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Molecular Detection of Acinetobacter Species in Lice and Keds of Domestic Animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Bersissa Kumsa, Cristina Socolovschi, Philippe Parola, Jean-Marc Rolain, Didier Raoult
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052377
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli), Bovicola bovis (B. bovis) and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus) on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus) on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger) on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001) higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1%) and keds (86.4%) including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001). Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001). Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.
Epidemiological study of small ruminant mange mites in three agro-ecological zones of Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia
D Sheferaw, H Degefu, D Banteyirgu
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal , 2010,
Abstract: An epidemiological study of small ruminant mange mites was conducted in three selected agro-ecological zones of Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia, from November 2007 to April 2008. A total of 352 sheep and 376 goats were examined for mange mites infestation, of which 7 (1.98%) and 22 (5.85%) sheep and goats were found positive respectively. The genuses of mange mites identified with this study were Demodex (1.23%) and Sarcoptes (2.61%) of these the genus Sarcoptes was more prevalent in the study area. The prevalence of mange mites was significantly higher in goats than in sheep (F=7.141, P=0.008). But age (X2 =0.108, P=0.743) and sex (X2 =0.007, P=0.79) of the host animals not affected the prevalence of mange mite (There was higher infestation of small ruminant in the lowland area (F=7.463, P=0.006).
Assessment of the Prevailing Handling and Quality of Eggs from Scavenging Indigenous Chickens Reared in Different Agro-Ecological Zones of Ethiopia
Aberra Melesse,Zemene Worku,Yosef Teklegiorgis
Research Journal of Poultry Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjpscience.2012.64.70
Abstract: The importance of scavenging poultry production in the national economy of developing countries and its role in improving the nutritional status and income of many smallholders has been very significant. A survey based experiment was conducted in 196 households to assess the production system and egg qualities of scavenging chickens reared in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecological zones of Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia. For egg quality determination, among 196 households 30 of them who keep only local chicken ectypes were identified from each agro-ecology from which 588 eggs (196 eggs from each agro-ecology) were collected. The results indicated that about 95 and 70% of the respondents fumigate day old chicks with smoke and clip tail feathers, respectively. The flock size in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecologies was 8.5, 7.4 and 8.4 chickens, respectively. The average age at first egg lay was 6.94, 6.43 and 6.57 months for highland, midland and lowland agro-ecologies, respectively. The survivability of chickens in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecological zones was 55.0, 61.4 and 55.1%, respectively. On the average 79.1% hatchability, 58.3% chick survivability was found in the study area. The observed values of egg weight, egg length, egg width, yolk height, albumen height and Haugh unit were significantly different (p<0.05) between the investigated agro-ecologies. Accordingly, all these traits were (p<0.05) higher in midland than highland and lowland agro-ecological zones. However, agro-ecology did not show any significant effect on shape index, shell thickness, yolk width and yolk index. The respective average egg weight, shell thickness and shape index values were 39.6 g, 0.296 mm and 73.2%. The average values of yolk height, yolk width and Haugh unit were 16.1, 36.8 and 73.2 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the midland agro-ecological system appears to favor the survivability and expression of both external and internal egg quality traits of scavenging rural chickens.
Technical Efficiency Across Agro-Ecological Zones in Ethiopia: The Impact of Poverty and Asset Endowments
Bamlaku A. Alemu,E.A. Nuppenau,H. Bolland
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Currently, Ethiopia focuses on agriculture so that it can spur growth in other sectors of the economy. In order to help policy makers understand factors affecting agriculture, studies on efficiency are important. Especially, the impact of poverty and asset endowments could be highly pronounced in an agrarian country such as Ethiopia. In this regard, the objectives of this study are two fold: to investigate efficiency variations across agro-ecological zones and to examine the impacts of poverty and asset endowments on inefficiency in the study area. Data were collected from 254 randomly selected households. Stochastic frontier production function was estimated and the results of the analysis revealed a mean technical efficiency of 75.68%. F-test also showed a statistically significant difference in technical efficiency among agro-ecological zones. On the other hand, maximum likelihood estimates indicated positive and significant elasticities for asset endowments including physical (land and draft power), financial (credit access and market) and human (labor and education). However, poverty was found to reduce efficiency levels significantly. Thus, future endeavoers should envisage better market and education access and reduced liquidity constraints.
Malaria prevalence and mosquito net coverage in Oromia and SNNPR regions of Ethiopia
Estifanos B Shargie, Teshome Gebre, Jeremiah Ngondi, Patricia M Graves, Aryc W Mosher, Paul M Emerson, Yeshewamebrat Ejigsemahu, Tekola Endeshaw, Dereje Olana, Asrat WeldeMeskel, Admas Teferra, Zerihun Tadesse, Abate Tilahun, Gedeon Yohannes, Frank O Richards
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-321
Abstract: A 64 cluster malaria survey was conducted in January 2007 using a multi-stage cluster random sampling design. Using Malaria Indicator Survey Household Questionnaire modified for the local conditions as well as peripheral blood microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests, the survey assessed net ownership and use and malaria parasite prevalence in Oromia and SNNPR regions of Ethiopia. Routine surveillance data on malaria for the survey time period was obtained for comparison with prevalence survey results.Overall, 47.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.5–61.9%) of households had at least one net, and 35.1% (95% CI 23.1–49.4%) had at least one LLIN. There was no difference in net ownership or net utilization between the regions. Malaria parasite prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI 1.6–3.5%) overall, but differed markedly between the two regions: Oromia, 0.9% (95% CI 0.5–1.6); SNNPR, 5.4% (95% CI 3.4–8.5), p < 0.001. This difference between the two regions was also reflected in the routine surveillance data.Household net ownership exhibited nearly ten-fold increase compared to the results of Demographic and Health Survey 2005 when fewer than 5% of households in these two regions owned any nets. The results of the survey as well as the routine surveillance data demonstrated that malaria continues to be a significant public health challenge in these regions–and more prevalent in SNNPR than in Oromia.Despite a control program lasting over 40 years, the majority of Ethiopia's population is still at risk from malaria. In most of the country, transmission is unstable and seasonal, with occasional devastating epidemics [1,2]. Malaria is the most frequent cause of out-patient presentation and in-patient admission nationwide, and is second only to respiratory tract infections as a cause of death in children [3]. The people of Ethiopia also suffer from many of the 'neglected tropical diseases' including river blindness (onchocerciasis) [4] and trachoma [5].There is relatively little informati
Factors Influencing Women's Intention to Limit Child Bearing in Oromia, Ethiopia
Y Dibaba
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2009,
Abstract: Backgraound: The desire for large family size is one of the factors influencing fertility in Ethiopia. Thus, understanding factors that influence the fertility intentions of women is important for family planning program purposes and population policy. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine factors which influence women's intentions to limit child bearing in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods: The 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey was the data source. A weighted sub-sample of 3300 married women was drawn from the DHS women's dataset. Results: A greater intention to limit childbearing is associated with older age, larger number of living sons and daughters, being wealthier, no previous child death, knowledge and use of family planning and exposure to media. Conclusion: A high proportion of women desired to limit childbearing, but there was a large unmet need for contraceptives. Thus, improving access to family planning services to women who have achieved their fertility goals would be important.
Bovine trypanosomosis in three districts of Southwest Oromia, Ethiopia
TA Denu, Y Asfaw, Y HailuTolossa
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: A study was carried out from September 2007 to March 2008 to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis and the apparent tsetse densities and other biting flies as well as to evaluate community awareness about the disease and its control method in three districts of west Shoa zone in Oromia. From a total of 1200 animals examined, (600 in the late rainy and 600 in the dry seasons) the prevalence of trypanosomosis was found to be 33.5% and 17.83% in the late rainy and dry seasons, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence was observed (p<0.05) between the two seasons. The mean PCV values of the parasitaemic and aparasitaemic animals during the late rainy season were 20.19% and 26.75% while during the dry season 18.75% and 23.97%, respectively. A fly-survey was conducted by using 90 monoconical pyramidal traps and revealed that three tsetse species, namely G. pallidipes, G. m. submorsitans and G. f. fuscipes were found along with other biting flies (tabanids and muscids) in the study area. The apparent densities of tsetse flies were significantly different (p<0.05) during the two study. The overall apparent densities of tsetse flies were found to be 2.87 fly/trap/day (95% CI= 1.04-5.77%) and 1.26 flay/tap/day (95% CI= 1.17-2.07%) in late rainy and dry seasons, respectively. G. f. fuscipes and G. pallidipes appear to be the dominant tsetse species in the study area. The proportion of female tsetse flies caught was higher in both seasons. The apparent density of biting flies (tabanids and muscids) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the late rainy season (1.49 fly/trap/day, 18.66 fly/trap/day) than the dry season (0.77 fly/trap/day, 15.04 fly/trap/day) respectively. Poor infrastructure, absence of trypanosomosis and vector control activities in the area have worsen the situation and hence require professional intervention.
Household Responses to Drought in Fentale Pastoral Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
Abera Bekele,Aklilu Amsalu
International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment , 2012,
Abstract: Fentale pastoralists have been undertaking a set of responses to mitigate the adverse effects of the present day severe recurrent drought on the livelihood sources of the households. This study was conducted to investigate responses that are undertaken to drought by households in Fentale pastoral woreda of Oromia regional state in Ethiopia. A household survey was conducted with 134 households complemented by interviews with informants and with in-depth focus group discussion. The results indicate that households have developed various response mechanisms to deal with the challenges of the severe droughts through pastoral and non pastoral activities. An extent of household responses towards both pastoral and non pastoral activities are varied, in which the household characteristics, specifically, wealth in terms of livestock holding is the decisive factors for the engagement of the household in any one or more of a set of productive activities/response mechanisms. The extent of households' mobility and herd diversification has increased. In addition, households have started to partly practice crop cultivation. Other non-pastoral activities such as agriculture, daily labour, petty trade, fuel wood collection and charcoal selling contributed to about 35% of the total household income.
Effects of Drought on Pastoral Household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Abera Bekele,Aklilu Amsalu
Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries , 2012,
Abstract: This study adopted the survey research design to investigate the effect of drought on Pastoral household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The aim was to give information about drought pattern in the study area, create an understanding of the menace as well as identify appropriate and relevant local level response mechanisms. A household survey was conducted with 134 households and this was complemented by interviews with informants. Meteorological data were also used to map out the time line of drought events in the area. It was observed that severe and recurrent drought of the present time has brought about declining range land resources, poor productivity and declining survival of livestocks. The results indicate that the frequency of drought has been on the increase from year to year. Increased severity of drought has caused huge moisture deficit and has posed multi-dimensional adverse effects on households' livelihood sources. However, households have developed various strategies to deal with the challenges of severe droughts through pastoral and non pastoral activities.
Endoparasites of Donkeys in Sululta and Gefersa Districts of Central Oromia, Ethiopia
Zerihun Asefa,Bersissa Kumsa,Bojia Endebu,Ayele Gizachew,Tesfaye Merga,Etana Debela
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.1850.1854
Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the species composition and prevalence of endoparasites of donkeys in Sululta and Gefersa districts of central Oromia from November 2008 to April 2009. For this purpose, a total of 417 faecal samples (209 from Sululta and 208 from Gefersa) were coprologically examined for nematode, cestode and trematode infections. In addition, 9 donkeys that died of various health problems or were euthanized for welfare reasons were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified. Coprological examinations showed prevalence of 99.5% strongyles, 53% Parascaris equorum, 9.8% Fasciola species, 5.7% Gastrodiscus aegypticus and 2.8% Anoplocephala species. Significantly (p<0.05) higher mean prevalence and overall epg count was observed for strongyles and Parascaris equorum in young donkeys than in both adults and old donkeys. Furthermore, ovaculture revealed 100% prevalence of strongyles, cyathostomins and Trichostrongylus axei, 73.8% Strongylus vulgaris, 42.8% Strongyloides westeri and 42.8% Dictyocaulus arnfieldi. Postmortem examination revealed the presence of ten different species of parasites. The overall worm counts ranged from 266-14112 with a mean of 1597 worms per donkey. All the postmortem examined donkeys were positive for one or more species of endoparasites. The results of the current study demonstrate that a wide range of parasites with high prevalence affect donkeys in Ethiopia.
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