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European Integration, Labour Market Dynamics and Migration Flows  [PDF]
Martinoia, Michela
The European Journal of Comparative Economics , 2011,
Abstract: The paper has two objectives. Firstly, we wish to evaluate whether a greater economic integration has effects, and of what type, on migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe (New Member States of the EU, NMS) towards the fifteen countries of the European Union (EU-15). Secondly, we wish to understand what effect the migration flows from the NMS have on the labour market of the receiving countries in the EU-15. The most suitable theoretical context that seems to summarise European labour market characteristics is that of the insider/outsider model by Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991). We have modified the above mentioned model by introducing two innovations. Firstly, we constructed three measures that act as a proxy for economic integration: the Intra Regional Trade Index (IRTI), Global Trade Index (GTI) and Financial Market Integration (FMI). Then we placed the three indicators into the insider/outsider model to arrive at a modified version of Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991). The second innovative contribution was the introduction of an equation modelling migration flows. The creation of this equation is inspired by the neo-classical approach to migration theory (Harris-Todaro, 1970). The theoretical model, based on rational expectations, has been solved to find the equilibrium solution and the impact multipliers. We then carried out an empirical analysis, which involved estimating a Structural Vector Autoregression Model (SVAR). The aim of this estimation was to evaluate, on the one hand, the effect that greater European integration (a positive shock to the integration indicators) has on migration flows, and, on the other, to measure the type of effect that migration flows could have on the labour market of the EU-15 countries, considered as a single entity. The results of our empirical evidence show that economic integration does generate significant effects on migration flows from the enlargement countries towards the EU-15 countries. It also emerges that migration flows do generate an effect on the European labour market.
Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi : Economic Sciences Series , 2010,
Abstract: One of the main consequences of Globalization process is migrations flows. Migration has two sides; one is related to positive gains in the host country in that migration is a source of invaluable human resources and contributes to increase the production of goods and services. The other side has to do with the impact of immigrants on the native labour market especially on wages and employment conditions. Both effects will have an influence on the native income distribution.The case of Spain is unique in the context of Europe. Spain has been a traditional emigration country with a long history of emigration. This tradition has changed in recent years and now Spain has become an important country for immigration such as Germany or the USA. The immigration process in Spain has been strongly concentrated especially in recent years. This large flow of immi-grants, (over 5 millions in less than 15 years) has caused a strong impact on several political, social, demographic and economic aspects in Spain. One of the most important reasons for immigration into Spain is connected to the good evolution of the Spanish economy during the long period 1995-2007 and a similar evolution of the Labour Market.The impact of immigration flows is large, complex and shows different perspectives for the Spanish society and economy. In this paper we will consider some impacts of migration on the Spanish economy and the Spanish Labour Market. Having this objective in mind the paper is organized as fol-lows. After this introduction, in section 2 we present some selected facts of the importance of migration flows into Spain as compared to other European countries. In section 3, we will estimate the impact of migration on Spain’s GDP over the last decade using a simple labour market model. In sec-tion 4 we will focus on the impact of immigration on the structure of the Spanish labour supply and especially on the participation of women in the Labour Market, which is one of the most outstanding events having taken place in the last decade. The paper finishes with some conclusions.
Annals of the University of Petrosani : Economics , 2011,
Abstract: Young people are confronted not only with a high risk of not finding a job, but also with a higher risk of becoming unemployed, as compared with other occupational groups on the labour market as well as with other issues related employment, professional training inconsistent with the labour market requirements, indecent wages, unattractive job opportunities, international mass labour migration. These are the reasons why young people are considered a vulnerable social group on the labour market that requires additional measures for social protection.
Strategy of Ukraine : Economics, Sociology, Law , 2011,
Abstract: Статтю присвячено спонукальним причинам розвитку м жнародно м грац робочо сили. Проанал зовано сучасний стан, досл джено причини та насл дки, а також виокремлено тенденц розвитку м жнародно трудово м грац робочо сили в Укра н . Окремо розглянуто проблеми нелегально м грац в Укра н . The article is devoted to motivating reasons of international labor migration. The current situation is analyzed, the causes and consequences, as well as trends in international labor migration in Ukraine are researched. The problem of illegal migration in Ukraine is considered separately. Статья посвящена побудительным причинам развития международной миграции рабочей силы. Проанализировано современное состояние, исследованы причины и последствия, а также выделены тенденции развития международной трудовой миграции рабочей силы в Украине. Отдельно рассмотрены про-блемы нелегальной миграции в Украине.
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2010,
Abstract: Modern economies have a high dynamics because of the rapid fluctuations of macroeconomic variables and parameters. Moreover, globalization emphasises the interdependencies among national economies, increasing their production capacities but, at the same time, making them more vulnerable to external perturbations. Shocks resulting from this turmoil can be absorbed depending on the degree of macromarket flexibility: goods market, labour market and money market. This flexibility becomes even more important for the member states of some optimal currency areas (OCA) because it considers both the mobility of production factors and the symmetry of business cycle transmission; i.e. the correlation of macroeconomic policies. The authors of this paper intend to analyse the situation of the internal mobility of workers as a basis for labour market flexibility.
Youths on labour market.Features. Particularities. Pro-mobility factors for graduates. Elements of a balanced policy for labour migration
Valentina VASILE,Liviu VASILE
Revista Romana de Economie , 2011,
Abstract: The youths’ labour market, and especially insertion employment has a series of particularities defined by aspects such as: flexibility, efficient employment, interest for career but also informal employment, external mobility, including brain drain, segmentation, employment precariousness, income disadvantages, etc. Therefore, also the labour market policy and particularly managing labour mobility especially through the economic and social effects that might be triggered on the local labour market in the origin country, presents a special importance under the conditions of the economic turnaround stage, by promoting new and sustainable jobs, based on knowledge and competences. In the present paper an analysis is made about the youths’ labour market features, and the outcomes of an empirical analysis about graduates’ migration propensity are presented. Suggestions are made for developing a balanced policy for youths’ labour mobility to the benefit of the country of origin.
Effects of migration flows on the host country labour market following the 2004 EU enlargement  [PDF]
Pekovi? Drinka
Stanovni?tvo , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/stnv1102051p
Abstract: This paper examines the effects of migration flows on unemployment, employment probabilities and native wages. The analysis contains the evaluation of migration effects of labour from Central and Eastern European countries which became European Union member states in 2004, on old member's labour market. Particular emphasis was placed on evidence of the migration flows impact from the new EU member states on the labour market performances in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the countries which did not restrict the access of new member immigrants to their labour markets. The analysis was realized for the period of 2004 to 2008 when the migration inflow was the largest. The empirical literature suggests that the migration effects on unemployment and employment probabilities of natives are very small. The young and low skilled native workers are more affected by migration flows than other groups of workers. Also, most empirical studies show small negative wage effects of immigration. Although the results of public researches and econometric studies have shown the modest potential labour migration flows from new member states and the small potential effects on EU-15 labour market, twelve out of fifteen old member states decided to apply transitional arrangements. The evidence presented in the report of the European Commission pointed out positive EU labour market impact of modest inflow of immigrants from new member states. Sectoral and skill composition of immigrants from new member states suggests their complementary role on EU labour market. The majority of immigrants from new member states are men, aged between 18 and 34, mediumlevel of education. Most immigrants have been employed in service sector, manufacturing and construction. The high employment rate of immigrants from new member states (78%) and low unemployment rate (6%) in the post-enlargement period have confirmed positive migration impact on EU labour market performances. The unemployment effects of migration have been smaller than projected. The migration flows from new member states have resulted in negligible increase in EU-15 unemployment rate by 0.02-0.04% and decrease in native wages by 0.08%. In the second part of this paper the migration impact on labour market of the United Kingdom and Ireland is examined. The selective application of transitional measures across EU resulted in substantial diversion of migration flows toward the United Kingdom and Ireland. In the period of 2004-2008, Ireland accepted 448.000 immigrants from new member states and in the United Kingdom 926.000 immigrants
Un-restricted agents? International migration of the highly skilled revisited  [PDF]
H. Pethe
Social Geography Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: International migration of highly skilled people is often conceived as the international mobility of educated personnel within transnational companies. It epitomises the successful international migration of labour. This article critically reviews this conception and analyses the major viewpoints on the phenomenon. Starting with a description of brain drain in the 1960s, researchers' attention shifted to analyses of brain exchange in the late 1980s. Studies came to the fore that focused on international migration processes from a company-related perspective and emphasised the influence of transnational companies. The importance of individual migrants, however, was neglected, since they appeared to have minor influence on the migration process. Due to recent changes in technology, reorganisation of processes of production and a policy shift, the article reinvestigates their position. Firstly, it draws on a case study on the German "Green Card" scheme which opened up the labour market for highly skilled ICT specialists. In this new process individual migrants have gained importance. Secondly, it revises the major labour flows of highly skilled persons to Germany during 2000–2003. The majority of highly skilled immigrants entered the country not via intra-company transfers or as highly skilled specialists, but as refugees or repatriates. Their labour market success, however, is low, which might question the existing positive image of highly skilled international migration.
Entering a foreign labour market via the “academic gate”. The experiences of Poles who came as international students to Germany Der Arbeitsmarkteinstieg im Anschluss an der Nachschulausbildung im Ausland. Erfahrungen polnischer Studierender in Deutschland  [cached]
Nina Wolfeil
Belgeo : Revue Belge de Géographie , 2012,
Abstract: Against the background of debates on needs for highly-skilled labour in Germany, the article is interested in international students as a special group of Highly-Skilled Migration. It analyses the impact of studying abroad on future mobility and career patterns. The article presents results from an online survey and 27 qualitative interviews with Poles who came as international students and who later on entered the German labour market. Results from the online survey indicate that approximately 70 % return to Poland but lower return rates are observed among degree-seeking students than among exchange students. The professional value of the study abroad experience is very high. A qualitative typology comprising four types (“Brain Circulators”, “Polonia Members”, “International Career”, “Transformation Refugees”) shows how former international students combine Polish and German cultural capital in their professional life and identifies success and failed stories. As a result, special programmes should be created to smooth the transition from university to the labour market in the study abroad destination. Vor dem Hintergrund der Debatte um einen Fachkr ftemangel in Deutschland besch ftigt sich der Beitrag mit internationalen Studierenden als Subgruppe der Hochqualifiziertenmigration. Er analysiert den Einfluss des Auslandsstudiums auf sp tere Mobilit ts- und Karrieremuster und pr sentiert empirische Ergebnisse aus einer Online-Befragung und 27 qualitativen Interviews mit polnischen Absolventen, die als internationale Studierende nach Deutschland kamen und im Anschluss an ihr Studium eine Besch ftigung in Deutschland aufnahmen. Nach den Ergebnissen der Online-Befragung kehren ca. 70 % nach Polen zurück, wobei allerdings Studierende, die einen Abschluss erwarben, eine weitaus geringere Rückkehrquote aufweisen als Austauschstudierende. Der berufliche Ertrag des Auslandsstudiums ist hoch. Eine vier Typen umfassende qualitative Typologie (“Brain Circulators”, “Polonia Members”, “International Career”, “Transformation Refugees”) zeigt, wie die ehemaligen internationalen Studierendem im beruflichen Leben deutsches und polnisches kulturelles Kapital nutzen. Sie identifiziert Erfolgs- und Misserfolgsgeschichten. Als Schlussfolgerung daraus sollten spezielle Programme entwickelt werden, die den Arbeitsmarktübergang internationaler Studierender im Studienland begleiten.
The Economic Crisis and Labour Migration Policy in European Countries  [cached]
Christiane Kuptsch
Comparative Population Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4232/10.cpos-2011-17en
Abstract: This paper reviews changes in migration policies as a response to the 2008 financial and economic crisis and examines issues of migration governance. Countries in Europe opted to make new immigration more difficult, protected their labour markets for native born workers, encouraged the return of migrant workers and intensified efforts to curb irregular migration. Clear patterns or reasons for variation in policy responses are not discernible, but it is safe to say that only countries with a significant recent influx of migrants have taken high profile measures at all. The crisis has led to a shift in perspective of the State and its role in economics which is now seen as useful instead of undesired. Previously prevailing neo-liberal thought relegated the State to the “high politics” of sovereignty and security issues. The crisis has highlighted labour market issues, and migrants are now increasingly portrayed as economic agents instead of security threats. This offers room for the State to assert its protective role vis-à-vis migrant workers – a welcome development. The analysis has an International Relations/Political Economy perspective and is largely based on (official) news releases and secondary sources.
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