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Comparison of effects of uncomplicated canine babesiosis and canine normovolaemic anaemia on abdominal splanchnic Doppler characteristics - a preliminary investigation  [cached]
L.M. Koma,R.M. Kirberger,A.L. Leisewitz,L.S. Jacobson
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v76i3.415
Abstract: A preliminary study was conducted to compare uncomplicated canine babesiosis (CB) and experimentally induced normovolaemic anaemia (EA) using Doppler ultrasonography of abdominal splanchnic vessels. Fourteen dogs with uncomplicated CB were investigated together with 11 healthy Beagles during severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state as a control group. Canine babesiosis was compared with severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state using Doppler variables of the abdominal aorta, cranial mesenteric artery (CMA), coeliac, left renal and interlobar, and hilar splenic arteries, and the main portal vein. Patterns of haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were broadly similar and were characterised by elevations in velocities and reductions in resistance indices in all vessels except the renal arteries when compared with the physiological state. Aortic and CMA peak systolic velocities and CMA end diastolic and time-averaged mean velocities in CB were significantly lower (P < 0.023) than those in severe EA. Patterns of renal haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were similar. However, the renal patterns differed from those of aortic and gastrointestinal arteries, having elevations in vascular resistance indices, a reduction in end diastolic velocity and unchanged time-averaged mean velocity. The left renal artery resistive index in CB was significantly higher (P < 0.025) than those in EA and the physiological state. Renal interlobar artery resistive and pulsatility indices in CB were significantly higher (P < 0.016) than those of moderate EA and the physiological state. The similar haemodynamic patterns in CB and EA are attributable to anaemia, while significant differencesmayadditionally be attributed to pathophysiological factors peculiar to CB.
Acute normovolaemic haemodilution - 2 case studies : clinical communication  [cached]
K.E. Joubert
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v79i1.241
Abstract: Acute normovolaemic haemodilution (ANH) is a technique used to preserve a patient's owns red blood cells and reduce the incidence of heterogeneous blood transfusion. This paper describes the use of the technique in a dog and a kitten. A significant benefit of ANH can be shown in the canine case presented. The dog lost 1800m of blood during surgery but the haematocrit was only reduced to 33% 6 hours after the end of surgery. The kitten, however, did not benefit from ANH. It lost a small volume of blood during surgery and developed complications. This paper also describes some of the potential complications that may occur. To the best of my knowledge, this is the 1st clinical description of ANH in a dog and a cat.
Evaluation of skin graft take following post-burn raw area in normovolaemic anaemia  [cached]
Agarwal Pawan,Prajapati Brijesh,Sharma D
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Traditional wisdom is that wound healing is directly related to haemoglobin level in the blood; therefore blood transfusion is given in anaemic patients to raise the haemoglobin level for better wound healing. Methods: Evaluation of wound healing in the form of split thickness skin graft take was done in 35 normovolaemic anaemic patients (haemoglobin level of < 10 gm/ dl) and compared with control group (patients with haemoglobin level of 10 or > 10 gm/ dl). Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mean graft take between the two groups. Conclusion: It is not mandatory to keep haemoglobin level at or> 10 g/dL or PCV value at or> 30% for skin graft take, as mild to moderate anaemia per se does not cause any deleterious effect on wound healing; provided perfusion is maintained by adequate circulatory volume. Prophylactic transfusion to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood for the purpose of wound healing is not indicated in asymptomatic normovolemic anaemic patients (with haemoglobin levels greater than 6g/dL) without significant cardiovascular or pulmonary disease.
Continuous Regional Arterial Infusion with Fluorouracil and Octreotide Attenuates Severe Acute Pancreatitis in a Canine Model  [PDF]
Meng Tao Zhou, Bi Cheng Chen, Hong Wei Sun, Yue Peng Jin, Fa Jing Yang, Xing Zhang, Roland Andersson, Qi Yu Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037347
Abstract: Aim To investigate the therapeutic effects of fluorouracil (5-Fu) and octreotide (Oct) continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI,) alone or in combination, was administered in a canine model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Materials and Methods The animals were divided into five groups; group A (Sham), group B (SAP), group C (SAP and 5-Fu), group D (SAP and Oct), and group E (SAP and 5-Fu + Oct). Levels of amylase, α-tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, thromboxane B2 and 6-keto- prostaglandin F1α were measured both before and after the induction of SAP. Pathologic examination of the pancreas and kidneys was performed after termination of the study. Results Pathologic changes noted in the pancreas in SAP significantly improved following CRAI with either single or combined administration of 5-Fu and Oct, where combination therapy demonstrated the lowest injury score. All treatment groups had significantly lower levels of serum TNF-α and amylase activity (P<0.05), though only groups D and E had a lower BUN level as compared to group B. The plasma thromboxane B2 level increased in SAP, but the ratio of thromboxane B2/6-keto- prostaglandin F1α decreased in the treatment groups, with the combination therapy (group E) demonstrating the lowest ratio as compared to the other 3 experimental groups (P<0.05). Conclusions The findings in the present study demonstrate an attenuation of SAP in a canine model following CRAI administration with 5-Fu or Oct, alone or in combination.
Preoperative Acute Normovolaemic Hemodilution (ANH) in combination with Hypotensive Epidural Anaesthesia (HEA) during knee arthroplasty surgery. No effect on transfusion rate. A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN87597684]
Palle Juelsgaard, Marianne M?ller, Ulf Larsen
BMC Anesthesiology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2253-2-1
Abstract: Twenty-eight patients scheduled for TKR are randomised to ANH or no hemodilution (non-ANH). Both groups are anaesthetized with HEA. ANH is established with predonation of 20 % of the total blood volume, and replacement with equal volume of HAES 6 %. Blood re-transfusion is completed within 6 h.A mean of 877 ml blood was predonated (19.7 % of the total blood volume). Blood loss was, except from the intraoperative loss, significantly higher in ANH group. The total loss was 1306 mL (ANH) vs. 1026 mL (non-ANH), p < 0.05. Except from the first hour postoperatively, hematocrit was identical in between groups postoperatively. The amount of blood transfusion was identical 386 ml (ANH) vs. 343 ml (non-ANH) (ns). 50 % went through surgery without receiving blood (ANH) vs. 58 % (non-ANH). No renal, neurological or cardiopulmonary complications were registered.These data suggest no benefits in combining HEA and ANH in TKR surgery. Probably because of the reduced viscosity of the blood after ANH, there is an increased postoperative blood loss. The need for homologous blood transfusion was identical.The risks associated with banked homologous blood products are well known. These risks include among others: ABO incompatibilities, viral or bacterial infections, and immunosuppression [1]. Immunomodulation may have long lasting effects on the patient who has received a single unit of homologous blood, and may alter the immune response in a way that may render the recipient vulnerable to infection [2]. Several techniques for management of surgical patients without homologous blood transfusion are available. Acute normovolaemic hemodilution (ANH) is the simultaneous exchange of whole blood with an identical volume of an iso-oncotic colloid. The resulting dilutional anaemia is compensated for by an increase in cardiac output and enhanced arterial oxygen extraction. Although bleeding during surgery remains essentially unchanged, blood lost during the surgical procedure contains fewer red
Acute pancreatitis : a newly recognised potential complication of canine babesiosis  [cached]
A.J. M?hr,R.G. Lobetti,J.J. Van der Lugt
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v71i4.721
Abstract: This retrospective study describes 4 cases of canine babesiosis with histologically confirmed acute pancreatitis. In addition, 16 dogs with babesiosis are reported with serum amylase (>3500 U/l ) and/or lipase (>650 U/l ) activity elevations of a magnitude that would support a diagnosis of probable acute pancreatitis, although extra-pancreatic sources of the enzymes could not be excluded in these cases. Median time of pancreatitis diagnosis was 2.5 days post-admission, with primarily young (median age 3 years), sexually intact dogs affected. The development of pancreatitis was unrelated to the degree of anaemia at time of admission. In addition to pancreatitis, 80 % of cases suffered from other babesial complications, namely icterus (13), acute respiratory distress syndrome (6), immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (6), renal failure (3), haemoconcentration (2) and cerebral syndrome (2). Acute respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure and cerebral syndrome were associated with a poor prognosis, with 4 of the 5 dogs included in the overall 26 % mortality rate having at least 1 of these complications. Haemolytic anaemia with ischaemia-reperfusion injury to the pancreas is proposed as a possible primary pathophysiological mechanism in babesial pancreatitis. Hypotensive shock, immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia, haemoconcentration and possibly altered lipid metabolism in babesiosis may also be involved. The previously postulated pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu of complicated babesiosis may underlie the progression, if not the primary initiation, of pancreatic pathology. Acute pancreatitis may represent the previously reported 'gut' form of babesiosis.
Anaemia in Acute HIV-1 Subtype C Infection  [PDF]
Koleka Mlisana, Sara C. Auld, Anneke Grobler, Francois van Loggerenberg, Carolyn Williamson, Itua Iriogbe, Magdalena E. Sobieszczyk, Salim S. Abdool Karim, for the CAPRISA Acute Infection Study Team
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001626
Abstract: Background The high prevalence of anaemia and the increased morbidity and mortality associated with anaemia during AIDS has been well described yet there has been little information about anaemia and changes in haemoglobin levels during acute and early HIV-1 infection. Methods HIV-negative women (n = 245) were enrolled into an observational cohort as part of the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) Acute Infection Study. Acute infection was diagnosed following a positive HIV RNA PCR in the absence of antibodies, or detection of HIV-1 antibodies within 3 months of a previously negative antibody test. Haemotologic parameters were assessed before infection and at regular intervals in the first twelve months of HIV infection. Results Fifty-seven participants with acute HIV infection were identified at a median of 14.5 days post-infection (range 10–81) and were enrolled in the CAPRISA Acute Infection cohort at a median of 41 days post-infection (range 15–104). Mean haemoglobin prior to HIV-1 infection was 12.7 g/dL, with a mean decline of 0.46 g/dL following infection. The prevalence of anaemia increased from 25.0% prior to HIV-1 infection to 52.6% at 3 months post-infection, 61.1% at 6 months post-infection, and 51.4% at 12 months post-infection. Conclusions Haematologic derangements and anaemia with a trend towards iron deficiency are common with acute HIV-1 subtype C infection in this small cohort. The negative impact of anaemia concurrent with established HIV infection upon morbidity and mortality has been well documented but the prognostic potential and long-term effects of anaemia during acute HIV-1 infection remain unknown.
Liver Enzymes and Trace Elements in the Acute Phase of Sickle Cell Anaemia
MO Kehinde, SI Jaja, OM Adewumi, AI Adeniyi, MO Nezianya, EO Ayinla
West African Journal of Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Trace elements are required for the performance of numerous functions of immune cells. It is not clear whether levels of trace elements are elevated and whether there is a relationship between the levels of liver enzymes and trace elements in patients with sickle cell anaemia in crisis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the plasma levels of liver enzymes and trace elements in non sickle cell anaemia (NSCA), sickle cell anaemia subjects in the steady state (SCASS) and sickle cell anaemia patients in crisis (SCAC). METHODS: Haematological parameters, liver enzymes and trace elements were determined in 20 NSCA subjects, 20 SCASS subjects and 18 SCAC subjects. Variables studied included aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and the trace elements copper, zinc, and manganese. RESULTS: Levels of liver enzymes were higher in the SCAC subjects than in the NSCA or SCASS subjects (p<0.001). Plasma Cu++, Zn++ and Mn++ were also higher in the SCAC subjects than in the NSCA or SCASS subjects (p<0.001). Correlationships were high and strong between AST and ALT (r = +0.7; p = 0.03), AST and ALP (r = +0.9; p = 0.001), Zn++ and Fe++ (r = +0.9; p = 0.001) in SCAC. CONCLUSION: During crisis in sickle cell anaemia, liver enzymes, as well as the trace elements of Cu++, Zn++ and Mn++ are increased; levels of aspartate aminotransaminase are strongly correlated with those of ALT and ALP. Levels of liver enzymes do not appear to be related to those of the trace elements in painful sickle cell crisis.
Analgesic Effect of Meloxicam in Canine Acute Dermatitis – a Pilot Study
O Viking H?glund, J Frendin
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-43-247
Abstract: The effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) on dermatitis is well known from human trials and research using rats and mice [2,17,6]. To the best of our knowledge only one study has been published showing whether any of the modern NSAID impact the inflammatory process in acute dermatitis in the canine species [9].According to data sheets for medicines indicated for usage in humans and animals, meloxicam hinders the accumulation of leukocytes in inflamed skin and other tissues [11]. In addition, pruritus is a known side effect of this agent in canines [11] so meloxicam does have some effect in the dermis of canines. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of meloxicam on acute dermatitis in the canine species. A second objective was to measure signs of central sensitisation, wind-up, after 3 weeks of treatment and to investigate whether the healing process is impaired when canine dermatitis patients are treated with meloxicam.Twelve client-owned dogs suffering from any kind of moist, and when pinched, painful dermatitis were included in this trial with their owners' consent. Painful dermatitis was defined as a VAS-value beyond 10 millimetres (se below). The cases clinically represented pyotraumatic dermatitis (acute moist dermatitis) and pyotraumatic folliculitis (local pyoderma). Dogs showing no sign of pain when the affected area was pinched, dogs on current NSAID medication and dogs having suffered previous side effects when treated with meloxicam were excluded from the study. One and the same person made the inclusion and exclusion decisions and conducted all examinations.A randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial was designed. Dogs were divided into 2 groups of 6. Cases representing the 2 different diagnoses were evenly distributed between the 2 groups. All dogs were given antibiotics (cephalexin) at standard dosage. The average dosages of cephalexin of group one (treated) and 2 (control) were 18.8 mg/kg and 19.9 mg/kg res
A negative search of acute canine distemper virus infection in DogSLAM transgenic C57BL/6 mice
Somporn Techangamsuwan,Suchanit Ngamkala,Achariya Sailasuta,Anudep Rungsipipat
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Canine distemper is a highly contagious and immunosuppressive viral disease caused by canine distemper virus(CDV), an enveloped RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. The susceptible host spectrum of CDV is broad andincludes all families of the order Carnivora. To accomplish the infection, CDV requires an expression of signaling lymphocyteactivation molecule (SLAM) functioning as a cellular receptor which generally presents in a variety of different lymphoid cellsubpopulations, including immature thymocytes, primary B cells, activated T cells, memory T cells, macrophages and maturedendritic cells. The distribution of SLAM-presenting cells is in accordance with the lymphotropism and immunosuppressionfollowing morbillivirus infection. In the present study, the C57BL/6 mice engrafted with dog-specific SLAM sequence(DogSLAM) were used. The weanling (3-week-old) transgenic offspring C57BL/6 mice were infected with CDV Snyder Hill(CDV-SH) strain via the intranasal (n=6), intracerebral (n=6) and intraperitoneal (n=5) routes. Clinical signs, hematology,histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation and RT-PCR were observed for two weeks post infection. Resultsshowed that CDV-SH-inoculated transgenic mice displayed mild-to-moderate congestion of various organs (brain, lung,spleen, kidney, lymph node, and adrenal gland). By means of immunohistochemistry, virus isolation and RT-PCR, CDV couldnot be detected. The evidence of CDV infection in this study could not be demonstrated in acute phase. Even though thetransgenic mouse is not a suitable animal model for CDV, or a longer incubation period is prerequisite, it needs to be clarifiedin a future study.
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