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Predicting Lap-Joint bead geometry in GMA welding process  [PDF]
D.T. Thao,J.W. Jeong,I.S. Kim,J.W.H.J. Kim
Archives of Materials Science and Engineering , 2008,
Abstract: Purpose: The prediction of the optimal bead geometry is an important aspect in robotic welding process. Therefore, the mathematical models that predict and control the bead geometry require to be developed. This paper focuses on investigation of the development of the simple and accuracy interaction model for prediction of bead geometry for lap joint in robotic Gas Metal Arc (GMA) welding process.Design/methodology/approach: The sequent experiment based on full factorial design has been conducted with two levels of five process parameters to obtain bead geometry using a GMA welding process. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) has efficiently been used for identifying the significance of main and interaction effects of process parameters. General linear model and regression analysis in SPSS has been employed as a guide to achieve the linear, curvilinear and interaction models. The fitting and the prediction of bead geometry given by these models were also carried out. Graphic results display the effects of process parameter and interaction effects on bead geometry.Findings: The fitting and the prediction capabilities of interaction models are reliable than the linear and curvilinear models. It was found that welding voltage, arc current, welding speed and 2-way interaction CTWD×welding angle have the large significant effects on bead geometry.Practical implications: The model should also cover a wide range of material thicknesses and be applicable for all welding position. For the automatic welding system, the data must be available in the form of mathematical equations.Originality/value: It has been realized that with the use of the developed algorithm, the prediction of optimal bead dimensions becomes much simpler to even a novice user who has no prior knowledge of the robotic GMA welding process and optimization techniques.
An experimental study on the prediction of back-bead geometry in pipeline using the GMA welding process  [PDF]
J.S. Kim,I.S. Kim,J.H Lee,S.M. Jung
Archives of Materials Science and Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: of this research paper is to select optimal welding condition for a root-pass welding for pipeline and to provide a best process for desirable welding quality.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a variety of welding experiments were carried out to optimize an automated welding process using a GMA (Gas Metal Arc) process, these has been applied for root-pass welding. Welding current, welding speed, wire feed speed and torch angle were chosen as input parameters, while back-bead geometry representing quality of root-pass welding as output parameter.Findings: Based on the results from welding experiments, optimal welding conditions were selected after analyzing correlation between welding parameters and back-bead geometry such as back-bead width and back-bead height. Moreover, not only effectiveness of empirical models developed was compared and analyzed. The optimized empirical models were finally developed for predicting back-bead geometry by analyzing the main effect of each factor and their influence on interaction.Research limitations/implications: This research was concentrated on the developed empirical models that can predict back-bead width and height for root-pass welding in pipeline.Originality/value: This study is intended to define correlations between process parameters and back-bead geometry as welding quality and eventually select optimal welding condition by performing root-pass welding experiment under various conditions.
Position welding using disk laser-GMA hybrid welding  [PDF]
C.-H. Kim,H.-S. Lim,J.-K. Kim
Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering , 2008,
Abstract: Purpose: Position welding technology was developed by using disk laser-GMA hybrid welding in this research.Design/methodology/approach: The effect of hybrid welding parameters such as the shielding gas composition and laser-arc interspacing distance were investigated for the bead-on-plate welding. The pipe girth welding was implemented and the adequate arc welding parameters were selected according to the welding position from a flat position to an overhead position.Findings: The optimized shielding gas composition and laser-arc interspacing distance for disk laser-GMA hybrid welding were 80% Ar- 20% CO2 and 2mm, respectively for the bead-on-plate welding. The sound welds could be achieved even in the pipe girth welding, but the proper joint shape should be prepared.Research limitations/implications: The laser-arc hybrid welding was implemented for pipe girth welding as a kind of 3-dimensional laser welding and the process parameters could be optimized according to the various target materials and sizes.Practical implications: The optimized process parameters for the disk laser-arc hybrid welding can extend the application of the laser hybrid welding technology.Originality/value: This research showed the possibility of the disk laser-GMA hybrid welding as new pipe girth welding technique. The behaviour of molten pool and droplet transfer could enhance understanding of the hybrid welding.
Fuzzy Regression Model to Predict the Bead Geometry in the Robotic Welding Process

BS Sung,IS Kim,Y Xue,HH Kim,YH Cha,
B.S. Sung
,I.S. Kim,H.H. Kim

金属学报(英文版) , 2007,
Abstract: Recently, there has been a rapid development in computer technology, which has in turn led todevelop the fully robotic welding system using artificial intelligence (AI) technology. However, therobotic welding system has not been achieved due to difficulties of the mathematical model andsensor technologies. The possibilities of the fuzzy regression method to predict the bead geometry,such as bead width, bead height, bead penetration and bead area in the robotic GMA (gas metalarc) welding process is presented. The approach, a well-known method to deal with the problemswith a high degree of fuzziness, is used to build the relationship between four process variablesand the four quality characteristics, respectively. Using these models, the proper prediction of theprocess variables for obtaining the optimal bead geometry can be determined.
A Three-Dimensional Numerical Model for Predicting the Weld Bead Geometry Characteristics in Laser Overlap Welding of Low Carbon Galvanized Steel  [PDF]
Kamel Oussaid, Abderrazak El Ouafi
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2019.710149
Abstract: Laser welding (LW) becomes one of the most economical high quality joining processes. LW offers the advantage of very controlled heat input resulting in low distortion and the ability to weld heat sensitive components. To exploit efficiently the benefits presented by LW, it is necessary to develop an integrated approach to identify and control the welding process variables in order to produce the desired weld characteristics without being forced to use the traditional and fastidious trial and error procedures. The paper presents a study of weld bead geometry characteristics prediction for laser overlap welding of low carbon galvanized steel using 3D numerical modelling and experimental validation. The temperature dependent material properties, metallurgical transformations and enthalpy method constitute the foundation of the proposed modelling approach. An adaptive 3D heat source is adopted to simulate both keyhole and conduction mode of the LW process. The simulations are performed using 3D finite element model on commercial software. The model is used to estimate the weld bead geometry characteristics for various LW parameters, such as laser power, welding speed and laser beam diameter. The calibration and validation of the 3D numerical model are based on experimental data achieved using a 3 kW Nd:Yag laser system, a structured experimental design and confirmed statistical analysis tools. The results reveal that the modelling approach can provide not only a consistent and accurate prediction of the weld characteristics under variable welding parameters and conditions but also a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of process parameters effects on the weld quality. The results show great concordance between predicted and measured values for weld bead geometry characteristics, such as depth of penetration, bead width at the top surface and bead width at the interface between sheets, with an average accuracy greater than 95%.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: In these research paper the Design of experiment using 2-level full factorial technique has been used to conduct experiments and to develop relationships mathematical models for predicting the weld bead penetration in single wire submerged arc welding of 12 mm thick mild steel plates . The response factor, namely bead penetration, as affected by arc voltage, current, welding speed, wire feed rate and nozzle-to-plate distance have been investigated and analyzed.. The models developed have been checked for their adequacy and significanceby using the analysis of variance, F-test and the t-test, respectively. Main and interaction effects of the process variables on weld bead penetration have also been presented in graphical form. The developed models could be used for the prediction of important weld bead penetration and control of the weld bead quality by selecting appropriate process parameter values. And the model-predicted penetration values have been compared with their respective experimental values.
Effect of Welding Parameters on Dilution and Weld Bead Geometry in Cladding

材料科学技术学报 , 2007,
Abstract: The effect of pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) variables on the dilution and weld bead geometry in cladding X65 pipeline steel with 316L stainless steel was studied. Using a full factorial method, a series of experiments were carried out to know the effect of wire feed rate, welding speed, distance between gas nozzle and plate, and the vertical angle of welding on dilution and weld bead geometry. The findings indicate that the dilution of weld metal and its dimension i.e. width, height and depth increase with the feed rate, but the contact angle of the bead decreases first and then increases. Meantime, welding speed has an opposite effect except for dilution. There is an interaction effect between welding parameters at the contact angle. The results also show forehand welding or decreasing electrode extension decrease the angle of contact. Finally,a mathematical model is contrived to highlight the relationship between welding variables with dilution and weld bead geometry.

HU Zhikun,WU Chuansong,

金属学报 , 2008,
Abstract: High-speed metal-active gas (MAG) arc welding experiments were conducted to determine the critical welding speeds at which humping defects occur, the spacing between two adjacent humps along the welding direction, and the cross-section morphologies of the hump and the valley in a humping bead. Based on the weld pool images sensed during high-speed MAG welding process, the forming mechanism of humping bead is analyzed and verified through up-hill and down-hill welding experiments. Meanwhile, the effect of the compositions of shielding gas on the weld bead formation in high--speed MAG welding is also analyzed.
Effect of welding parameters of Gas Metal Arc welding on weld bead geometry: A Review
Pushp Kumar Baghel
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Weld quality comprises bead geometry and its microstructure, which influence the mechanical properties of the weld. This brief review illustrates the effect of pulse parameters on weld quality. The responsefactors, namely bead penetration, weld width, reinforcement height, weld penetration shape factor and weld reinforcement form factor as affected by arc voltage, wire feed rate, welding speed, gas flow rate and nozzle-toplate distance has also been analysed
MOHD. SHOEB,Prof. Mohd. Parvez,Prof. Pratibha Kumari
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The various welding parameters such as welding speed, voltage and gas flow rate were varied on HSLA steel and the effects of these parameters on weld bead geometry such as penetration, width & height have been studied. Mathematical equations have been developed using factorial technique. And the result of various effects are shown in tables. (Numerical Values).
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