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Ant colony based routing in wireless sensor networks
Varnika Bains,Kanchan Sharma
International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks comprises of small sensor nodes communicating with each other in a network topology which keeps on varying. The wireless sensor nodes also known as motes have limited energy resources along with constraints on its computational and storage capabilities. Due to these restrictions coupled with its dynamic topology, routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is a very challenging task. Routing protocols for WSN’s have to ensure reliable multi-hop communication under these conditions. A wide range of adhoc routing algorithms are available for WSN’s. In this paper an adaptation of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) technique is demonstrated for network routing. This approach belongs to the class of routing algorithms inspired by the behavior of the ant colonies in locating and storing food. The effectiveness of the heuristic algorithm is supported by the performance evaluations. PROWLER, a MATLAB based probabilistic wireless network simulator is used for the calculations. This simulator simulates the transmissions including collisions in ad-hoc radio networks, and the operation of the MAC-layer. The performance metrics are evaluated on RMASE, an application built in PROWLER.
Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Luis Javier García Villalba,Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco,Alicia Trivi?o Cabrera,Cláudia Jacy Barenco Abbas
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s91108399
Abstract: The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.
Analysis of Routing Protocols in AD HOC and Sensor Wireless Networks Based on Swarm Intelligence
International Journal of Networks and Communications , 2013, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijnc.20130301.01
Abstract: There are various bio inspired and evolutionary approaches including genetic programming (GP), Neural Network, Evolutionary programming (EP) exploited for routing optimization in MANETs and WSNs. The Swarm Intelligence based algorithmic approaches; Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) are more promising in providing loop free, energy-aware, and multi-path routing in mobile ad hoc and wireless sensor networks. There are various constraints involved in ad hoc and sensor networks protocols due to the mobility and non infrastructure nature of the system. We study in this research work a probabilistic performance evaluation frameworks and Swarm Intelligence approaches (PSO, ACO) for routing protocols. The performance evaluation metrics employed for wireless and ad hoc routing algorithms is , (a) routing overhead, (b) route optimality, and (c) energy consumption. This survey provides collection of Swarm Intelligence based algorithms for mobile ad hoc and sensor networks and their critical analysis. The study concludes that PSO and ACO based protocols are advantageous than other approaches applied for the routing optimization in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks.
Security Analysis of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Mohammad Sadeghi,Farshad Khosravi,Kayvan Atefi,Mehdi Barati
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, I describe briefly some of the different types of attacks on wireless sensor networks such as Sybil, HELLO, Wormhole and Sinkhole attacks. Then I describe security analysis of some major routing protocols in wireless sensor network such as Directed Diffusion, TinyOS beaconing, geographic and Rumor routings in term of attacks and security goals. As a result I explain some secure routing protocols for wireless sensor network and is discussed briefly some methods and policy of these protocols to meet their security requirements. At last some simulation results of these protocols that have been done by their designer are mentioned.
Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks - A Survey  [PDF]
Shio Kumar Singh,M P Singh,D K Singh
International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Survey , 2010,
Abstract: Advances in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has provided the availability of small and low-cost sensor nodes with capability of sensing various types of physical and environmental conditions, data processing, and wireless communication. Variety of sensing capabilities results in profusion of application areas. However, the characteristics of wireless sensor networks require more effective methods for data forwarding and processing. In WSN, the sensor nodes have a limited transmission range, and their processing and storage capabilities as well as their energy resources are also limited. Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks areresponsible for maintaining the routes in the network and have to ensure reliable multi-hop communication under these conditions. In this paper, we give a survey of routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network and compare their strengths and limitations.
A Multiple-Dimensional Tree Routing Protocol for Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Ant Colony Optimization  [PDF]
Hui Zhou,Dongliang Qing,Xiaomei Zhang,Honglin Yuan,Chen Xu
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/397961
Abstract: Routing protocol is an important topic in the wireless sensor networks. For MultiSink wireless sensor networks, the routing protocol designs and implementations are more difficult due to the structure complexity. The paper deals with the problem of a multiple-dimensional tree routing protocol for multisink wireless sensor networks based on ant colony optimization. The proposed protocol is as follows: (1) listening mechanism is used to establish and maintain multidimensional tree routing topology; (2) taking into consideration hops, packet losses, retransmission, and delay account, a distributed ant colony algorithm is proposed. When nodes select routes in the data transmission, the algorithm is utilized to realize the real-time optimization by coordination between nodes. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can realize the QoS optimization for multisink wireless sensor networks, and its performance is better than the routing protocol of minimum hop numbers. 1. Introduction Multisink wireless sensor architecture networks have received more and more attention due to their advantages such as improving network throughput, balancing energy consumption, and prolonging network lifetime. Moreover, the reliability and robustness of networks are improved because multisink nodes increase the transmission routines of the sensor node information [1, 2]. Due to multiple sink nodes in multisink wireless sensor networks (multisink WSNs), the network topology is complex, which brings many difficulties to design and implement the network protocols. Currently, research on multisink WSNs is still insufficient, especially for the cooperation and quality of service (QoS) of multisink WSNs. In this paper, the problem of a multiple dimensional tree routing protocol for multisink WSNs will be investigated based on listening and ant colony optimization (ACO), where multiple dimensional tree routing is defined in Section 3. Listening mechanism is first used to establish and maintain multidimensional tree routing topology in the proposed protocol. Then, a distributed ant colony algorithm is presented with the consideration of hops, packet losses, retransmission and delay. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. (i) Section 2 states the related works about the multisink WSNs routing researches and the applications of the ant colony optimization in WSNs. (ii) Section 3 describes the multisink WSNs model. (iii) Section 4 introduces the routing establishment of the listening-based routes for the multisink WSNs and the routing selection based on the
Analysis and Improvement on Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Yonglin Gao, Xiaorong Cheng
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2018.69009
Abstract: Routing protocols are perceived to be growing hotspots and required to devote more time and work to studying it. Research on routing protocols of wireless sensor networks is significantly important to accurately guide the application. Theoretical analysis and comparison are one of the key steps in the protocol research. Restricted by irreversible factors of power and others, lifetime of wireless sensor networks is very short. In this paper, we analyze and compare the characteristics and application fields of existing protocols. On the basis of that, this paper mainly proposes an improved directed diffusion exploring the phase of reinforcing path, which chooses the way to strengthen the path after evaluating the critical factors. It was determined by simulation that improved directed diffusion has a higher transmission rate, and it satisfies the requirements, which balancing the energy consumption and prolonging the lifetime.
Study on the Routing Technology of Wireless Sensor Network Based on Ant Colony Optimization  [PDF]
Bo Yang, Qinggong Ma, Jipeng Wang
Journal of Sensor Technology (JST) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jst.2016.64011
Abstract: This article puts forward the routing algorithm of wireless sensor network based on ant colony optimization. The algorithm uses the characteristics of ant colony algorithm that is easy to realize local work, integrates link quality into the pheromone formation and supports multiple routes. When choosing routing, the probability is calculated that the node is selected as the next hop according to the pheromone concentration on the route. The ant colony optimization is self-organized, dynamic and multi-path, so it is very suitable for the routing of wireless sensor network. This algorithm has low routing cost, good self-adaption and supports multiple paths. It can balance energy consumption of the network and prolong the survival time of the network. The thesis makes comparative analysis of the simulation experiment and experimental result, proves that the ant colony algorithm can find the optimal routing in wireless sensor network and reaches the design objective of routing algorithm of wireless sensor network.
A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols  [PDF]
Debnath Bhattacharyya,Tai-hoon Kim,Subhajit Pal
Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/s101210506
Abstract: Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols.
Energy Efficiency Performance Improvements for Ant-Based Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Adamu Murtala Zungeru,Kah Phooi Seng,Li-Minn Ang,Wai Chong Chia
Journal of Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/759654
Abstract: The main problem for event gathering in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is the restricted communication range for each node. Due to the restricted communication range and high network density, event forwarding in WSNs is very challenging and requires multihop data forwarding. Currently, the energy-efficient ant based routing (EEABR) algorithm, based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic, is one of the state-of-the-art energy-aware routing protocols. In this paper, we propose three improvements to the EEABR algorithm to further improve its energy efficiency. The improvements to the original EEABR are based on the following: (1) a new scheme to intelligently initialize the routing tables giving priority to neighboring nodes that simultaneously could be the destination, (2) intelligent update of routing tables in case of a node or link failure, and (3) reducing the flooding ability of ants for congestion control. The energy efficiency improvements are significant particularly for dynamic routing environments. Experimental results using the RMASE simulation environment show that the proposed method increases the energy efficiency by up to 9% and 64% in converge-cast and target-tracking scenarios, respectively, over the original EEABR without incurring a significant increase in complexity. The method is also compared and found to also outperform other swarm-based routing protocols such as sensor-driven and cost-aware ant routing (SC) and Beesensor. 1. Introduction A sensor network is an infrastructure composed of sensing, computing, and communication elements that give a user or administrator the ability to instrument, observe, and react to events and phenomena in a specific environment [1, 2]. wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are collections of compact-size, relatively inexpensive computational nodes that measure local environmental conditions, or other parameters and forward such information to a central point for appropriate processing. Each node is equipped with embedded processors, sensor devices, storage, and radio transceivers. The sensor nodes typically have limited resources in terms of battery supplied energy, processing capability, communication bandwidth, and storage. WSN nodes can sense the environment, communicate with neighboring nodes, and in many cases perform basic computations on the data being collected. WSNs applications include commercial applications such as healthcare, target tracking, monitoring, smart homes, surveillance, and intrusion detection. Many applications of sensor networks deal with the static nature of nodes
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