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Cytomorphological studies on somatic embryogenesis of Gentiana tibetica (King) and G. cruciata (L.)
Anna Miku?a,Maria Weso?owska,Józef Kapusta,Lutos?awa Skrzypczak
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 1996, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.1996.008
Abstract: The process of plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis of two gentianas, Gentiana tibetica and G. cruciata was described. For this purpose seedling explants were cultured on agar medium and later maintained in cell suspension. For callus initiation seedling explants like: cotyledons, hypocotyl and root were plated on a callus induction medium (CIM) composed of MS (1962), supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l Kin. For the formation of cell suspension culture, embryogenic callus was transferred into liquid maintained medium (MM) composed of MS (1962), supplemented with 1.0 mg/l Dic + 0.1 mg/l NAA + 2.0 mg/l BAP + 80.0 mg/l SA. The conversion of somatic embryo into plantlets required a new medium (ECM) based on MS (1962) mineral salts, supplemented with 0.5 mg/l GA3 + 1.0 mg/l Kin + 0.5 mg/l NAA. For cytomorphological studies of particular stages of embryogenesis, specimens were stained with dyes and reagents: 1. PAS reaction with leukofucsin, 2. Safranin + fast green, 3. Erlich's hematoxylin.
Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts  [PDF]
Chandrasekhar Akileshwari,Puppala Muthenna,Branislav Nastasijevi ,Gordana Joksi ,J. Mark Petrash,Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/147965
Abstract: Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.
Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts  [PDF]
Chandrasekhar Akileshwari,Puppala Muthenna,Branislav Nastasijevi?,Gordana Joksi?,J. Mark Petrash,Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy
Journal of Diabetes Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/147965
Abstract: Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications. 1. Introduction According to the latest WHO estimates, currently approximately 200 million people all over the world are suffering from diabetes. This may increase to at least 350 million by the year 2025, which could have a severe impact on human health [1]. Prolonged exposure to chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes can lead to various complications affecting the cardiovascular, renal, neurological, and visual systems [2]. Although mechanisms leading to diabetic complications are not completely understood, many biochemical pathways associated with hyperglycemia have been implicated [2]. Among these, the polyol pathway has been extensively studied [3]. Aldose reductase (ALR2; EC: 1.1.1.21) belongs to aldo-keto reductases (AKR) super family. It is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol pathway where it reduces glucose to sorbitol utilizing NADPH as a cofactor. Subsequently, sorbitol dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of sorbitol to fructose, thus constituting the polyol pathway [3]. Accumulation of sorbitol leads to osmotic swelling, changes in membrane permeability, and also oxidative stress culminating in tissue injury [4]. Experimental animal models suggest
Content of heavymetals in Gentiana lutea L. roots and galenic forms
DRAGOJA RADANOVIC,SVETLANA ANTIC-MLADENOVIC,MIODRAG JAKOVLJEVIC,MIRJANA KRESOVIC
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2007,
Abstract: An experimental field for the cultivated production of Gentiana lutea L. was established five years ago at the Suvobor Mountain, Serbia. Soil analysis of this area revealed the occurrence of high pseudo-total (Ni – 1270 mg/kg, Cr – 423 mg/kg, Co – 385 mg/kg) and available (especially Ni – 133 mg/kg) heavy metals contents in the soil. Hence, the aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of Gentiana lutea L. – roots and galenic forms (liquid extract in 70 % ethanol, spissum and siccum) produced from the roots, because, for most plants, heavy metals accumulate in the root tissue. The amounts of Ni and Cr found in the analyzed roots were very high (54 mg/kg and 14 mg/kg, respectively). The efficiency of ethanol in extracting heavy metals from the roots varied depending on the particular element. The highest efficiency was obtained for Ni (41.3 %), then for Cd (39.5 %), Pb (37.0%) and Co (30.4 %). According to this, a potential hazard exists for humans, if gentian's galenic forms are produced from the raw material with high heavy metals contents. It is concluded that quality control of the raw material must be carried out before further utilization of gentian.
Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Gentiana lutea Root Extracts  [PDF]
Rushendhiran Kesavan, Uma Rani Potunuru, Branislav Nastasijevi?, Avaneesh T, Gordana Joksi?, Madhulika Dixit
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061393
Abstract: Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml) induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml). The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.
Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sugarcane  [PDF]
Farheen Niaz,Azra Quraishi
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: Somatic embryogenesis was studied in sugarcane cultivars CPF-237 and SPF-213. Explants used were leaves, lateral buds and pith. MS medium along with NAA and 2,4-D in various concentrations were used and it was observed that 1.0 mg NAA and 3-mg/l 2,4-D was optimal for embryogenesis. Leaf portion showed maximum embryogenesis and proved a better explant source than pith.
Somatic embryogenesis: A review
Madhu Kamle, Shahina Kalim, Anju Bajpai, Ramesh Chandra and Ramesh Kumar
GERF Bulletin of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a process of advancement in vegetative propagation technology for plants, which has a major impact on tree breeding and high value clonal forestry. The production of true to type planting plants with new genetic enhancement is the present day requirement. Genetic approaches, which have not been extensively exploited in this research field, would contribute to a better understanding of the plant developmental course. The rate of multiplication by conventional breeding methods is slow and nature dependant while, micropropagation method could assist in rapid and mass production of clonal stock of newly released improved cultivars. A brief overview on somatic embryogenesis for crop improvement process has been discussed in this review article. The process describes the mass multiplication of new and elite varieties within a short span of time within limited resources.
Somatic embryogenesis in in vitro culture of Plantago asiatica L.
Joanna Makowczyńska,Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 2000, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.2000.031
Abstract: Early stages of direct somatic embryogenesis in Plantago asiatica were observed by light microscopy. In calli of Plantago asiatica two phenomena occurred simultaneously: somatic organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.
Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus Communis as a Model
S Belaineh
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science , 2009,
Abstract: The study of somatic embryogenesis in Juniperus communis has been conducted as a preliminary study for the further development of somatic embryogenesis, micropropagation and long-term conservation/cryopreservation in Juniperus procera, which is economically and ecologically important and endangered forest species in Ethiopia. The aim for this particular research was initially an adaptation of optimum half strength lithium chloride-sodium propionate (LP) medium protocol for growth and proliferation of embryogenic culture. But as other conifer species it was difficult to stop proliferation of somatic embryo cell division and bring them to maturation stage. However using optimal concentration of ABA (32 mg/l), it was possible to get maturation response in most of the cultures. Additional study on the effect of seed extraction to the growing embryogenic culture showed no effect on mature somatic embryos. Rather they were showing faster growth which increases embryogenic mass of each culture. It was also observed that green premature seeds of Juniperus are suitable for the initiation and proliferation of somatic embryo.
The correlations between phenotypical characthers in selected families by Gentiana lutea L. and the chemical compounds of underground organs
Mihai Radu POP,Camelia SAND,Horea BARBU
Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologie , 2008,
Abstract: The ground organs of Gentiana lutea L. contain active principles, which have certain properties recommended for anorexia or convalescence.Along the year we tried to show cast the existent correlations between the main morphological characters and the productivity elements, such as the concentration in active principles. It is proved that the development of a character influence either the development of positive correlation or negative correlation [7].Having in mind that the phonotypical expression is influenced by the phases of vegetation, a very important thing to know is the morph chemical characteristics of specie in different phases of vegetation. The superior quality of the raw materials obtained by different sowing methods defined during our research, will decrease the crop from our country wild flora [10].
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