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Conceptual Analysis and Implications of Students’ Individual Differences to Curriculum Implementation in Technical Education
Godwin A. Akpan,Emmanuel O. Essien,Okure S. Okure
International Education Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v6n3p156
Abstract: Individual differences refer to the unique ways each human being differ from another being as expressed in behaviour or perceived in the physical appearance. Three factors of individual differences identified to be closely related to learning/acquisition of skills and performance of tasks. These are personality dimensions, self-efficacy and abilities. These factors individually and collectively have implications to implementation of curriculum in technical education. These implications presents the technical teacher with the challenges of understanding the students and planning instruction with due consideration to the needs, abilities, personalities and other individual differences related characteristics of the students. Among the various ways of coping with individual differences in curriculum implementation is through individualized instruction, the use of ICTs and software as Discrete Educational Software (DES), the use of problem-based or planning production and demonstration (PPD) to supplement classroom / workshop instructions.
Individual differences on the importance of virginity in Turkish society: An application on Turkish university students
Zeliha Kayg?s?z Ertu?
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Virginity is an important issue in Turkish society because of the position of virginity in both Islam and Turkish traditions and customs. As a result of the societal perspective of virginity, Turkish youth see virginity before marriage as an important judgmental value, especially for women. However, it is also observed that the ideas and views of Turkish youth are changing over time and with the influence of personal circumstances. The purpose of this study is to learn the ideas of Turkish youth about the importance of virginity and to depict individual differences by conducting a survey on students of the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences of Eskisehir Osmangazi University. The participants were 664 university students attending different departments of the faculty in 2011-2012 academic year. A questionnaire including one dependent variable as the importance of virginity before marriage and sixteen independent variables was administered to students. QUEST analysis was applied to depict the research findings on a decision tree for more visual illustration. As a result of the analysis the most effective factor on the dependent variable was found students’ customs and usage. For the 65.38% of male students virginity is very important before marriage, for whom the customs and usage are important and who use alcohol and attend the third and fourth class, but for the 64.71% of the female students virginity is not important before marriage. The results of the analysis also showed that male and female individuals in Turkish society think in opposite ways about the importance of virginity before marriage.
Calidad de resultados académicos en estudiantes de medicina después de una intervención sobre diferencias individuales Quality of academic results in medical students after an intervention on individual differences  [cached]
Magaly Gort Hernández,Dania Andrea Guerrero García
Educaci?3n M??dica Superior , 2012,
Abstract: Introducción: la universidad cubana ha extendido su presencia a todos los municipios del país, con la apertura de las Sedes Universitarias Municipales (SUM). Objetivo: evaluar la calidad de los resultados académicos en estudiantes de medicina de la SUM de Ciencias Médicas Los Palacios durante el curso 2008- 2009, después de aplicada una intervención sobre las diferencias individuales. Métodos: Investigación-acción, constituyen el universo y muestra 30 estudiantes; se estudiaron variables como: vía de ingreso, orientación vocacional, nivel escolar de los padres, hijos y/o familiares que atender; se utilizaron medidas de resúmenes para datos cualitativos y la ventaja de éxito o razón de productos cruzados (OR). Resultados: la vía de ingreso, Curso de Superación Integral para Jóvenes (CSIPJ), incrementó en 16 veces el riesgo de suspender o no ser evaluado; el no tener padres universitarios lo incrementó en 6,0 veces y no poseer orientación vocacional adecuada hizo que se incrementara el riesgo de suspender o no ser evaluado en 29 veces; con la intervención se logró que no hubieran estudiantes suspensos y no evaluados, pero el CSIPJ continuó siendo la vía que incrementó en 8 veces el ser evaluado de regular. Conclusiones: la calidad de los resultados académicos en estudiantes de medicina, mejoró notablemente después de la intervención sobre las diferencias individuales, las de más influencia fueron la orientación vocacional, la vía de ingreso y el nivel escolar de los padres. The Cuban university has been extended to all the municipalities in the country through the setting up of the municipal university affiliates. Objective: to evaluate the quality of the academic results of medical students in the municipal university affiliate in Los Palacios in the 2008-2009 academic year, after an intervention on individual differences. Methods: research-action; the universe of study and the sample was made up of 30 medical students and the study variables were way of entrance in the university, vocational orientation, educational level of parents, children and/or relatives. Summary measures for qualitative data and odd ratios were used. Results: the way of entrance in the university known as Integrated Upgrading Course for Young People increased the risk of failing a test or the risk of not being evaluated by 16 times; having parents who did not attain university degree rose that risk by 6 times ; and the lack of adequate vocation increased it by 29 times. After the intervention, the number of students failing a test or not being evaluated was reduced to zero; howeve
Information retrieval and individual differences  [PDF]
Polona Vilar,Maja ?umer
Knji?nica : Revija za Podro?je Bibliotekarstva in Informacijske Znanosti , 2008,
Abstract: The paper presents individual differences, which are found in studies of information retrieval with emphasis on models of personality traits, cognitive and learning styles. It pays special attention to those models which are most often included in studies of information behaviour,information seeking,perceptions of IR systems, etc., but also brings forward some models which have not yet been included in such studies. Additionally, the relationship between different individual characteristics and individual’s chosen profession or academic area is discussed. In this context,the paper presents how investigation of individual differences can be useful in the design of IR systems.
Correlated Individual Differences and Choice Prediction  [PDF]
Luke Lindsay
Games , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/g2010016
Abstract: This note briefly summarizes the consequences of adding correlated individual differences to the best baseline model in the Games competition, I-SAW. I find evidence that the traits of an individual are correlated, but refining I-SAW to capture these correlations does not significantly improve the model’s accuracy when predicting average behavior.
Prospective Memory, Personality, and Individual Differences  [PDF]
Bob Uttl,Carmela A. White,Daniela Wong Gonzalez,Carrie A. Leonard
Frontiers in Psychology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00130
Abstract: A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors.
Individual differences in energy-tension cycle and self-regulation of mood
Garrosa, Eva;Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo;Benadero, María Eugenia Morante;Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel;
Psicologia em Estudo , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-73722008000100002
Abstract: the theory of mood proposed by thayer is examined in a sample of spanish psychology students (n = 176). results showed the existence of a circadian pattern of energy and tension levels, individual differences, such as gender, circadian type (morningness or eveningness), and some possible cross-cultural differences, though energy levels in american and spanish samples were similar. data also indicated differences in the assessment and interpretation of personal problems in relation to mood: according to energy level and mood, everyday problems and stress situations are interpreted in different ways. finally, the results showed different manners in which people regulate mood. implications for intervention and future research are discussed.
Subcortical Correlates of Individual Differences in Aptitude  [PDF]
Rex E. Jung, Sephira G. Ryman, Andrei A. Vakhtin, Jessica Carrasco, Chris Wertz, Ranee A. Flores
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089425
Abstract: The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range = 16–29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math – higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary – higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding – higher right thalamus volume; Foresight – lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning – higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary).
Individual differences and evidence-based psychopharmacology  [cached]
Belmaker RH,Bersudsky Yuly,Agam Galila
BMC Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-110
Abstract: Individual differences in response to pharmacologic treatment limits the usefulness of mean data obtained from randomized controlled trials. These individual differences exist even in genetically uniform inbred mouse strains. While stratification can be of value in large studies, the individual patient history is the most effective currently available guide for personalized medicine in psychopharmacology.
Individual Differences in Written Corrective Feedback: A Multi-case Study  [cached]
Su Li,Pengjing Li
English Language Teaching , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v5n11p38
Abstract: Written corrective feedback (WCF) has been a long time practice in L2 writing instruction. However, in many cases, the effects are not satisfactory. There have been controversies about it both theoretically and empirically. This paper reports a multi-case study exploring individual differences that impact learners’ responses to WCF. Four students’ compositions in an English course with writing components were examined. Then, the students were interviewed. The results of analyses reveal, though all the four students were motivated to study by a compulsory provincial English test, students of significantly lower proficiency were motivated to significantly more independent learning activities after class. As a result, they achieved significantly greater improvement. It is also revealed that WCF did not lead to simplified writing in terms of lexical diversity and structural complexity, for the students knew the grading criteria for the written task in the compulsory test. Moreover, this study shows that Ferris (1999) classification of treatable and untreatable errors should be used with reference to the students’ present zone of proximal development (ZPD). Finally, pedagogical suggestions are provided.
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