care in the south metropolitan area of santiago. all pap with outcome i-g7 from a cohort of women between 25 to 50 years and without history of injury or cervical procedures were selected. in addition, it was identified the clinics provenance. results: the study showed that the sample of pap in the clinics, with the exception of 2 establishments, it is within the quality indices expected by the ministry of health. in the follow-up of the cohort of women with pap i-g7 was detected the existence of a cervical lesion 3.38% of the women who were repeated this smear. conclusion: pap smears reported as without component endocervical constitute a category of risk, since the follow up the women who were repeated this pap smear over a period of up to 3 years high-grade cervical lesions were detected.
CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATION OF THE UNSATISFACTORY PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR
N. Izadi Mood,S.N. Jazayeri Z. Eftekhar
Acta Medica Iranica , 2004,
Abstract: The 1991 Bethesda System for cervical/vaginal cytology reporting has defined adequacy criteria, including unsatisfactory designation. Most laboratories in USA and a few laboratories in Iran have implemented these criteria, but only few studies about clinical implications have been performed. All unsatisfactory Papanicolaou (Pap) smears taken between August 2000 and March 2002 were retrieved from the file of cytologic reports of Mirza Koochak Khan Hospital's Department of Pathology. Of 4,598 total Pap smears 204 (4.4%) were unsatisfactory (corresponding atypical rate of 2.5% and a SIL/carcinoma rate of 0.97%). About 20.2% of unsatisfactory Pap smears were from patients with a history of epithelial abnormalities. The majority (71 of 204 specimens; 35%) of follow-up Pap smears or biopsies occurred within 6 months,12% within 6-12 months,1% within 12-18 months and 1% after 18 months. Approximately 59% had no follow-up. The first repeat Pap smear or histologic specimen in 83 patients with follow-up was negative in 71 (85%), unsatisfactory in 2(2.4%), epithelial cell abnormality in 11 (13.2%) and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in 4(4.8%). Nonmalignant conditions contributing to the unsatisfactory smears on histologic specimens (23%) included cervicitis, endocervical polyp and endometritis. Majority of patients with unsatisfactory Pap smears were followed up within 6 months. A significant number(13.2%) of those with follow-up had eventual diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormality. Benign pathologic conditions also contributed to unsatisfactory smears. These patients were more likely to have a history of abnormalities. Unsatisfactory specimens are associated with benign as well as preneoplastic/neoplastic conditions. Clinical correlation should be the first step in delineating the cause of the unsatisfactory diagnosis.
Rapid Economic, Acetic Acid, Papanicolaou Stain (REAP) -
Ranu RoyBiswas
Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The universal stain for cervical cytological screening is Papanicolaou stain which has been used in different laboratories with many modifications. Aims: The study is designed to search for a superior and improved qualitative staining technique which is cheaper but rapid in cancer screening by cytology. The modified technique is referred as Rapid, economic, acetic acid Papanicolaou stain (REAP).Material & methods: 220 PAP smears from 110 patients ( 2 per subject) were collected . One set of smears was stained by conventional Papanicolaou stain & the other set by REAP stain. Pre- Orange G 6 & post- Orange G 6 and post- EA50 ethanol baths in REAP stain were replaced by 1% acetic acid. Tap water was used instead of Scott’s tap water to reduce cost. Hematoxylin was preheated in waterbath to 60 C before staining for rapid penetration. Methanol was used for final dehydration. Results: The two methods were compared in respect of optimal cytoplasmic & nuclear staining, stain preservation, cost & total time for the procedure. In REAP technique, cytoplasmic & nuclear staining was optimal in 100 & 105 cases respectively. The cost was reduced to 25% due to limited alcohol use. The staining-time was minimised to 3 minutes. Conclusion: REAP stain, in comparison to conventional Papanicolaou, provides a suitable, excellent & rapid alternative for cytological screening with minimum cost. The stain preservation is also good in REAP method.
Return to return point memory  [PDF]
J. M. Deutsch,Abhishek Dhar,Onuttom Narayan
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.227203
Abstract: We describe a new class of systems exhibiting return point memory (RPM) that are different from those discussed before in the context of ferromagnets. We show numerically that one dimensional random Ising antiferromagnets have RPM, when configurations evolve from a large field. However, RPM is violated when started from some stable configurations at finite field unlike in the ferromagnetic case. This implies that the standard approach to understanding ferromagnetic RPM systems will fail for this case. We also demonstrate RPM with a set of variables that keep track of spin flips at each site. Conventional RPM for the spin configuration is a projection of this result, suggesting that spin flip variables might be a more fundamental representation of the dynamics. We also present a mapping that embeds the antiferromagnetic chain in a two dimensional ferromagnetic model, and prove RPM for spin exchange dynamics in the interior of the chain with this mapping.
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